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Nubia

Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan. It was the seat of one of the earliest civilizations of ancient Africa, as the Kerma culture lasted from around 2500 BCE until its conquest by the New Kingdom of Egypt under pharaoh Thutmose I around 1500 BCE. Nubia was home to several empires, most prominently the kingdom of Kush, which conquered Egypt during the 8th century BC during the reign of Piye and ruled the country as its Twenty-fifth Dynasty; the collapse of Kush in the 4th century AD after more than a thousand years of existence was precipitated by an invasion by Ethiopia's Kingdom of Aksum and saw the rise of three Christian kingdoms, Nobatia and Alodia, the last two again lasting for a millennium. Their eventual decline initiated not only the partition of Nubia into the northern half conquered by the Ottomans and the southern half by the Sennar sultanate in the 16th century, but a rapid Islamization and partial Arabization of the Nubian people.

Nubia was again united with the Khedivate of Egypt in the 19th century. Today, the region of Nubia is split between Sudan; the archaeological science dealing with ancient Nubia is called Nubiology. The name Nubia is derived from that of the Noba people, nomads who settled the area in the 4th century CE following the collapse of the kingdom of Meroë; the Noba spoke a Nilo-Saharan language, ancestral to Old Nubian. Old Nubian was used in religious texts dating from the 8th and 15th centuries. Before the 4th century, throughout classical antiquity, Nubia was known as Kush, or, in Classical Greek usage, included under the name Ethiopia; the people of Nubia spoke at least two varieties of the Nubian language group, a subfamily that includes Nobiin, Kenuzi-Dongola and several related varieties in the northern part of the Nuba Mountains in South Kordofan. Until at least 1970, the Birgid language is now extinct. However, the linguistic identity of the ancient Kerma Culture of southern and central Nubia, is uncertain, with some suggesting that it belonged to the Cushitic branch of Afroasiatic languages, other more recent research indicating that the Kerma culture instead belonged to the Eastern Sudanic branch of Nilo-Saharan languages, that other peoples of northern Nubia north of Kerma spoke Cushitic languages before the spread of Eastern Sudanic languages from southern Nubia.

Nubia was divided into three major regions: Upper and Lower Nubia, in reference to their locations along the Nile. Lower refers to regions upper refers to regions upstream. Lower Nubia lies within the current borders of Egypt. Middle Nubia lies between the Third Cataracts. Upper Nubia lies south of the Third Cataract. Early settlements sprouted in both Lower Nubia. Egyptians referred to Nubia as "Ta-Seti," or "The Land of the Bow," since the Nubians were known to be expert archers. Modern scholars refer to the people from this area as the "A-Group" culture. Fertile farmland just south of the Third Cataract is known as the "pre-Kerma" culture in Upper Nubia; the Neolithic people in the Nile Valley came from Sudan, as well as the Sahara, there was shared culture with the two areas and with that of Egypt during this period. By the 5th millennium BC, the people who inhabited what is now called Nubia participated in the Neolithic revolution. Saharan rock reliefs depict scenes that have been thought to be suggestive of a cattle cult, typical of those seen throughout parts of Eastern Africa and the Nile Valley to this day.

Megaliths discovered at Nabta Playa are early examples of what seems to be one of the world's first astronomical devices, predating Stonehenge by 2,000 years. This complexity as observed at Nabta Playa, as expressed by different levels of authority within the society there formed the basis for the structure of both the Neolithic society at Nabta and the Old Kingdom of Egypt. Around 3500 BC, the second "Nubian" culture, termed the A-Group, arose, it was a contemporary of, ethnically and culturally similar to, the polities in predynastic Naqada of Upper Egypt. The A-Group people were engaged in trade with the Egyptians; this trade is testified archaeologically by large amounts of Egyptian commodities deposited in the graves of the A-Group people. The imports consisted of gold objects, copper tools, faience amulets and beads, slate palettes, stone vessels, a variety of pots. Around 3300 BC, there is evidence of a unified kingdom, as shown by the finds at Qustul, that maintained substantial interactions with the culture of Naqadan Upper Egypt.

