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Nuclear warfare

Nuclear warfare is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy. Nuclear weapons are weapons of mass destruction. A major nuclear exchange would have long-term effects from the fallout released, could lead to a "nuclear winter" that could last for decades, centuries, or millennia after the initial attack; some analysts dismiss the nuclear winter hypothesis, calculate that with nuclear weapon stockpiles at Cold War highs, although there would be billions of casualties, billions more rural people would survive. However, others have argued that secondary effects of a nuclear holocaust, such as nuclear famine and societal collapse, would cause every human on Earth to starve to death. So far, two nuclear weapons have been used in the course of warfare, both by the United States near the end of World War II. On August 6, 1945, a uranium gun-type device was detonated over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Three days on August 9, a plutonium implosion-type device was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki.

These two bombings resulted in the deaths of 120,000 people. After World War II, nuclear weapons were developed by the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the People's Republic of China, which contributed to the state of conflict and extreme tension that became known as the Cold War. In 1974, in 1998, two countries that were hostile toward each other, developed nuclear weapons. Israel and North Korea are thought to have developed stocks of nuclear weapons, though it is not known how many; the Israeli government has never admitted nor denied having nuclear weapons, although it is known to have constructed the reactor and reprocessing plant necessary for building nuclear weapons. South Africa manufactured several complete nuclear weapons in the 1980s, but subsequently became the first country to voluntarily destroy their domestically made weapons stocks and abandon further production. Nuclear weapons have been detonated on over 2,000 occasions for testing demonstrations. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the resultant end of the Cold War, the threat of a major nuclear war between the two nuclear superpowers was thought to have declined.

Since concern over nuclear weapons has shifted to the prevention of localized nuclear conflicts resulting from nuclear proliferation, the threat of nuclear terrorism. The possibility of using nuclear weapons in war is divided into two subgroups, each with different effects and fought with different types of nuclear armaments; the first, a limited nuclear war, refers to a small-scale use of nuclear weapons by two belligerents. A "limited nuclear war" could include targeting military facilities—either as an attempt to pre-emptively cripple the enemy's ability to attack as a defensive measure, or as a prelude to an invasion by conventional forces, as an offensive measure; this term could apply to any small-scale use of nuclear weapons that may involve military or civilian targets. The second, a full-scale nuclear war, could consist of large numbers of nuclear weapons used in an attack aimed at an entire country, including military and civilian targets; such an attack would certainly destroy the entire economic and military infrastructure of the target nation, would have a devastating effect on Earth's biosphere.

Some Cold War strategists such as Henry Kissinger argued that a limited nuclear war could be possible between two armed superpowers. Some predict, that a limited war could "escalate" into a full-scale nuclear war. Others have called limited nuclear war "global nuclear holocaust in slow motion", arguing that—once such a war took place—others would be sure to follow over a period of decades rendering the planet uninhabitable in the same way that a "full-scale nuclear war" between superpowers would, only taking a much longer path to the same result; the most optimistic predictions of the effects of a major nuclear exchange foresee the death of many millions of victims within a short period of time. More pessimistic predictions argue that a full-scale nuclear war could bring about the extinction of the human race, or at least its near extinction, with only a small number of survivors and a reduced quality of life and life expectancy for centuries afterward. However, such predictions, assuming total war with nuclear arsenals at Cold War highs, have not been without criticism.

Such a horrific catastrophe as global nuclear warfare would certainly cause permanent damage to most complex life on the planet, its ecosystems, the global climate. A study presented at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union in December 2006 asserted that a small-scale regional nuclear war could produce as many direct fatalities as all of World War II and disrupt the global climate for a decade or more. In a regional nuclear conflict scenario in which two opposing nations in the subtropics each used 50 Hiroshima-sized nuclear weapons on major population centers, the researchers predicted fatalities ranging from 2.6 million to 16.7 million per country. The authors of the study estimated that as much as five million tons

Thomas Berney Bramston

Thomas Berney Bramston was a British lawyer and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1779 to 1802. Bramston was the only son of Thomas Bramston of Skreens and his second wife Elizabeth Berney, daughter of Richard Berney, recorder of Norwich and was born on 7 December 1733, he was educated at Felsted School and matriculated at New College, Oxford on 11 April 1751. In 1754, he was created MA, he was admitted at Middle Temple in 1752, called to the bar in 1757. He married Mary Gardiner, daughter of Stephen Gardiner of Norwich on 10 January 1764, he succeeded his father in 1765. Branston was active in support of the Tory interest in Essex, but declined repeated invitations to stand for Parliament because as a family man he could not afford the expense, he agreed to stand at a by-election on 11 May 1779, when he was returned unopposed as Member of Parliament for Essex. He was returned for Essex again unopposed in the 1780 general election, he became a Bencher of Middle Temple in 1783. In 1784 he was again returned for Essex.

