Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev is a Russian and Soviet politician. The eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, he was General Secretary of its governing Communist Party from 1985 until 1991, he was the country's head of state from 1988 until 1991, serving as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet from 1988 to 1989, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 1989 to 1990, President of the Soviet Union from 1990 to 1991. Ideologically, he adhered to Marxism-Leninism although by the early 1990s had moved toward social democracy. Of mixed Russian and Ukrainian heritage, Gorbachev was born in Privolnoye, Stavropol Krai to a poor peasant family. Growing up under the rule of Joseph Stalin, in his youth he operated combine harvesters on a collective farm before joining the Communist Party, which governed the Soviet Union as a one-party state according to Marxist-Leninist doctrine. While studying at Moscow State University, he married fellow student Raisa Titarenko in 1953 prior to receiving his law degree in 1955.
Moving to Stavropol, he worked for the Komsomol youth organisation and, after Stalin's death, became a keen proponent of the de-Stalinization reforms of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev. He was appointed the First Party Secretary of the Stavropol Regional Committee in 1970, in which position he oversaw construction of the Great Stavropol Canal. In 1974 he moved to Moscow to become First Secretary to the Supreme Soviet and in 1979 became a candidate member of the party's governing Politburo. Within three years of the death of Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, following the brief regimes of Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko, the Politburo elected Gorbachev as General Secretary, the de facto head of government, in 1985. Although committed to preserving the Soviet state and to its socialist ideals, Gorbachev believed significant reform was necessary after the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, he withdrew from the Soviet–Afghan War and embarked on summits with United States President Ronald Reagan to limit nuclear weapons and end the Cold War.
Domestically, his policy of glasnost allowed for enhanced freedom of speech and press, while his perestroika sought to decentralise economic decision making to improve efficiency. His democratisation measures and formation of the elected Congress of People's Deputies undermined the one-party state. Gorbachev declined to intervene militarily when various Eastern Bloc countries abandoned Marxist-Leninist governance in 1989-90. Internally, growing nationalist sentiment threatened to break-up the Soviet Union, leading Marxist-Leninist hardliners to launch an unsuccessful August 1991 coup against Gorbachev. Out of office, he launched his Gorbachev Foundation, became a vocal critic of Russian Presidents Boris Yeltsin and Vladimir Putin, campaigned for Russia's social-democratic movement. Considered one of the most significant figures of the second half of the 20th century, Gorbachev remains the subject of controversy; the recipient of a wide range of awards—including the Nobel Peace Prize—he was praised for his pivotal role in ending the Cold War, curtailing human rights abuses in the Soviet Union, tolerating both the fall of Marxist–Leninist administrations in eastern and central Europe and the reunification of Germany.
Conversely, in Russia he is derided for not stopping the Soviet collapse, an event which brought a decline in Russia's global influence and precipitated economic crisis. Gorbachev was born on 2 March 1931 in the village of Privolnoye, Stavropol Krai in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union. At the time, Privolnoye was divided evenly between ethnic Russians and ethnic Ukrainians. Gorbachev's paternal family were ethnic Russians and had moved to the region from Voronezh several generations before, his parents named him Victor, but at the insistence of his mother—a devout Orthodox Christian—he had a secret baptism, where his grandfather christened him Mikhail. His relationship with his father, Sergey Andreyevich Gorbachev, was close, his parents were poor. The Soviet Union was a one-party state governed by the Communist Party, during Gorbachev's childhood was under the leadership of Joseph Stalin. Stalin had initiated a project of mass rural collectivisation which, in keeping with his Marxist-Leninist ideas, he believed would help convert the country into a socialist society.
