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Noxious weed

A noxious weed, harmful weed or injurious weed is a weed, designated by an agricultural or other governing authority as a plant, injurious to agricultural or horticultural crops, natural habitats or ecosystems, or humans or livestock. Most noxious weeds have been introduced into an ecosystem by mismanagement, or accident; some noxious weeds are native. They are plants that grow aggressively, multiply without natural controls, display adverse effects through contact or ingestion. Noxious weeds are a large problem in many parts of the world affecting areas of agriculture, forest management, nature reserves and other open space. Many noxious weeds have come to new regions and countries through contaminated shipments of feed and crop seeds or were intentionally introduced as ornamental plants for horticultural use; some "noxious weeds", such as ragwort, produce copious amounts of nectar, valuable for the survival of bees and other pollinators, or other advantages like larval host foods and habitats.

Wild parsnip, Pastinaca sativa, for instance, provides large tubular stems that some bee species hibernate in, larval food for two different swallowtail butterflies, other beneficial qualities. There are types of noxious weeds that are harmful or poisonous to humans, domesticated grazing animals, wildlife. Open fields and grazing pastures with disturbed soils and open sunlight are more susceptible. Protecting grazing animals from toxic weeds in their primary feeding areas is therefore important; some guidelines to prevent the spread of noxious weeds are: Avoid driving through noxious weed-infested areas. Avoid transporting or planting seeds and plants that one can't identify. For noxious weeds in flower or with seeds on plants, pulling'gently' out and placing in a secure closable bag is recommended. Disposal such as hot composting or contained burning is done when safe and practical for the specific plant. Burning poison ivy can be fatal to humans. Using only certified weed-free seeds for crops or gardens.

Maintaining control of noxious weeds is important for the health of habitats, livestock and native plants, of humans of all ages. How to control noxious weeds depends on the surrounding environment and habitats, the weed species, the availability of equipment, labor and financial resources. Laws require that noxious weed control funding from governmental agencies must be used for eradication, invasion prevention, or native habitat and plant community restoration project scopes. Insects and fungi have long been used as biological controls of different noxious weeds and more nematodes have been used. Agricultural needs and concerns do not always mesh with those of other areas, such as pollinator nectar provision. Ragwort, for instance, was rated as the top flower meadow nectar source in a UK study, in the top ten in another, its early blooming period is particularly helpful for the establishment of bumblebee colonies. Thistles that have been dubbed noxious weeds in the US and elsewhere, such as Cirsium arvense and Cirsium vulgare, have rated at or near the top of the charts in multiple UK studies for nectar production.

These thistles serve as a larval host plant for the Painted lady butterfly. There can be, therefore, a conflict between agricultural policy and point of view and the point of view of conservationists or other groups. In Australia, the term "noxious weed" is used by territorial governments. In Canada, constitutional responsibility for the regulation of agriculture and the environment is shared between the federal and provincial governments; the federal government through the Canadian Food Inspection Agency regulates invasive plants under the authority of the Plant Protection Act, the Seeds Act and statutory regulations. Certain plant species have been designated by the CFIA as noxious weeds in the Weed Seeds Order; each province produces its own list of prohibited weeds. In Alberta, for example, a new Weed Control Act was proclaimed in 2010 with two weed designations: "prohibited noxious" which are banned across Alberta, "noxious" which can be restricted at the discretion of local authorities.

New Zealand has had a series of Acts of Parliament relating to noxious weeds: the Noxious Weeds Act 1908, the Noxious Weeds Act 1950, the Noxious Plants Act 1978. The last was repealed by the Biosecurity Act 1993, which used words such as "pest", "organism" and "species", rather than "noxious"; the term "noxious weed" is no longer used in official publications in New Zealand. The Weeds Act, 1959 covers Great Britain, is described as "preventing the spread of harmful or injurious weeds", it is relevant to farmers and other rural settings rather than the allotment or garden-scale growers. Five "injurious" weeds are covered by the provisions of the Weeds Act; these are: Spear thistle Creeping, or field, thistle Curled dock Broad-leaved dock Common ragwort The Department for Environment and Rural Affairs provides guidance for the removal of these weeds from infested land. Much of this is oriented towards the use of herbicides; the Act does not place any automatic legal responsibility on landowners to control the weeds, but they may be ordered to control them.

