Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
In popular music, a cover version, cover song, revival, or cover, is a new performance or recording by someone other than the original artist or composer of a recorded, commercially released song. Before the onset of rock'n' roll in the 1950s, songs were published and several records of a song might be brought out by singers of the day, each giving it their individual treatment. Cover versions could be released as an effort to revive the song's popularity among younger generations of listeners after the popularity of the original version has long since declined over the years. On occasion, a cover can become more popular than the original, such as Elvis Presley's version of Carl Perkins' original "Blue Suede Shoes", Santana's 1970 version of Peter Green's and Fleetwood Mac's 1968 "Black Magic Woman", Johnny Cash's version of Nine Inch Nails' "Hurt", Whitney Houston's versions of Dolly Parton's "I Will Always Love You" and of George Benson's "The Greatest Love of All", Glenn Medeiros's version of George Benson's "Nothing's Gonna Change My Love for You" or Jimi Hendrix's version of Bob Dylan's "All Along the Watchtower".
The Hendrix recording, released six months after Dylan's original, became a Top 10 single in the UK in 1968 and was ranked 48th in Rolling Stone magazine's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. Another famous example is the Beatles' cover of "Twist and Shout" by the Top Notes, their cover of the song, "Til There Was You", by Meredith Willson, among many others; the term "cover" goes back decades when cover version described a rival version of a tune recorded to compete with the released version. The Chicago Tribune described the term in 1952: "trade jargon meaning to record a tune that looks like a potential hit on someone else's label". Examples of records covered include Paul Williams' 1949 hit tune "The Hucklebuck" and Hank Williams' 1952 song "Jambalaya". Both had numerous hit versions. Before the mid-20th century, the notion of an original version of a popular tune would have seemed odd – the production of musical entertainment was seen as a live event if it was reproduced at home via a copy of the sheet music, learned by heart or captured on a gramophone record.
In fact, one of the principal objects of publishing sheet music was to have a composition performed by as many artists as possible. In previous generations, some artists made successful careers of presenting revivals or reworkings of once-popular tunes out of doing contemporary cover versions of current hits. Musicians now play what they call "cover versions" of songs as a tribute to the original performer or group. Using familiar material is an important method of learning music styles; until the mid-1960s most albums, or long playing records, contained a large number of evergreens or standards to present a fuller range of the artist's abilities and style. Artists might perform interpretations of a favorite artist's hit tunes for the simple pleasure of playing a familiar song or collection of tunes. A cover band plays such "cover versions" exclusively. Today three broad types of entertainers depend on cover versions for their principal repertoire: Tribute acts or bands are performers who make a living by recreating the music of one particular artist or band.
Bands such as Björn Again, Led Zepagain, The Fab Four, Australian Pink Floyd Show, The Iron Maidens and Glory Days are dedicated to playing the music of ABBA, Led Zeppelin, The Beatles, Pink Floyd, Iron Maiden and Bruce Springsteen respectively. Some tribute acts salute the Who, many other classic rock acts. Many tribute acts target artists who remain popular but no longer perform, allowing an audience to experience the "next best thing" to the original act; the formation of tribute acts is proportional to the enduring popularity of the original act. Many tribute bands attempt to recreate another band's music as faithfully as possible, but some such bands introduce a twist. Dread Zeppelin performs reggae versions of the Zeppelin catalog and Beatallica creates heavy metal fusions of songs by the Beatles and Metallica. There are situations in which a member of a tribute band will go on to greater success, sometimes with the original act they tribute. One notable example is Tim "Ripper" Owens who, once the lead singer of Judas Priest tribute band British Steel, went on to join Judas Priest himself.