Gorbachev's maternal grandfather joined the Communist Party and helped form the village's first kolkhoz in 1929, becoming its chair. This farm was twelve miles outside Privolnoye village and when he was three years old, Gorbachev left his parental home and moved into the kolkhoz with his maternal grandparents; the country was experiencing the famine of 1932–33, in which two of Gorbachev's paternal uncles and an aunt died. This was followed by the Great Purge, in which individuals accused of being "enemies of the people"—including those sympathetic to rival interpretations of Marxism like Trotskyism—were arrested and interned in labour camps, if not executed. Both of Gorbachev's grandfathers were arrested—his maternal in 1934 and his paternal in 1937—and both spent time in Gulag labour camps prior to being released. After his December 1938 release, Gorbachev's maternal grandfather discussed having been tortured by the secret pol
Blowout (well drilling)
A blowout is the uncontrolled release of crude oil and/or natural gas from an oil well or gas well after pressure control systems have failed. Modern wells have blowout preventers intended to prevent such an occurrence. An accidental spark during a blowout can lead to a catastrophic gas fire. Prior to the advent of pressure control equipment in the 1920s, the uncontrolled release of oil and gas from a well while drilling was common and was known as an oil gusher, gusher or wild well. Gushers were an icon of oil exploration during the late early 20th centuries. During that era, the simple drilling techniques such as cable-tool drilling and the lack of blowout preventers meant that drillers could not control high-pressure reservoirs; when these high pressure zones were breached, the oil or natural gas would travel up the well at a high rate, forcing out the drill string and creating a gusher. A well which began as a gusher was said to have "blown in": for instance, the Lakeview Gusher blew in in 1910.
These uncapped wells could produce large amounts of oil shooting 200 feet or higher into the air. A blowout composed of natural gas was known as a gas gusher. Despite being symbols of new-found wealth, gushers were wasteful, they killed workmen involved in drilling, destroyed equipment, coated the landscape with thousands of barrels of oil. The impact on wildlife is hard to quantify, but can only be estimated to be mild in the most optimistic models—realistically, the ecological impact is estimated by scientists across the ideological spectrum to be severe and lasting. To complicate matters further, the free flowing oil was—and is—in danger of igniting. One dramatic account of a blowout and fire reads, With a roar like a hundred express trains racing across the countryside, the well blew out, spewing oil in all directions; the derrick evaporated. Casings wilted like lettuce out of water, as heavy machinery writhed and twisted into grotesque shapes in the blazing inferno; the development of rotary drilling techniques where the density of the drilling fluid is sufficient to overcome the downhole pressure of a newly penetrated zone meant that gushers became avoidable.
If however the fluid density was not adequate or fluids were lost to the formation there was still a significant risk of a well blowout. In 1924 the first successful blowout preventer was brought to market; the BOP valve affixed to the wellhead could be closed in the event of drilling into a high pressure zone, the well fluids contained. Well control techniques could be used to regain control of the well; as the technology developed, blowout preventers became standard equipment, gushers became a thing of the past. In the modern petroleum industry, uncontrollable wells became known as blowouts and are comparatively rare. There has been significant improvement in technology, well control techniques, personnel training which has helped to prevent their occurring. From 1976 to 1981, 21 blowout reports are available; the earliest known oil gusher, in 1815 resulted from an attempt to drill for salt, not for oil. Joseph Eichar and his team were digging west of the town of Wooster, along Killbuck Creek, when they struck oil.
In a written retelling by Eichar's daughter, the strike produced "a spontaneous outburst, which shot up high as the tops of the highest trees!" Oil drillers struck a number of gushers near Oil City, Pennsylvania in 1861. The most famous was the Little & Merrick well, which began gushing oil on 17 April 1861; the spectacle of the fountain of oil flowing out at about 3,000 barrels per day had drawn about 150 spectators by the time an hour when the oil gusher burst into flames, raining fire down on the oil-soaked onlookers. Thirty people died. Other early gushers in northwest Pennsylvania were the Phillips #2 in September 1861, the Woodford well in December 1861; the Shaw Gusher in Oil Springs, was Canada's first oil gusher. On January 16, 1862, it shot oil from over 60 metres below ground to above the treetops at a rate of 3,000 barrels per day, triggering the oil boom in Lambton County. Lucas Gusher at Spindletop in Beaumont, Texas in 1901 flowed at 100,000 barrels per day at its peak, but soon slowed and was capped within nine days.