Most common farmland weeds are not "injurious" within the meaning of the Weeds Act and many such plant species have conservation and environmental value. DEFRA has a duty to try to achieve a reasonable balance among different interests; these include agriculture, countryside conservation and the general publ

Autopsie Vol. 2

Autopsie Vol. 2 is a mixtape by Booba, released in 2007. It contains collorations with Cut Killer, Planète Rap, Kennedy, Dje, Rick Ross, Momma, 113 and others. Intro Garcimore Le D. U. C. Freestyle Boulbi Mix-tape Evolution Tu M'Connais Pas - Mala Freestyle Ouais Ouais Me and You remix feat. Cassie All I Have - Naadei Du Biff - 92I Freestyle - Kennedy Nique sa Mère - Kennedy Mauvais Garçon remix feat. Riddla Je Me Souviens Quoi qu'il arrive feat. Dje Hustlin' remix feat. Rick Ross Ouest Side Remo feat. Momma Patrimoine du Ghetto On Sait L'Faire feat. 113 Boîte Vocale freestyle Monnaie dans l'Crane - Dje Tout et Tout d'Suite Au Bout des Rêves Outro Le D. U. C. Du Biff Garcimore Official website Blog MySpace Booba on Dailymotion

Talloires Declaration

The Talloires Declaration is a declaration for sustainability, created for and by presidents of institutions of higher learning. Jean Mayer, Tufts University president, convened a conference of 22 universities in 1990 in Talloires, France; this document is a declaration that institutions of higher learning will be world leaders in developing, creating and maintaining sustainability. The registrar for the declaration is the Washington, DC-based ULSF organization, or University Leaders for a Sustainable Future; as of 1 February, 502 college and university presidents have signed the declaration. These span 55 countries with 170 in the United States alone. University Presidents for a Sustainable Future We, the presidents and vice chancellors of universities from all regions of the world are concerned about the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation, the depletion of natural resources. Local and global air pollution; these environmental changes are caused by inequitable and unsustainable production and consumption patterns that aggravate poverty in many regions of the world.

We believe that urgent actions are needed to address these fundamental problems and reverse the trends. Stabilization of human population, adoption of environmentally sound industrial and agricultural technologies and ecological restoration are crucial elements in creating an equitable and sustainable future for all humankind in harmony with nature. Universities have a major role in the education, policy formation, information exchange necessary to make these goals possible; the university heads must provide the leadership and support to mobilize internal and external resources so that their institutions respond to this urgent challenge. We, agree to take the following actions: Use every opportunity to raise public, industry and university awareness by publicly addressing the urgent need to move toward an environmentally sustainable future. Encourage all universities to engage in education, policy formation, information exchange on population and development to move toward a sustainable future.

Establish programs to produce expertise in environmental management, sustainable economic development and related fields to ensure that all university graduates are environmentally literate and responsible citizens. Create programs to develop the capability of university faculty to teach environmental literacy to all undergraduate and professional school students. Set an example of environmental responsibility by establishing programs of resource conservation and waste reduction at the universities. Encourage the involvement of government and industry in supporting university research, policy formation, information exchange in environmentally sustainable development. Expand work with nongovernmental organizations to assist in finding solutions to environmental problems. Convene school deans and environmental practitioners to develop research, information exchange programs, curricula for an environmentally sustainable future. Establish partnerships with primary and secondary schools to help develop the capability of their faculty to teach about population and sustainable development issues.