Cover acts or bands are entertainers who perform a broad variety of crowd-pleasing cover songs for audiences who enjoy the familiarity of hit songs. Such bands draw from current Top 40 hits and/or those of previous decades to provide nostalgic entertainment in bars, on cruise ships and at such events as weddings, family celebrations and corporate functions. Since the advent of inexpensive computers, some cover bands use a computerized catalog of songs, so that the singer can have the lyrics to a song displayed on a computer screen; the use of a screen for lyrics as a memory aid can increase the number of songs a singer can perform. Revivalist artists or bands are performers who are inspired by an entire genre of music and dedicate themselves to curating and recreating the genre and introducing it to younger audiences who have not experienced that music first hand. Unlike tribute bands and cover bands who rely on audiences seeking a nostalgic experience, revivalist bands seek new young audiences for whom the music is fresh and has no nostalgic value.
For example, Sha Na Na
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format, co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was adapted for storage of data. Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage, rewritable media, Video Compact Disc, Super Video Compact Disc, Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, Enhanced Music CD; the first commercially available audio CD player, the Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 MiB of data; the Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres. At the time of the technology's introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive, which would hold 10 MB. By 2010, hard drives offered as much storage space as a thousand CDs, while their prices had plummeted to commodity level. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs.
By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. From the early 2000s CDs were being replaced by other forms of digital storage and distribution, with the result that by 2010 the number of audio CDs being sold in the U. S. had dropped about 50% from their peak. In 2014, revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time. American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record digital information on an optical transparent foil, lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russell's patent application was filed in 1966, he was granted a patent in 1970. Following litigation and Philips licensed Russell's patents in the 1980s; the compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a focused laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals. Prototypes were developed by Sony independently in the late 1970s. Although dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled.
In 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980. After their commercial release in 1982, compact discs and their players were popular. Despite costing up to $1,000, over 400,000 CD players were sold in the United States between 1983 and 1984. By 1988, CD sales in the United States surpassed those of vinyl LPs, by 1992 CD sales surpassed those of prerecorded music cassette tapes; the success of the compact disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, which together agreed upon and developed compatible hardware. The unified design of the compact disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company, allowed the CD to dominate the at-home music market unchallenged. In 1974, Lou Ottens, director of the audio division of Philips, started a small group with the aim to develop an analog optical audio disc with a diameter of 20 cm and a sound quality superior to that of the vinyl record.
However, due to the unsatisfactory performance of the analog format, two Philips research engineers recommended a digital format in March 1974. In 1977, Philips established a laboratory with the mission of creating a digital audio disc; the diameter of Philips's prototype compact disc was set at 11.5 cm, the diagonal of an audio cassette. Heitaro Nakajima, who developed an early digital audio recorder within Japan's national public broadcasting organization NHK in 1970, became general manager of Sony's audio department in 1971, his team developed a digital PCM adaptor audio tape recorder using a Betamax video recorder in 1973. After this, in 1974 the leap to storing digital audio on an optical disc was made. Sony first publicly demonstrated an optical digital audio disc in September 1976. A year in September 1977, Sony showed the press a 30 cm disc that could play 60 minutes of digital audio using MFM modulation. In September 1978, the company demonstrated an optical digital audio disc with a 150-minute playing time, 44,056 Hz sampling rate, 16-bit linear resolution, cross-interleaved error correction code—specifications similar to those settled upon for the standard compact disc format in 1980.
Technical details of Sony's digital audio disc were presented during the 62nd AES Convention, held on 13–16 March 1979, in Brussels. Sony's AES technical paper was published on 1 March 1979. A week on 8 March, Philips publicly demonstrated a prototype of an optical digital audio disc at a press conference called "Philips Introduce Compact Disc" in Eindhoven, Netherlands. Sony executive Norio Ohga CEO and chairman of Sony, Heitaro Nakajima were convinced of the format's commercial potential and pushed further development despite widespread skepticism; as a result, in 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. Led by engineers Kees Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doi, the research pushed forward laser and optical disc technology. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the task force produced the Red Book CD-DA standard. First published in 1980, the stand
Hot Latin Songs
The Billboard Hot Latin Songs is a record chart in the United States for Latin singles, published weekly by Billboard magazine. Since October 2012, chart rankings are based on digital sales, radio airplay, online streaming, only predominantly Spanish-language songs are allowed to rank; the chart was established by the magazine on September 6, 1986 and was based on airplay on Latin music radio stations. Songs on the chart were not in Spanish language, since a few songs in English and Portuguese language have charted; the first number one song of the Hot Latin Songs chart was "La Guirnalda" by Rocío Dúrcal on September 6, 1986. As of the issue for the week ending on April 13, 2019, the chart has had 430 different number one hits, while 165 artists have reached number one; the current number one song is "Mia" by Bad Bunny featuring Drake. On September 6, 1986, Billboard premiered a Latin music singles chart: the Hot Latin 50. During the 1980s decade, the data were compiled by the Billboard chart and research department with information from 70 Spanish-language radio stations in the United States and Puerto Rico.