The well tripled U. S. oil production marked the start of the Texas oil industry. Masjed Soleiman, Iran in 1908 marked the first major oil strike recorded in the Middle East. Dos Bocas in the State of Veracruz, was a famous 1908 Mexican blowout that formed a large crater, it leaked oil from the main reservoir for many years, continuing after 1938. Lakeview Gusher on the Midway-Sunset Oil Field in Kern County, California of 1910 is believed to be the largest-ever U. S. gusher. At its peak, more than 100,000 barrels of oil per day flowed out, reaching as high as 200 feet in the air, it remained uncapped for 18 months, spilling over 9 million barrels of oil, less than half of, recovered. A short-lived gusher at Alamitos #1 in Signal Hill, California in 1921 marked the discovery of the Long Beach Oil Field, one of the most productive oil fields in the world; the Barroso 2 well in Cabimas, Venezuela in December 1922 flowed at around 100,000 barrels per day for nine days, plus a large amount of natural gas.
Baba Gurgur near Kirkuk, Iraq, an oi
Peaceful nuclear explosion
Peaceful nuclear explosions are nuclear explosions conducted for non-military purposes. Proposed uses include excavation for the building of canals and harbours, electrical generation, the use of nuclear explosions to drive spacecraft, as a form of wide-area fracking. PNEs were an area of some research from the late 1950s into the 1980s in the United States and Soviet Union. In the US, a series of tests were carried out under Project Plowshare; some of the ideas considered included blasting a new Panama Canal, the use of underground explosions to create electricity, a variety of geological studies. The largest of the excavation tests was carried out in the Sedan nuclear test in 1962, which released large amounts of radioactive gas into the air. By the late 1960s, public opposition to Plowshare was increasing, a 1970s study of the economics of the concepts suggested they had no practical use. Plowshares saw decreasing interest from the 1960s, was cancelled in 1977; the Soviet program started a few years after the US efforts and explored many of the same concepts under their Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy program.
The program was more extensive conducting 239 nuclear explosions. Some of these tests released radioactivity, including a significant release of plutonium into the groundwater and the polluting of an area near the Volga River. A major part of the program in the 1970s and 80s was the use of small bombs to produce shock waves as a seismic measuring tool, as part of these experiments, two bombs were used to seal blown-out oil wells; the program ended in 1988. As part of ongoing arms control efforts, both programs came to be controlled by a variety of agreements. Most notable among these is the 1976 Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty; the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty of 1996 prohibits all nuclear explosions, regardless of whether they are for peaceful purposes or not. Since that time the topic has been raised several times as a method of asteroid impact avoidance. In the PNE Treaty, the signatories agreed: not to carry out any individual nuclear explosions having a yield exceeding 150 kilotons.
The parties reaffirmed their obligations to comply with the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963. The parties reserve the right to carry out nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes in the territory of another country if requested to do so, but only in full compliance with the yield limitations and other provisions of the PNE Treaty and in accord with the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Articles IV and V of the PNE Treaty set forth the agreed verification arrangements. In addition to the use of national technical means, the treaty states that information and access to sites of explosions will be provided by each side, includes a commitment not to interfere with verification means and procedures; the protocol to the PNE Treaty sets forth the specific agreed arrangements for ensuring that no weapon-related benefits precluded by the Threshold Test Ban Treaty are derived by carrying out a nuclear explosion used for peaceful purposes, including provisions for use of the hydrodynamic yield measurement method, seismic monitoring, on-site inspection.
The agreed statement that accompanies the treaty specifies that a "peaceful application" of an underground nuclear explosion would not include the developmental testing of any nuclear explosive. Operation Plowshare was the name of the U. S. program for the development of techniques to use nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes. The name was coined in 1961, taken from Micah 4:3. Twenty-eight nuclear blasts were detonated between 1961 and 1973. One of the first U. S. proposals for peaceful nuclear explosions that came close to being carried out was Project Chariot, which would have used several hydrogen bombs to create an artificial harbor at Cape Thompson, Alaska. It was never carried out due to concerns for the native populations and the fact that there was little potential use for the harbor to justify its risk and expense. There was talk of using nuclear explosions to excavate a second Panama Canal; the largest excavation experiment took place in 1962 at the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site.