He was a member of the St. Alban's Tavern group which tried to bring Fox together, he was returned for Essex again in 1790. In 1791 he became reader in 1795 treasurer of Middle Temple. At the 1796 general election he was returned for Essex again and he retired at the 1802 general election, he received the unanimous thanks of the county for his services. In 1810 his son-in-law John Archer-Houblon became MP for Essex. Bramston died on 12 March 1813, he was succeeded by his son Thomas Gardiner Bramston who became MP for Essex

Bronco Mendenhall

Marc Bronco Clay Mendenhall is the head coach of the Virginia Cavaliers football team at the University of Virginia. He was a successful head coach of the BYU Cougars football team, leaving for Virginia with the second-most wins in school history, eleven consecutive bowl invitations, five 10-win seasons, regular national Top 25 rankings, he won a total of 99 games in his eleven years there. Mendenhall is known as a turnaround specialist, he is known for his unorthodox methods and "Earned Not Given" motto making players earn their jersey numbers each season. He selects a Virginia player. In 2019, Mendenhall became the first Virginia coach to bring both the Commonwealth Cup and Jefferson-Eppes Trophy to Charlottesville at the same time, his Cavaliers won the South's Oldest Rivalry in that same season. More than 60 of Mendenhall's players have been signed to NFL contracts since 2005 including Ezekiel Ansah, the #5 overall pick in the 2013 NFL Draft. Mendenhall is known for graduating his players, his program ranked seventh for most Academic All-Americans during his tenure of over a decade.

Mendenhall comes from a notable football family. His father played defensive end for BYU in the 1950s, while Bronco himself played safety for Oregon State where he was named team captain his senior season, his brother Mat Mendenhall started at defensive end for the Super Bowl Champion Washington Redskins in Super Bowl XVII. Mendenhall graduated from American Fork High School in 1984. In 1990, he served as a graduate assistant coach at Oregon State University in Oregon. From 1991 to 1993, he was the defensive coordinator for Snow College, a junior college in Ephraim, Utah. From 1993 to 1994, he was the defensive coordinator for Northern Arizona University. From 1995 to 1996, he served as the defensive coordinator for Oregon State. After the 1996 season, he was fired from Oregon State. In 1997, he served as the secondary coach at Louisiana Tech. From 1998 to 2002, he was the defensive coordinator for the University of New Mexico, where he and head coach Rocky Long developed a blitz-happy 3-3-5 defensive scheme that produced NFL first-round draft pick Brian Urlacher, who played in New Mexico's "Loboback" position, a cross between a linebacker and safety.

In 2003 Bronco Mendenhall accepted the defensive coordinator position at BYU under head coach Gary Crowton. Crowton resigned at the end of the 2004 season, his 3rd consecutive losing season; the BYU head coach position was first offered to former Cougar linebacker and Utah defensive coordinator Kyle Whittingham which resulted in Mendenhall calling UNLV head coach Mike Sanford about the defensive coordinator opening at UNLV. Mendenhall and his wife, were prepared to tell their sons about the move to UNLV when Whittingham rejected the offer from BYU and accepted the head coaching job at Utah as Urban Meyer's replacement. BYU players had been upset. In response, BYU athletic director Tom Holmoe interviewed Mendenhall first in the re-opened search. Two weeks Mendenhall was named BYU's head coach. In 2005, his first year at the helm, the Cougars finished the regular season with a 6–6 record. Mendenhall switched back to the traditional uniforms with the Y logo on the helmets, which were worn by the most successful BYU teams.