Those radio stations were selected based on their number of listeners, were asked to report their playlists for the week. This data was compiled by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems, which electronically monitors radio stations in more than 120 music markets across the United States. Before this chart's inception, the Latin music information on the magazine was presented only in the form of the biweekly album sales chart Top Latin Albums, which continues to be listed separately. There were no language restrictions on the chart, since a few songs in English and Portuguese have charted and reached number one on five occasions. According to the Billboard electronic database, the first number one song on the Hot Latin 50 was "La Guirnalda" by Spanish singer Rocío Dúrcal on September 6, 1986. However, in the listings included in the first printed publication of the chart on October 4, 1986, the first number-one song was "Yo No Sé Qué Me Pasó" by Mexican singer-songwriter Juan Gabriel. In 2016, Billboard stated that the chart was introduced on the issue dated October 4, 1986, but the magazine's official website recognizes the previous issues from September 6, 1986 to September September 27, 1986, as well as Rocío Durcal's number one on the debut issue.
In 1994, three charts were introduced in addition to Hot Latin Songs: Latin Pop Airplay, which deals with pop songs whether or not it is Spanish-language. In 2005, the Latin Rhythm Airplay chart was introduced in response to the growing influence of Latin hip hop and reggaeton. Due to the increasing popularity of downloads sales and streaming data, Billboard updated the methodology for the Hot Latin Songs chart on October 11, 2012 to include digital sales and streaming activity in addition to airplay, as well as making only predominantly Spanish-language songs eligible for inclusion and increasing airplay data to more than 1,200 radio stations across the United States. There are several component charts; the most significant ones are: Latin Airplay: The chart measures the songs with most radio airplay audience impressions on Regional Mexican, Latin pop and Latin rhythm stations. Non-primarily-Spanish-language songs are eligible for inclusion, it was established on November 12, 1994. "Bidi Bidi Bom Bom" by Selena was the first number-one song on the chart.
"La Tortura" by Shakira featuring Alejandro Sanz is the longest-reigning number-one, with 25 non-consecutive weeks from June 4, 2005 to December 3, 2005. Latin Digital Songs: The chart measures the best-selling Spanish-language digital songs, it was established on January 23, 2010. "Loba" by Shakira was the first number-one song on the chart. "Danza Kuduro" by Don Omar featuring Lucenzo is the longest-running number-one, with 94 non-consecutive weeks from May 14, 2011 to July 20, 2013. Latin Streaming Songs: The chart measures the most-streamed Spanish-language songs and videos on selected online music services, it was established on April 20, 2013. "Hips Don't Lie" by Shakira featuring. "Bailando" by Enrique Iglesias featuring Descemer Bueno and Gente de Zona is the longest-leading number-one, with 66 non-consecutive weeks from May 17, 2015 to April 16, 2016. The tracking week for sales and streaming begins on Friday and ends on Thursday, while the radio play tracking-week runs from Monday to Sunday.