The Sedan nuclear test carried out as part of Operation Storax displaced 12 million tons of earth, creating the largest human-made crater in the world, generating a large nuclear fallout over Nevada and Utah. Three tests were conducted in order to stimulate natural gas production, but the effort was abandoned as impractical because of cost and radioactive contamination of the gas. There were many negative impacts from Project Plowshare's 27 nuclear explosions. For example, the Project Gasbuggy site, located 55 miles east of Farmington, New Mexico, still contains nuclear contamination from a single subsurface blast in 1967. Other consequences included blighted land, relocated communities, tritium-contaminated water and fallout from debris being hurled high into the atmosphere; these were ignored and downplayed until the program was terminated in 1977, due in large part to public opposition, after $770 million had been spent on the project. The Soviet Union conducted a much more vigorous program of 239 nuclear tests, some with multiple d
Kineshma is the second largest town in Ivanovo Oblast, which sprawls for 15 kilometers along the Volga River. Population: 88,164 . Kineshma was first noticed as a posad in 1429. In 1504, Ivan III gave it to Prince Feodor Belsky, who escaped to Moscow from Lithuania and married Ivan's niece. On, Ivan the Terrible gave Kineshma to Ivan Petrovich Shuisky, but after the latter's death it was returned to the Tsar in 1587. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Kineshma was a major fishing center, which supplied sturgeon for the Tsar's table. In 1608, it was twice ravaged by the Poles. Throughout its history, Kineshma belonged to different Russian regions, including Archangelgorod Governorate, Yaroslavl Province of Saint Petersburg Governorate, Moscow Governorate. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Kineshma serves as the administrative center of Kineshemsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the Town of Kineshma—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.
As a municipal division, the Town of Kineshma is incorporated as Kineshma Urban Okrug. Since the 18th century, the town's main industry has been textile manufacturing. Like all the textile centers in Russia, the town's prosperity declined after the perestroika. Kineshma's principal landmark is the Trinity Cathedral, built in 1838–1845 to a typical Neoclassical design. There are several 18th-century churches in the town; the neighborhoods of Kineshma contain estates and museums of Alexander Ostrovsky, Alexander Borodin, Fyodor Bredikhin. In 2010, Kineshma was granted status of a town of historical significance. There are eleven churches, nine of which are active, three chapels. Alexander Borodin and chemist Fyodor Bredikhin, astronomer Sergey Klyugin, Olympic high jumper Alexander Ostrovsky, writer Andrei Semenov, mixed martial artist Kineshma is twinned with: Baranovichi, Belarus Gudauta, Abkhazia/Georgia Vantaa, Finland Kineshma Bridge Ивановская областная Дума. Закон №145-ОЗ от 14 декабря 2010 г.
«Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ивановской области», в ред. Закона №2-ОЗ от 4 февраля 2015 г. «Об отдельных вопросах правового регулирования в сфере присвоения наименований географическим объектам и переименования географических объектов на территории Ивановской области». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства Ивановской области", №50, 30 декабря 2010 г.. Законодательное Собрание Ивановской области. Закон №124-ОЗ от 29 сентября 2004 г. «О муниципальных районах и городских округах», в ред. Закона №7-ОЗ от 12 января 2005 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Ивановской области "О муниципальных районах и городских округах"». Вступил в силу 1 октября 2004 г. Опубликован: "Ивановская газета", №189, 1 октября 2004 г.. Official website of Kineshma 168 chasov, city news
The Volga is the longest river in Europe with a catchment area of 1,350,000 square kilometres. It is Europe's largest river in terms of discharge and drainage basin; the river flows through central Russia and into the Caspian Sea, is regarded as the national river of Russia. Eleven of the twenty largest cities of Russia, including the capital, are located in the Volga's drainage basin; some of the largest reservoirs in the world are located along the Volga. The river has a symbolic meaning in Russian culture and is referred to as Волга-матушка Volga-Matushka in Russian literature and folklore; the Russian hydronym Volga derives from Proto-Slavic *vòlga "wetness, moisture", preserved in many Slavic languages, including Ukrainian volóha "moisture", Russian vlaga "moisture", Bulgarian vlaga "moisture", Czech vláha "dampness", Serbian vlaga "moisture", Croatian vlaga "moisture" and Slovene vlaga "moisture" among others. The Slavic name is a loan translation of earlier Scythian Rā "Volga" "wetness", cognate with Avestan Raŋhā "mythical stream" and Vedic Sanskrit rasā́ "dew, juice.