Quarterback John Beck, tight end Jonny Harline and running back Curtis Brown led an offensive attack, BYU's most potent since 2001, averaging 33.0 points per game and 462.4 yards of total offense per game. BYU tied for second in the MWC and appeared in the Las Vegas Bowl, their first bowl game since 2001, falling to California, 35–28. In 2006, BYU posted its best record in five seasons, it knocked off 10 straight opponents over the final three months, registered a perfect 6–0 home record, finished 11–2. The Cougars tallied a perfect clip against league opponents to win the Mountain West Conference championship, winning on the final play of the game at Utah, they decisively defeated 38 -- 8, in the Pioneer PureVision Las Vegas Bowl. BYU was ranked in the top-20 in the final Associated Press, USA Today, Harris Interactive polls, finished 15th in the final BCS rankings. Mendenhall was named Mountain West AFCA Region 5 Coach of the Year. Mendenhall and the Cougars repeated as MWC champions in 2007 behind another perfect 8-0 MWC season and 11–2 final record.

They finished the season ranked No. 14 in both the Associated Press and USA Today polls, BYU's highest finish in the national polls since 1996. To complement their 16-game conference win streak, the Cougars boasted the nation's longest overall winning streak at 10 games. BYU reached its third consecutive Las Vegas Bowl, again winning in dramatic fashion after blocking UCLA's last second field goal to preserve a 17–16 victory. En route, Mendenhall became the first coach in school history to lead the Cougars to two consecutive bowl game victories in his first three years as head coach. A defensive specialist, Mendenhall helped. In 2008, BYU finished 10–3 overall and 6–2 in the MWC to achieve three straight 10-win seasons and become the first teams in Cougar history to go unbeaten at home over three consecutive seasons. BYU earned a spot in the national polls each week during the season, including a ranking as high as No. 7. Mendenhall led BYU to a third-place finish in the MWC at 6–2 and yet another bowl berth in Las Vegas where the team lost to Arizona by a score of 31–21.

BYU became one of only nine schools nationally to be ranked in the top 25 of the final BCS standings each of the past three seasons, with only five teams winning more games tha

VfL Wolfsburg II

VfL Wolfsburg II is a German association football team from the city of Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony. It is the reserve team of VfL Wolfsburg; the team's greatest success has been two league championships in the tier four Regionalliga Nord in 2013–14 and 2015–16 which entitled it to take part in the promotion round to the 3. Liga; the team has made four appearances in the first round of the German Cup, the DFB-Pokal, in 2001–02, 2002–03, 2003–04 and 2005–06, reaching the second round in 2001–02, after eliminating Borussia Dortmund, in 2003–04, after eliminating Energie Cottbus in the first. The team first rose above local amateur level when it won promotion to the tier five Verbandsliga Niedersachsen-Ost in 1995, where it played for the next four seasons under the name of VfL Wolfsburg Amateure. Wolfsburg rose above regional Lower Saxony level after winning the tier five Verbandsliga Niedersachsen-Ost in 1998–99, it played the next five seasons in the Oberliga Niedersachsen/Bremen as an upper table side before winning the league in 2003–04 and earning promotion to the Regionalliga Nord for the first time.

Relegated from this level after just a single season Wolfsburg entered the Oberliga Nord for two seasons before winning the latter in 2006–07 and returning to the Regionalliga. In the early 2000s the team made four appearances in the first round of the German Cup, the DFB-Pokal, in 2001–02, 2002–03, 2003–04 and 2005–06. In 2001–02 it eliminated Borussia Dortmund in the first round and, in 2003–04, Energie Cottbus, but was knocked out in the second on both occasions; the 2007–08 season was the last of the Regionalliga as a tier three league, the 3. Liga having been introduced at the end of season. Despite finishing 19th, the team was allowed to remain in the Regionalliga Nord because of a general league restructuring. Wolfsburg played in the Regionalliga from 2008 onwards, finishing runners-up in 2010, 2011 and 2015 and winning the league in 2014, 2016 and 2019; the latter three entitled the club to participate in the promotion play-offs to the 3. Liga, with the team losing on aggregate to SG Sonnenhof Großaspach in 2014, Regionalliga Bayern champions Jahn Regensburg in 2016 and Regionalliga Bayern champions Bayern Munich II in 2019.

