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Number

A number is a mathematical object used to count and label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, so forth. For being manipulated, individual numbers need to be represented by called numerals; as only a small number of symbols can be memorized, basic numerals are organized in a numeral system, an organized way to represent any number. The most common numeral system is the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, which allows representing any number by a combination of ten basic numerals called digits. In addition to their use in counting and measuring, numerals are used for labels, for ordering, for codes. In common usage, a numeral is not distinguished from the number that it represents. In mathematics, the notion of number has been extended over the centuries to include 0, negative numbers, rational numbers such as 1/2 and −2/3, real numbers such as √2 and π, complex numbers, which extend the real numbers with a square root of −1. Calculations with numbers are done with arithmetical operations, the most familiar being addition, multiplication and exponentiation.

Their study or usage is called arithmetic. The same term may refer to number theory, the study of the properties of numbers. Besides their practical uses, numbers have cultural significance throughout the world. For example, in Western society, the number 13 is regarded as unlucky, "a million" may signify "a lot." Though it is now regarded as pseudoscience, belief in a mystical significance of numbers, known as numerology, permeated ancient and medieval thought. Numerology influenced the development of Greek mathematics, stimulating the investigation of many problems in number theory which are still of interest today. During the 19th century, mathematicians began to develop many different abstractions which share certain properties of numbers and may be seen as extending the concept. Among the first were the hypercomplex numbers, which consist of various extensions or modifications of the complex number system. Today, number systems are considered important special examples of much more general categories such as rings and fields, the application of the term "number" is a matter of convention, without fundamental significance.

Numbers should be distinguished from the symbols used to represent numbers. The Egyptians invented the first ciphered numeral system, the Greeks followed by mapping their counting numbers onto Ionian and Doric alphabets. Roman numerals, a system that used combinations of letters from the Roman alphabet, remained dominant in Europe until the spread of the superior Hindu–Arabic numeral system around the late 14th century, the Hindu–Arabic numeral system remains the most common system for representing numbers in the world today; the key to the effectiveness of the system was the symbol for zero, developed by ancient Indian mathematicians around 500 AD. Bones and other artifacts have been discovered with marks cut into them that many believe are tally marks; these tally marks may have been used for counting elapsed time, such as numbers of days, lunar cycles or keeping records of quantities, such as of animals. A tallying system has no concept of place value. Nonetheless tallying systems are considered the first kind of abstract numeral system.

The first known system with place value was the Mesopotamian base 60 system and the earliest known base 10 system dates to 3100 BC in Egypt. The first known documented use of zero dates to AD 628, appeared in the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta, the main work of the Indian mathematician Brahmagupta, he discussed operations involving it, including division. By this time the concept had reached Cambodia as Khmer numerals, documentation shows the idea spreading to China and the Islamic world. Brahmagupta's Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta is the first book that mentions zero as a number, hence Brahmagupta is considered the first to formulate the concept of zero, he gave rules of using zero with negative and positive numbers, such as "zero plus a positive number is a positive number, a negative number plus zero is the negative number." The Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta is the earliest known text to treat zero as a number in its own right, rather than as a placeholder digit in representing another number as was done by the Babylonians or as a symbol for a lack of quantity as was done by Ptolemy and the Romans.

The use of 0 as a number should be distinguished from its use as a placeholder numeral in place-value systems. Many ancient texts used 0. Babylonian and Egyptian texts used it. Egyptians used the word nfr to denote zero balance in double entry accounting. Indian texts used a Sanskrit word shunya to refer to the concept of void. In mathematics texts this word refers to the number zero. In a similar vein, Pāṇini used the null operator in the Ashtadhyayi, an early example of an algebraic grammar for the Sanskrit language. There are other uses of zero before Brahmagupta, though the documentation is not as complete as it is in the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta. Records show that the Ancient Greeks seemed unsure about the status of 0 as a number: they asked themselves "how can'nothing' be something?" Leading to interesting philosophical and, by the Medieval period, religious arguments about the nature and existence of 0 and the vacuum. The paradoxes of Zeno of Elea depend in part on the uncertain interpretation of 0.

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Daniel E. Bandmann

Daniel E. Bandmann was an internationally known German-American Shakespearean actor who after retiring from the stage became a noted Montana rancher. In 1885 Bandmann published An Actor's Tour: or, Seventy Thousand Miles with Shakespeare, chronicling his repertoire company's near four-year tour of the Asia-Pacific region over the early 1880s. Bandmann was credited for introducing McIntosh red apples for cultivation in western Montana; the son of Solomon and Rebecca, Daniel Edward Bandmann was born in Cassel a city in the German State of Hesse. He first came to America in 1852 where at some point he became involved with German amateur theatre productions at New York's Stadt Theatre. During this time Bandmann attended the Cooper Institute where he studied English under Alexander Graham Bell; this is questionable, since Bell was nearly ten years younger than Bandmann and did not come to America until much later. As an American citizen, Bandmann returned to Germany in 1858 and shortly thereafter made his professional stage debut at the Court Theatre in Neustrelitz.