The Scythian name survives in modern Mordvin Rav "Volga". The Turkic peoples living along the river referred to it as Itil or Atil "big river". In modern Turkic languages, the Volga is known as İdel in Tatar, Атăл in Chuvash, Idhel in Bashkir, Edil in Kazakh, İdil in Turkish; the Turkic peoples associated the Itil's origin with the Kama. Thus, a left tributary to the Kama was named the Aq Itil "White Itil" which unites with the Kara Itil "Black Itil" at the modern city of Ufa; the name Indyl is used in Adyge language. Among Asians, the river was known by its other Turkic name Sarı-su "yellow water", but the Oirats used their own name, Ijil mörön or "adaptation river". Presently the Mari, another Uralic group, call the river Jul, they called the river Volgydo, a borrowing from Old East Slavic. The Volga is the longest river in Europe, its catchment area is entirely inside Russia, though the longest river in Russia is the Ob–Irtysh river system, it belongs to the closed basin of the Caspian Sea, being the longest river to flow into a closed basin.
Rising in the Valdai Hills 225 meters above sea level northwest of Moscow and about 320 kilometers southeast of Saint Petersburg, the Volga heads east past Lake Sterzh, Dubna, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan. From there it turns south, flows past Ulyanovsk, Samara and Volgograd, discharges into the Caspian Sea below Astrakhan at 28 meters below sea level. At its most strategic point, it bends toward the Don. Volgograd Stalingrad, is located there; the Volga has many tributaries, most the rivers Kama, the Oka, the Vetluga, the Sura. The Volga and its tributaries form the Volga river system, which flows through an area of about 1,350,000 square kilometres in the most populated part of Russia; the Volga Delta has a length of about 160 kilometres and includes as many as 500 channels and smaller rivers. The largest estuary in Europe, it is the only place in Russia where pelicans and lotuses may be found; the Volga freezes for most of its length for three months each year. The Volga drains most of Western Russia.
Its many large reservoirs provide hydroelectric power. The Moscow Canal, the Volga–Don Canal, the Volga–Baltic Waterway form navigable waterways connecting Moscow to the White Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea. High levels of chemical pollution have adversely affected its habitats; the fertile river valley provides large quantities of wheat, has many mineral riches. A substantial petroleum industry centers on the Volga valley. Other resources include natural gas and potash; the Volga Delta and the nearby Caspian Sea offer superb fishing grounds. Astrakhan, at the delta, is the center of the caviar industry. A number of large hydroelectric reservoirs were constructed on the Volga during the Soviet era, they are: Volgograd Reservoir Saratov Reservoir Kuybyshev Reservoir – the largest in Europe by surface Cheboksary Reservoir Gorky Reservoir Rybinsk Reservoir Uglich Reservoir Ivankovo Reservoir Volgograd Nizhny Novgorod Kazan Samara Saratov Tolyatti Yaroslavl Astrakhan Ulyanovsk Cheboksary Tver The area downstream of the Volga believed to have been a cradle of the Proto-Indo-European civilization, was settled by Slavs and other Turkic peoples in the first millennium AD, replacing the Scythians.
