Nuclear winter

Nuclear winter is a severe and prolonged global climatic cooling effect hypothesized to occur after widespread firestorms following a nuclear war. The hypothesis is based on the fact that such fires can inject soot into the stratosphere, where it can block some direct sunlight from reaching the surface of the Earth, it is speculated that the resulting cooling would lead to famine. When developing computer models of nuclear-winter scenarios, researchers use the conventional bombing of Hamburg, the Hiroshima firestorm in World War II as example cases where soot might have been injected into the stratosphere, alongside modern observations of natural, large-area wildfire-firestorms. "Nuclear winter," or as it was termed, "nuclear twilight," began to be considered as a scientific concept in the 1980s, after it became clear that an earlier hypothesis, that fireball generated NOx emissions would devastate the ozone layer, was losing credibility. It was within this context that the climatic effects of soot from fires became the new focus of the climatic effects of nuclear war.

In these model scenarios, various soot clouds containing uncertain quantities of soot were assumed to form over cities, oil refineries, more rural missile silos. Once the quantity of soot is decided upon by the researchers, the climate effects of these soot clouds are modeled; the term "nuclear winter" was a neologism coined in 1983 by Richard P. Turco in reference to a 1-dimensional computer model created to examine the "nuclear twilight" idea, this 1-D model output the finding that massive quantities of soot and smoke would remain aloft in the air for on the order of years, causing a severe planet-wide drop in temperature. Turco would distance himself from these extreme 1-D conclusions. After the failure of the predictions on the effects of the 1991 Kuwait oil fires, that were made by the primary team of climatologists that advocate the hypothesis, over a decade passed without any new published papers on the topic. More the same team of prominent modellers from the 1980s have begun again to publish the outputs of computer models, these newer models produce the same general findings as their old ones, that the ignition of 100 firestorms, each comparable in intensity to that observed in Hiroshima in 1945, could produce a "small" nuclear winter.

These firestorms would result in the injection of soot into the Earth's stratosphere, producing an anti-greenhouse effect that would lower the Earth's surface temperature. The severity of this cooling in Alan Robock's model suggests that the cumulative products of 100 of these firestorms could cool the global climate by 1 °C eliminating the magnitude of anthropogenic global warming for the next two or three years. Robock has not modeled this, but has speculated that it would have global agricultural losses as a consequence; as nuclear devices need not be detonated to ignite a firestorm, the term "nuclear winter" is something of a misnomer. The majority of papers published on the subject state that without qualitative justification, nuclear explosions are the cause of the modeled firestorm effects; the only phenomenon, modeled by computer in the nuclear winter papers is the climate forcing agent of firestorm-soot, a product which can be ignited and formed by a myriad of means. Although discussed, the proponents of the hypothesis state that the same "nuclear winter" effect would occur if 100 conventional firestorms were ignited.

A much larger number of firestorms, in the thousands, was the initial assumption of the computer modelers who coined the term in the 1980s. These were speculated to be a possible result of any large scale employment of counter-value airbursting nuclear weapon use during an American-Soviet total war; this larger number of firestorms, which are not in themselves modeled, are presented as causing nuclear winter conditions as a result of the smoke inputted into various climate models, with the depths of severe cooling lasting for as long as a decade. During this period, summer drops in average temperature could be up to 20 °C in core agricultural regions of the US, China, as much as 35 °C in Russia; this cooling would be produced due to a 99% reduction in the natural solar radiation reaching the surface of the planet in the first few years clearing over the course of several decades. On the fundamental level, since the advent of photographic evidence of tall clouds were captured, it was known that firestorms could inject soot smoke/aerosols into the stratosphere but the longevity of this slew of aerosols was a major unknown.

Independent of the team that continue to publish theoretical models on nuclear winter, in 2006, Mike Fromm of the Naval Research Laboratory, experimentally found that each natural occurrence of a massive wildfire firestorm, much larger than that observed at Hiroshima, can produce minor "nuclear winter" effects, with short-lived one month of a nearly immeasurable drop in surface temperatures, confined to the hemisphere that they burned in. This is somewhat analogous to the frequent volcanic eruptions that inject sulfates into the stratosphere and thereby produce minor negligible, volcanic winter effects. A suite of satellite and aircraft-based firestorm-soot-monitoring instruments are at the forefront of attempts to determine the lifespan, injection height, optical properties of this smoke. Information regarding all of these properties is necessary to ascertain the length and severity of the cooling effect of firestorms, independent of the nuclear winter computer model projections. Presently, from satellite tracking data, stratospheric smoke aerosols dissipate in a time span under two months.


Citharomangelia quadrilineata

Citharomangelia quadrilineata is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Mangeliidae. The length of the shell attains its diameter 3.5 mm. This is a white shell with a fusiform-ovate shape and without spiral striae; the spire is conical and convex. It contains 5 whorls; the longitudinal plicae are somewhat distant, smoothly rounded. The four light fulvous lines crossing the body whorl seem to be a constant character; the body whorl measures about ⅔ of the total length of the shell. The aperture is narrow; the sinus is not deep. The columella is straight and denticled; the siphonal canal is short and wide. R. N. Kilburn had doubts about the generic position of this species, because of the low, cord-like axial ribs and the smooth wide intervals; this marine species occurs off Japan. Tucker, J. K. 2004 Catalog of recent and fossil turrids. Zootaxa 682:1-1295

Elkhart Township, Elkhart County, Indiana

Elkhart Township is one of sixteen townships in Elkhart County, Indiana. As of the 2010 census, its population was 36,487; the Dierdorff Farmstead was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2011. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 35.69 square miles, of which 35.04 square miles is land and 0.65 square miles is water. Goshen Waterford Mills Jefferson Township Middlebury Township Clinton Township Benton Township Jackson Township Union Township Harrison Township Concord Township US 33 SR 4 SR 15 SR 119 The township contains seven cemeteries: Cripe, Elkhart Prairie, Oak Ridge, Sparklin and Violett. Elkhart Township residents may obtain a library card at the Goshen Public Library in Goshen. "Elkhart Township, Elkhart County, Indiana". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-09-24. United States Census Bureau cartographic boundary files Indiana Township Association United Township Association of Indiana