SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are the biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life. The term nucleic acid is the overall name for DNA and RNA, they are composed of nucleotides, which are the monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. If the sugar is a compound ribose, the polymer is RNA. Nucleic acids are the most important of all biomolecules; these are found in abundance in all living things, where they function to create and encode and store information of every living cell of every life-form organism on Earth. In turn, they function to transmit and express that information inside and outside the cell nucleus—to the interior operations of the cell and to the next generation of each living organism; the encoded information is contained and conveyed via the nucleic acid sequence, which provides the'ladder-step' ordering of nucleotides within the molecules of RNA and DNA. Strings of nucleotides are bonded to form helical backbones—typically, one for RNA, two for DNA—and assembled into chains of base-pairs selected from the five primary, or canonical, which are: adenine, guanine and uracil.

Thymine occurs only in DNA and uracil only in RNA. Using amino acids and the process known as protein synthesis, the specific sequencing in DNA of these nucleobase-pairs enables storing and transmitting coded instructions as genes. In RNA, base-pair sequencing provides for manufacturing new proteins that determine the frames and parts and most chemical processes of all life forms. Nuclein were discovered by Friedrich Miescher in 1869. In the early 1880s Albrecht Kossel further purified the substance and discovered its acidic properties, he also identified the nucleobases. In 1889 Richard Altmann creates the term nucleic acid In 1938 Astbury and Bell published the first X-ray diffraction pattern of DNA. In 1953 Watson and Crick determined the structure of DNA. Experimental studies of nucleic acids constitute a major part of modern biological and medical research, form a foundation for genome and forensic science, the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. Naked NA refers to NA, not associated with proteins, lipids, or any other molecule to help "protect it".

Naked DNA can be found. The term nucleic acid is the overall name for DNA and RNA, members of a family of biopolymers, is synonymous with polynucleotide. Nucleic acids were named for their initial discovery within the nucleus, for the presence of phosphate groups. Although first discovered within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, nucleic acids are now known to be found in all life forms including within bacteria, mitochondria, chloroplasts and viroids. All living cells contain both DNA and RNA, while viruses contain either DNA or RNA, but not both; the basic component of biological nucleic acids is the nucleotide, each of which contains a pentose sugar, a phosphate group, a nucleobase. Nucleic acids are generated within the laboratory, through the use of enzymes and by solid-phase chemical synthesis; the chemical methods enable the generation of altered nucleic acids that are not found in nature, for example peptide nucleic acids. Nucleic acids are very large molecules. Indeed, DNA molecules are the largest individual molecules known.

Well-studied biological nucleic acid molecules range in size from 21 nucleotides to large chromosomes. In most cases occurring DNA molecules are double-stranded and RNA molecules are single-stranded. There are numerous exceptions, however—some viruses have genomes made of double-stranded RNA and other viruses have single-stranded DNA genomes, and, in some circumstances, nucleic acid structures with three or four strands can form. Nucleic acids are linear polymers of nucleotides; each nucleotide consists of three components: a purine or pyrimidine nucleobase, a pentose sugar, a phosphate group. The substructure consisting of a nucleobase plus sugar is termed a nucleoside. Nucleic acid types differ in the structure of the sugar in their nucleotides–DNA contains 2'-deoxyribose while RNA contains ribose; the nucleobases found in the two nucleic acid types are different: adenine and guanine are found in both RNA and DNA, while thymine occurs in DNA and uracil occurs in RNA. The sugars and phosphates in nucleic acids are connected to each other in an alternating chain through phosphodiester linkages.

In conventional nomenclature, the carbons to which the phosphate groups attach are the 3'-end and the 5'-end carbons of the sugar. This gives nucleic acids directionality, the ends of nucleic acid molecules are referred to as 5'-end and 3'-end; the nucleobases are joined to the sugars via an N-glycosidic linkage involving a nucleobase ring nitrogen and the 1' carbon of the pentose sugar ring. Non-standard nucleosides are found in both RNA and DNA and arise from modification of the standard nucleosides within the DNA molecule or the primary RNA transcript. Transfer RNA molecules contain a large number of modified nucleosides. Double-stranded nucleic acids are made up of complementary sequences, in which

Cania Gorge National Park

Cania Gorge is a national park in the North Burnett Region, Australia, in the locality of Cania. The park is 373 km northwest of Brisbane; the nearest town is Monto. Three Moon Creek is the name of the waterway; the park's most dominant features are the 70 m sandstone cliffs. Wildlife native to the park include rock wallabys, platypus and over 90 bird species. Aboriginal rock art on the cliff walls is an indication of indigenous settlement of at least 19,000 years. A picnic area is located alongside the main road into 8 km from the Burnett Highway. Facilities here include covered picnic tables and gas-powered barbecues; the majority of the park's walking tracks lead from this picnic area, including the 1.1 km trail to Dripping Rock, 1.6 km trail to The Overhang, the 1.3 km trail to Bloodwood Cave. The longest track in the park leads from a small car park 500 metres south of the picnic area; this 5.6 km circuit takes with views across the gorge. Only walkers with moderate levels of fitness should attempt this track.

Another walk leads visitors to a former mine site. Cania Dam Protected areas of Queensland Boyne Valley, Queensland Cania Gorge National Park

International Colour Day

An international colour day has been considered as appropriate since colour is, thanks to visual perception, one of the most influential phenomena in people’s lives and one of the channels that contributes most to the perception of reality. All around the world memorable colour activities are being developed during the International Colour Day; the adoption of an international day of colour was proposed in 2008 by the Portuguese Color Association, whose president, Maria Joao Durao, presented the idea to the International Colour Association. The proposal was agreed in 2009 among the members of this society, composed of national associations and members representing more than 30 countries; the choice of the date comprised a good deal of discussion. Among all suggestions, the idea exposed by Leonhard Oberascher prevailed: every year, March 21 is the “equinox” – aequus and nox. Around the equinox, the night and day are equally long, symbolically relating to the complementary nature of light and darkness and shadow expressed in all human cultures.

There was an international competition for the design of the logo, the winner was announced at the 2012 meeting of the International Colour Association, AIC 2012 held in Taipei, Taiwan. As expressed by designer Hosanna Yau, from Hong Kong, "two circles form an eye, with an equal half of rainbow color and black representing light and darkness and night, everyone feast one's eye on the international color day." Some of the activities and events that are unfolded on the International Colour Day: Arts exhibitions, architectural projects, decoration, fashion.... Meetings, scientific events... Workshops on the use of colour and light for both adults and children. Contests on colour and light design. Wearing national or regional identity colours. Proposal for the creation of the ICD Website of the International Colour Association Australia Brazil Chile Thailand The Netherlands Pakistan United States About the ICD, in Spanish ICD logo competition in the year 2014