The ancient scholar Ptolemy of Alexandria mentions the lower Volga in his Geography. He calls it the Rha, the Scythian name for the river. Ptolemy believed the Don and the Volga shared the same upper branch, which flowed from the Hyperborean Mountains; the Russian ethnicity in Western Russia and around the Volga river evolved among other tribes, out of the East Slavic tribe of the Buzhans. Several localities in Russia are connected to the Buzhans, like for example Sredniy Buzhan in the Orenburg Oblast and the Buzan river in the Astrakhan Oblast. Buzhan is a village in Nishapur, Iran. Subsequently, the river basin played an important role in the movements of peoples from Asia to Europe. A powerful polity of Volga Bulgaria once flourished where the Kama jo
A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa
Republics of the Soviet Union
The Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or Union Republics were the ethnically based proto-states of the Soviet Union. For most of its history, the USSR was a centralized state. According to Article 76 of the 1977 Soviet Constitution, a Union Republic was a sovereign Soviet socialist state that had united with other Soviet Republics in the USSR. Article 81 of the Constitution stated that "the sovereign rights of Union Republics shall be safeguarded by the USSR". In the final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of fifteen Soviet Socialist Republics. All of them, with the exception of the Russian Federation, had their own local party chapters of the All-Union Communist Party. Outside the territory of the Russian Federation, the republics were constituted in lands that had belonged to the Russian Empire and had been acquired by it between the 1700 Great Northern War and the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. In 1944, amendments to the All-Union Constitution allowed for separate branches of the Red Army for each Soviet Republic.
They allowed for Republic-level commissariats for foreign affairs and defense, allowing them to be recognized as de jure independent states in international law. This allowed for two Soviet Republics and Byelorussia, to join the United Nations General Assembly as founding members in 1945. All of the former Republics of the Union are now independent countries, with ten of them being loosely organized under the heading of the Commonwealth of Independent States. However, most of the international community did not consider the Baltic countries to have legitimately been part of the USSR; the Baltic states assert that their incorporation into the Soviet Union in 1940 under the provisions of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact was illegal, that they therefore remained independent countries under Soviet occupation. Their position is supported by the European Union, the European Court of Human Rights, the United Nations Human Rights Council and the United States. In contrast, the Russian government and state officials maintain that the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states was legitimate..
Constitutionally, the Soviet Union was a federation. In accordance with provisions present in the Constitution, each republic retained the right to secede from the USSR. Throughout the Cold War, this right was considered to be meaningless. In practice, the USSR was a centralised entity from its creation in 1922 until the mid-1980s when political forces unleashed by reforms undertaken by Mikhail Gorbachev resulted in the loosening of central control and its ultimate dissolution. Under the constitution adopted in 1936 and modified along the way until October 1977, the political foundation of the Soviet Union was formed by the Soviets of People's Deputies; these existed at all levels of the administrative hierarchy, with the Soviet Union as a whole under the nominal control of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, located in Moscow within the Russian Federation. Along with the state administrative hierarchy, there existed a parallel structure of party organizations, which allowed the Politburo to exercise large amounts of control over the republics.
State administrative organs took direction from the parallel party organs, appointments of all party and state officials required approval of the central organs of the party. Each republic had its own unique set of state symbols: a flag, a coat of arms, with the exception of Russia until 1990, an anthem; every republic of the Soviet Union was awarded with the Order of Lenin. The number of the union republics of the USSR varied from 4 to 16. In majority of years and at the decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics. Rather than listing the republics in alphabetical order, the republics were listed in constitutional order, which by the last decades of the Soviet Union, did not correspond to order either by population or economic power; the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia, in the winter of 1919 The Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed in 1919 but fell soon. The Galician Soviet Socialist Republic The Donetsk–Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic The Don Soviet Republic The Kuban Soviet Republic The Kuban-Black Sea Soviet Republic The Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic The Mughan Soviet Republic The Soviet Republic of Naissaar The Odessa Soviet Republic The North Caucasian Soviet Republic The Stavropol Soviet Republic The Taurida Soviet Socialist Republic The Terek Soviet Republic The Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets The Ukrainian Soviet Republic The Black Sea Soviet Republic The Far Eastern Republic existed in 1920-1922 as a formally independent state, was de facto under Soviet control.
The Persian Socialist Soviet Republic, in what is now Iran. The Slovak Soviet Republic The Bavarian Soviet Republic The Bremen Soviet Republic The Hungarian Soviet Republic The Limerick Soviet The Chinese Soviet RepublicThe Turkestan Soviet Federative Republic was proclaimed in 1918 but did not survive to the founding of the USS