Work with the UN Conference on Environmental and Development, the UN Environment Programme, other national and international organizations to promote a worldwide university effort toward a sustainable future. Establish a steering committee and a secretariat to continue this momentum and inform and support each other's efforts in carrying out this declaration. Jean Mayer and Conference convener, Tufts University, United States Professor Julian Crampton, Vice-Chancellor, University of Brighton, United Kingdom Michele Gendreau-Massaloux, Rector, l'Academie de Paris, France Prof. Moonis Raza, Vice Chancellor, Delhi University, India Constance W. Curris, University of Northern Iowa, United States Wesley Posvar, University of Pittsburgh, United States Augusto Frederico Muller, Fundacao Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil Calvin H. Pimpton and Emeritus, American University of Beirut, Lebanon T. Navaneeth Rao, Vice Chancellor, Osmania University, India Stuart Saunders, Vice Chancellor and Principal, University of Cape Town, Union of South Africa David Ward, Vice Chancellor, University of Wisconsin - Madison, United States Pablo Arce, Vice Chancellor, Universidad Autonoma de Centro America, Costa Rica Boonrod Binson, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand Adamu, Nayaya Mohammed, Vice Chancellor, Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria Mario Ojeda Gómez, Colegio de Mexico, Mexico Pavel D. Sarkisow, Rector, D. I.

Mendeleev Institute of Chemical Technology, Russia Akilagpa Sawyerr, Vice Chancellor, University of Ghana, Ghana Carlos Vogt, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil Xide Xie, President Emeritus, Fudan University, People's Republic of China L. Avo Banjo, Vice Chancellor, University of Ibadan, Nigeria Robert W. Charlton, Vice Chancellor and Principal, University of Witwatersrand, Union of South Africa Registrar for signatories of Talloires Declaration

Belief–desire–intention software model

The belief–desire–intention software model is a software model developed for programming intelligent agents. Superficially characterized by the implementation of an agent's beliefs and intentions, it uses these concepts to solve a particular problem in agent programming. In essence, it provides a mechanism for separating the activity of selecting a plan from the execution of active plans. BDI agents are able to balance the time spent on deliberating about plans and executing those plans. A third activity, creating the plans in the first place, is not within the scope of the model, is left to the system designer and programmer. In order to achieve this separation, the BDI software model implements the principal aspects of Michael Bratman's theory of human practical reasoning; that is to say, it implements the notions of belief and intention, in a manner inspired by Bratman. For Bratman and desire are both pro-attitudes, but intention is distinguished as a conduct-controlling pro-attitude, he identifies commitment as the distinguishing factor between desire and intention, noting that it leads to temporal persistence in plans and further plans being made on the basis of those to which it is committed.

The BDI software model addresses these issues. Temporal persistence, in the sense of explicit reference to time, is not explored; the hierarchical nature of plans is more implemented: a plan consists of a number of steps, some of which may invoke other plans. The hierarchical definition of plans itself implies a kind of temporal persistence, since the overarching plan remains in effect while subsidiary plans are being executed. An important aspect of the BDI software model is the existence of logical models through which it is possible to define and reason about BDI agents. Research in this area has led, for example, to the axiomatization of some BDI implementations, as well as to formal logical descriptions such as Anand Rao and Michael Georgeff's BDICTL; the latter combines a multiple-modal logic with the temporal logic CTL*. More Michael Wooldridge has extended BDICTL to define LORA, by incorporating an action logic. In principle, LORA allows reasoning not only about individual agents, but about communication and other interaction in a multi-agent system.

The BDI software model is associated with intelligent agents, but does not, of itself, ensure all the characteristics associated with such agents. For example, it does not force them to be private, it has nothing to say about agent communication. The BDI software model is an attempt to solve a problem that has more to do with plans and planning than it has to do with the programming of intelligent agents. A BDI agent is a particular type of bounded rational software agent, imbued with particular mental attitudes, viz: Beliefs and Intentions; this section defines the idealized architectural components of a BDI system. Beliefs: Beliefs represent the informational state of the agent, in other words its beliefs about the world. Beliefs can include inference rules, allowing forward chaining to lead to new beliefs. Using the term belief rather than knowledge recognizes that what an agent believes may not be true. Beliefset: Beliefs are stored in database, although, an implementation decision. Desires: Desires represent the motivational state of the agent.