A new chart is compiled and released to the public by Billboard on Tuesday. Each chart is post-dated with the "week-ending" issue date four days after the charts are refreshed online. For example: Friday, January 1 – sales tracking-week begins, streaming tracking-week begins Monday, January 4 – airplay tracking-week begins Thursday, January 7 – sales tracking-week ends, streaming tracking-week ends Sunday, January 10 – airplay tracking-week ends Tuesday, January 12 – new chart released, with issue post-dated Saturday, January 16 The methods and policies by which this data is obtained and compiled have changed many times throughout the chart's history. Since October 11, 2012, the Billboard Hot Latin Songs tracks paid digital downloads and streaming activity. Billboard started tracking downloads since January 10, 2010 with the Latin Digital Songs chart. However, these downloads did not count towards Hot Latin Songs. A component Latin Streaming Songs chart was introduced on April 20, 2013, which ranks web radio streams from services such as Spotify, as well as o
7th Annual Latin Grammy Awards
The 7th Annual Latin Grammy Awards were held for the first time in New York City, NY. The awards show was held at Madison Square Garden on Thursday, November 2, 2006. Shakira was the big winner winning Album of one of four awards that she won, she is the first female artist to win Record of the Year, Album of the Year, Song of the Year. Winners are in bold text. Record of the Year Shakira featuring Alejandro Sanz — "La Tortura" Ricardo Arjona — "Acompáñame A Estar Solo" Fonseca — "Te Mando Flores" Sérgio Mendes featuring The Black Eyed Peas — "Mas Que Nada" Julieta Venegas — "Me Voy"Album of the Year Shakira — Fijación Oral Vol. 1 Gustavo Cerati — Ahí vamos Chayanne — Cautivo León Gieco — Por Favor, Perdón y Gracias Julieta Venegas — Limón y SalSong of the Year Luis F. Ochoa and Shakira — "La Tortura" Ricardo Arjona — "Acompáñame A Estar Solo" Pablo Manavello and Ricardo Montaner — "Cuando A Mi Lado Estas" Amaury Gutiérrez — "Nada Es Para Siempre" Lena — "Tu Corazón" Best New Artist Calle 13 Céu Inés Gaviria Lena Pamela Rodríguez Best Female Pop Vocal Album Shakira — Fijación Oral Vol. 1 Anaís — Así Soy Yo Inés Gaviria — A Mi Manera Niña Pastori — Joyas Prestadas Rosario — Contigo Me Voy Thalía — El Sexto Sentido: Re+LoadedBest Male Pop Vocal Album Ricardo Arjona — Adentro Andrea Bocelli — Amor Chayanne — Cautivo Luis Fonsi — Paso a Paso Ricardo Montaner — Todo y NadaBest Pop Album by a Duo/Group with Vocals La Oreja de Van Gogh — Guapa Belanova — Dulce Beat La 5ª Estación — Acústico RBD — Nuestro Amor Servando y Florentino — Servando y Florentino Sin Bandera — Mañana Best Urban Music Album Calle 13 — Calle 13 Daddy Yankee — Barrio Fino En Directo Don Omar — King of Kings Wisin & Yandel — Pa'l Mundo Best Rock Solo Vocal Album Gustavo Cerati — Ahí Vamos Belen Arjona — Infinito Fabiana Cantilo — Inconsciente Colectivo Alejandra Guzmán — Indeleble Ariel Rot — Ahora Piden Tu CabezaBest Rock Album by a Duo/Group with Vocals Natalia y La Forquetina — Casa Black Guayaba — Lo Demas es Plastico Motel — Motel Polbo — Polbo Rata Blanca — La Llave de la Puerta SecretaBest Alternative Music Album Julieta Venegas — Limón y Sal Babasónicos — Anoche Café Tacuba — Un Viaje Nortec Collective — Tijuana Sessions Vol. 3 Pastora — La Vida ModernaBest Rock Song Gustavo Cerati — "Crimen" Chetes — "Completamente" Rodrigo Dávila — "Dime Ven" Jorge Pardo — "Un Dia No Vuelvo A Empezar" Mario Domm and Alejandra Guzmán — "Volverte a Amar" Best Salsa Album Gilberto Santa Rosa — Directo Al Corazón La India — Soy Diferente Víctor Manuelle — Decisión Unánime Tito Nieves — Hoy, Mañana y Siempre Gilberto Santa Rosa and El Gran Combo de Puerto Rico — Asi Es Nuestra NavidadBest Merengue Album Milly Quezada — MQ Grupo Mania — La Hora de la Verdad Eddy Herrera — Amor de Locos Limi-T 21 — Rankeao Johnny Ventura — 103 BoulevardBest Cumbia/Vallenato Album Los Hermanos Zuleta — Cien Días de Bohemia Alfa 8 — Yo Bailo Cumbia Binomio de Oro de América — Grafiti de Amor Jorge Celedón and Jimmy Zambrano — Grandes Exitos En Vivo Iván Ovalle — Veinte Años Después...