The club's honours: Regionalliga Nord Champions: 2013–14, 2015–16, 2018–19 Oberliga Nord Champions: 2006–07 Oberliga Niedersachsen/Bremen Champions: 2003–04 Verbandsliga Niedersachsen-Ost Champions: 1998–99 Lower Saxony Cup Winners: 2001–02, 2002–03 The recent season-by-season performance of the club: With the introduction of the 3. Liga in 2008 as the new third tier, below the 2. Bundesliga, all leagues below dropped one tier; as of 6 July 2016Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Official club site VfL Wolfsburg II at


3CX is an international VoIP IPBX software developer. Its 3CX Phone System, an open-standards, software-based PBX, was only deployable on Windows but as of 2016 can be deployed on Linux and on cloud platforms. 3CX can be integrated with multiple CRM systems. 3CX is headquartered in Cyprus possessing presence in multiple locations across the globe, including Australia & New Zealand, Canada, Germany, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States. 3CX was founded by Nick Galea in 2005. 3CX’s first product release was 3CX Phone System, developed and released as a free IP PBX in 2006. In 2007, the company released the first commercial edition of 3CX Phone System, v6.0, on released WebMeeting, an integrated and clientless, WebRTC-based video conferencing solution. This was followed by the release of 3CX WebMeeting Server in February 2015, discontinued following the release of version 15. Thereafter, the company further developed 3CX’s compatibility to extend to Linux as well.

In 2013 3CX acquired eWorks technologies. On 14 May 2014, it was reported by The Register that 3CX launched their Client on app, Trevor Pott, the author of the review proceeds to test run the apps on both Android and Apple. On 7 September 2016, it was reported by Channel Biz UK that 3CX partnered with BT Wholesale SIP Trunking platform to serve resellers. In 2016 3CX acquired Elastix project. With this acquisition the Elastix Distro versioned at 5.0 was switched to a proprietary software on top of Debian with the 3CX platform. In January 2020, 3CX Appointed UK Based UC-RESELLER as their newest UK Preferred SIP Trunking Partner Windows Market3CX first market segment was the Windows market; the company initial goal was to develop an IP PBX, compatible with Windows and which could integrate with multiple forms of CRM software. Linux MarketIn 2016, 3CX introduced a Linux version. Cloud: Virtual Hosting MarketIn March 2017, 3CX further expanding their Cloud offering by releasing PBX Express, a service that creates a hosted PBX in minutes using an instance on any hosted Virtual Private Server.

2018: Editors Choice Award Awarded by Technology Reseller 2017: Brand of the Year Awarded by Trophies of Distribution 2017: MKB Best Choice & Editors Choice Awarded by WinMag Pro 2017: Business Software of the Year Awarded by PC Pro 2016: MKB Proof Award by WINMAG Pro 2015: Price/Performance Value Leadership Award, awarded by Frost & Sullivan 2015: Tech Innovator Award, awarded by CRN 2015: Most Innovative Product, awarded by the Innovationspreis - IT 2015: Best SME On Premise System, awarded by Comms National Awards 2014: Best Enterprise On-Premise Solution, awarded by Comms National Award 2012: Best Emerging Technology Vendor awarded by CRN 2011: Best Emerging Technology Vendor awarded by CRN On 8 July 2016, 3CX announced that it would will be sponsoring APOEL FC of Nicosia, Cyprus for a period of 3 years. Competing in the Champion’s League multiple times

1951 Ontario general election

The 1951 Ontario general election was held on November 22, 1951, to elect the 90 members of the 24th Legislative Assembly of Ontario of the Province of Ontario, Canada. The Ontario Progressive Conservative Party, led by Leslie Frost, won a fourth consecutive term in office, increasing its caucus in the legislature from 53 in the previous election to 79—a solid majority; the Ontario Liberal Party, led by Walter Thomson, lost six seats, but regained the role of official opposition because of the collapse of the CCF vote. Albert Wren was sat with the Liberal caucus; the social democratic Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, led by Ted Jolliffe, lost all but two of its previous 21 seats with Jolliffe himself being defeated in the riding of York South. One seat was won by J. B. Salsberg of the Labor-Progressive Party. LPP leader A. A. MacLeod lost his downtown Toronto seat of Bellwoods in this election and three other LPP candidates were defeated. Politics of Ontario List of Ontario political parties Premier of Ontario Leader of the Opposition