The Nubian culture may have contributed to the unification of the Nile Valley. Toby Wilkinson, based on work by Bruce Williams in the 1980s, wrote that "The white crown, associated in historic times with Upper Egypt, is first attested than the red crown, but is directly associated with the ruler somewhat earlier; the earliest known depiction of the white crown is on a ceremonial incense burner from Cemetery at Qustul in Lower Nubia". Based on a 1998 excavation report, Jane Roy has written that "At the time of Williams' argument, the Qustul cemetery and the'royal' iconography found there was dated to the Naqada IIIA period, thus antedating royal cemeteries in Egypt of the Naqada IIIB phase. New evidence from Abydos, however the excavation of Cemetery U and the tome U-j, dating to Naqada IIIA has shown that

Dead Writers Theatre Collective

The Dead Writers Theatre Collective is a Chicago-based theatre company. The company performs shows written by or about dead writers with the tagline "Classic Theatre Resurrected." The company is a non-profit theatre organization. The Dead Writers Theatre Collective was founded in 2011 by Bob Douglas. Schneider acts as Douglas as the managing director; the company focuses on putting on accurate shows that use classic and traditional theater techniques. On February 23, 2017, The Dead Writers Theatre Collection closed down after controversy with Schneider making comments on social media feeds of local performers. Further stories emerged of misconduct in the theatre's past; the Dead Writers Theatre Collective has put on shows written by notable authors from the Western Canon. These include authors such as Oscar Wilde, Noel Coward, Jane Austen, their productions focus on the author's unique voice and the time period in which they wrote their plays. The company performs in various theater venues around Chicago such as Stage 773 and the Greenhouse Theater.

Their production history is as follows: The Importance of Being Earnest Oh, Coward! The Learned Ladies The Judas Kiss The Game of Love and Chance The House of Mirth Emma Lady Windermere's Fan Tea with Edie and Fitz Loos Ends The Vortex The Dead Writers Theatre Collective is recognized by the Jeff Awards for non-equity regional theater, their 2016 production of Oh, Coward! was a Jeff Recommended Show. Official Website League of Chicago Theatres Official Facebook Page

John Mason Good

John Mason Good, English writer on medical and classical subjects, was born at Epping, Essex. John Good's parents were the Nonconformist minister Revd Peter Good and Sarah Good, the daughter of another Nonconformist minister, Revd Henry Peyto of Great Coggeshall. John Mason Good was named after the Puritan clergyman and hymn writer John Mason, of whom his mother Sarah was a descendant. Good attended a school at Romsey kept by his father. At about the age of 15 John Good was apprenticed to a surgeon-apothecary at Gosport. In 1783 he went to London to practice his medical studies. In the autumn of 1784, he began to practice as a surgeon at Sudbury in Suffolk. There he was an acquaintance of a fellow writer and student of Shakespeare. In 1793 Good removed to London, where he entered into partnership with a apothecary, but the partnership was soon dissolved, to increase his income, he began to devote attention to literary pursuits. Besides contributing both in prose and verse to the Analytical and Critical Reviews and the British and Monthly Magazines, other periodicals, he wrote a large number of works relating chiefly to medical and religious subjects.

In 1794 John Good became a member of the British Pharmaceutical Society, in that connection, by the publication of his work, A History of Medicine, he did much to effect a needed reform in the profession of the apothecary. In 1795 the London Medical Society awarded him their Fothergillian gold medal. In 1820, he took the diploma of M. D. at Marischal College, University of Aberdeen. He died at Shepperton, Middlesex, on 2 January 1827. Good was not only well versed in classical literature, but was acquainted with the principal European languages, with Persian and Hebrew, his prose works display wide erudition. His poetry never rises above well-versified commonplace, his translation of Lucretius, The Nature of Things, contains elaborate philological and explanatory notes, together with parallel passages and quotations from European and Asiatic authors. John Mason Neale, namesake This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Good, John Mason". Encyclopædia Britannica.

12. Cambridge University Press. Olinthus Gregory, Charles Jerram, Memoirs of the Life and Character, Literary and Religious of the late John Mason Good MD, Crocker and Brewster, Mass