Best Contemporary Tropical Album Olga Tañón — Una Nueva Mujer Cabas — Puro Cabas Ciclón — Ciclón Fonseca — Corazón Chichi Peralta — Más Que SuficienteBest Traditional Tropical Album Andy Montañez and Pablo Milanés — AM/PM Líneas Paralelas Chucho Avellanet — Esta Noche Está Para Boleros Juan de Marcos and the Afro-Cuban All Stars — Step Forward - The Next Generation Compay Segundo — Siempre Compay Melina León and Los Tri-O — Serenata En San Juan Plena Libre — EvoluciónBest Tropical Song Fonseca — "Te Mando Flores" Víctor Manuelle — "Dos Soneros, Una Historia" Yoel Henríquez and Jorge Luis Piloto — "Esa Boquita" Víctor Manuelle — "I Love Salsa!" Cabas and Kike Santander — "La Cadena de Oro" Best Singer-Songwriter Album Pablo Milanés — Como un Campo de Maíz Chico Buarque — Carioca León Gieco — Por Favor, Perdón y Gracias Ivan Lins — Acariocando Joaquín Sabina — Alivio de Luto Best Ranchero Album Pepe Aguilar — Historias de Mi Tierra Ana Gabriel — Dos amores un amante Pablo Montero — A Toda Ley Lupillo Rivera — El Rey de las Cantinas Alicia Villarreal — Orgullo de MujerBest Banda Album Joan Sebastian — Más Allá Del Sol Banda el Recodo — Hay Amor Graciela Beltrán — Rancherísimas Con Banda El Coyote y Su Banda Tierra Santa — Prohibido Los Horóscopos de Durango — Antes Muertas Que SencillasBest Grupero Album Joan Sebastian — En El Auditorio Nacional Ana Bárbara — No Es Brujería Grupo Bronco — Por Ti Grupo Bryndis — Por Muchas Razones Te Quiero Guardianes del Amor — Decórame El CorazónBest Tejano Album La Mafia — Nuevamente Jimmy González & El Grupo Mazz — Mejor Que Nunca Las 3 Divas — Las 3 Divas Little Joe & La Familia — Chicanisimo Joe Posada — Amor y FuegoBest Norteño Album Los Tigres del Norte — Historias Que Contar Ramón Ayala y Sus Bravos Del Norte — Ya No Llores Palomo — Pasión Pesado — Tu Sombra Michael Salgado — Volver VolverBest Tropical Regional Mexican Album A.
B. Quintanilla III & Los Kumbia Kings — Kumbia Kings Live DJ Kane — Capitulo II: Brinca Los Acosta — Amor y Delirio Los Ángeles de Charly — Cuando Te Enamoras Los Angeles Azules — Interpretan Éxitos de Juan Gabriel Tropical Panama — 13 Cumbias RevolucionadasBest Regional Mexican Song Edgar Cortazar, Ernesto Cortazar and Tony Melendez — "Aun Sigues Siendo Mia" Mauricio L. Arriaga and J. E. Murgia — "Contra Viento y Marea" Freddie Martínez, Sr. — "Corazón De Fierro" Joan Sebastian — "Más Allá del Sol" Ana Gabriel — "Sin Tu Amor" Best Instrumental Album Bebo Valdés — Bebo Banda Mantiqueira — Terra Amantiquira Paquito D'Rivera — The Jazz Chamber Trio Luis Salinas — Luis Salinas y Amigos En España Mario Adnet & Zé Nogueira — Moacir Santos: Choros