They represent situations that the agent would like to accomplish or bring about. Examples of desires might be: go to the party or become rich. Goals: A goal is a desire, adopted for active pursuit by the agent. Usage of the term goals adds the further restriction that the set of active desires must be consistent. For example, one should not have concurrent goals to go to a party and to stay at home – though they could both be desirable. Intentions: Intentions represent the deliberative state of the agent – what the agent has chosen to do. Intentions are desires. In implemented systems, this means. Plans: Plans are sequences of actions that an agent can perform to achieve one or more of its intentions. Plans may include other plans: my plan to go for a drive may include a plan to find my car keys; this reflects that in Bratman's model, plans are only conceived, with details being filled in as they progress. Events: These are triggers for reactive activity by the agent. An event may trigger plans or modify goals.

Events may be received by sensors or integrated systems. Additionally, events may be generated internally to trigger decoupled plans of activity. BDI was extended with an obligations component, giving rise to the BOID agent architecture to incorporate obligations and commitments of agents that act within a social environment; this section defines an idealized BDI interpreter that provides the basis of SRI's PRS lineage of BDI systems: initialize-state repeat options: option-generator selected-options: deliberate update-intentions execute get-new-external-events drop-unsuccessful-attit

Henri Congnet

Henri Congnet was a 19th-century French secular Catholic priest and historian a member of the Société asiatique and hagiographer. Marie honorée dans les classes ou Mois de Marie Extrait des Pères de l’Église grecque et des Saintes Écritures. Texte grec - Paris 1850 Le Livre des jeunes professeurs, contenant: première partie, la méthode pour commencer les humanités - Paris 1843 Le Pieux helléniste sanctifiant la journée par la prière. Grec-Latin - Paris 1839 Manuel des verbes irréguliers, défectifs et difficiles de la langue grecque, avec des exercices - Paris 1837 [paradigmes des verbes grecs et résumé des règles de la formation de leurs temps - Paris 1837 Prosodie grecque after the paintings by François Passow - Paris 1848 Collaboration à l'écriture de l'ouvrage hagiographique Vies des Saints, Les Petits Bollandistes - 1870Bollandiste: name given to the drafters of the lives of saints "Vies des Saints 1870". "Life of Sainte Grimonie published in Vies des Saints - les petits bollandistes 1870".

"Le pieux helléniste. In-16°, 388 p. 1857"

Father, Mother and Nine Children

Father and Nine Children is a 1958 West German comedy film directed by Erich Engels and starring Heinz Erhardt, Camilla Spira and Corny Collins. The film's sets were designed by the art director Walter Haag. Friedrich Schiller, a baker and respected family man with nine children, is wrongly suspected of having an affair with his employer's wife. Heinz Erhardt as Friedrich Schiller Camilla Spira as Martha Schiller Corny Collins as Thea Schiller Maria Sebaldt as Lollo Kueppers Erik Schumann as Francois Dupont Willy Millowitsch as Anton Pero Alexander as Klaus Fürbringer Elke Aberle as Julchen Schiller Renate Küster as Regine Dupont, geb. Schiller Gaby Steffan as Luise Monika Ahrens as Lene Margitta Scherr as Anni Ernst Reinhold as Karl Thomas Braut as Hans Harald Martens as Eduard "Ede" Schiller Reiner Brönneke as Heinz Horstmann Werner Finck as Herr Zellhorn, Fürbringers Vermieter Hans-Michael Bock and Tim Bergfelder; the Concise Cinegraph: An Encyclopedia of German Cinema. Berghahn Books, 2009.

Father and Nine Children on IMDb