With the sponsorship of the Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg, Bandmann embarked on a successful series of Shakespearean productions staged in Germany and Austria. In November 1861 Bandmann returned to New York where on January 15, 1863, he was well received in his English-language debut at Niblo's Garden as Shylock. Soon his Hamlet gained considerable attention from critics for his introduction of a number of innovations from German theatre, such as bringing his Ghost up from beneath the stage with leaves twitching to and fro matching Hamlet's anxiety. On September 1, 1863, Bandmann appeared at Niblo's in the first performance in New York of John Guido Methua's adaptation from the German of Emil Brachvogel, entitled Narcisse: or, The Last of the Pompadours. Soon afterwards Bandmann began a five-year tour of North America principally in the roles of Hamlet, Othello, Gloucester, Macbeth and Narcisse. Bandmann made his first appearance in Britain at London's Lyceum Theatre on February 17, 1868, in Narcisse.

Over the follow decade Bandmann would embark on tours visiting a number of the principal cities in Australia, New Zealand, the Hawaiian Islands, North America and Great Britain. During this period he performed in front of Brigham Young and Queen Victoria. Bandmann's most ambitious tour sailed from San Francisco late in 1879 and did not return until January 1884, after staging nearly 700 performances in Tasmania, New Zealand, the Malay Peninsula, China and Hawaii. Bandmann first married Anne Herschel, a native of Davenport, Iowa, on June 22, 1865, his second marriage, in February 1869, was to the British actress Millicent Farmer, daughter of Nehemiah Frederick Farmer and Elizabeth Hodgson. Millicent starred in his London production of Narcisse; this union ended a few years after their Pacific and North American tours and the birth of a daughter and son. Bandmann had a long relationship with the young Canadian actress Louise Beaudet, a member of his 1879 Asia-Pacific tour. Though it's unclear whether the two married, after his marriage to actress Mary Therese Kelly in the early 1890s, Bandmann was obligated to compensate Beaudet to avoid a messy court entanglement.

With Mary Kelly, Bandmann had four children born between 1892 and 1905. In 1887 Bandmann purchased two ranches near the abandoned settlement of Hell Gate, not far from Missoula, Montana. Though new to ranching, Bandmann would co-found the Montana Board of Horticulture and introduce to the area McIntosh red apples, Percheron horses, Holstein cattle and exotic breeds of chickens and pigs. Today the site of his property hosts a golf club. Bandmann died at his Montana ranch on November 5, 1905, just a few months after the birth of his last child, was laid to rest at the Missoula Cemetery. Maurice Edward Bandmann, his son by Millicent Farmer became a theatrical impresario credited with building a number of theatres throughout the Far East, he died in Gibraltar at about age 50. Marriage to Millicent Farmer 9 Feb 1869 https://www.ancestry.com.au/interactive/1623/31280_194689-00217/5857755?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com.au/family-tree/person/tree/51541223/person/26006903320/facts/citation/135119059545/edit/record

The Five (film)

The Five is a 2013 South Korean thriller horror film written and directed by Jeong Yeon-shik based on his own webtoon The 5ive Hearts, which first appeared on internet portal Daum in April 2011. Kim Sun-a starred as a crippled woman who gathers four desperate people in need of organs to take revenge on the serial killer who murdered her family. Eun-ah was living a perfect, happy life with her family until a sociopathic young man named Jae-wook brutally and senselessly murders her husband and daughter in front of her eyes. Escaping alive herself, Eun-ah is left half-paralyzed and wheelchair-bound. After her recovery, she grows fixated on taking revenge on him. Two years following a long search, she hones in within striking distance of the killer. Faced with such a dangerous adversary and her immobility, Eun-ah gathers four people marginalized by society, each with a different skill, to help her kill Jae-wook. In exchange, she is prepared to give them something they need -- her organs. All four accomplices -- which include a North Korean defector, an ex-gangster, a doctor, an engineer -- are in need of organ transplants for various reasons, Eun-ah promises them her organs once her revenge is complete.

But things don't go as planned, the killer turns the tables and starts hunting them himself. Official website The Five on Facebook The Five at the Korean Movie Database The Five at HanCinema The 5ive Hearts webtoon at Daum

William Robson (Canadian politician)

William Robson was a Manitoba politician, the leader of that province's Independent-Farmers in 1921 and 1922. Born in Scarborough, England, Robson arrived in Canada with his parents at the age of two, he worked as a farmer, was a shareholder in the Grain Grower's Guide. Robson served as both a reeve during the 1910s. In 1920, Robson was one of 12. Robson was subsequently chosen as leader of the Independent-Farmers, the name chosen by the victorious candidates for their parliamentary caucus; the Independent-Farmers were a diverse group, did not continue beyond the dissolution of parliamentary in 1922. Subsequently, the United Farmers of Manitoba would represent the province's farming community in a more organized way. Robson did not run for re-election in 1922, did not serve in the government of UFM Premier John Bracken

Channel O

Channel O is a South African-based music channel which first started transmission in 1997. Its main concept is African music in the diaspora. Channel O can be accessed via DStv, a satellite pay TV service for pan-African households; the channel broadcasts a variety of music videos. It holds the annual Channel O Music Video Awards ceremony, where artists are awarded for their outstanding contribution to music. Channel O, over the past years, has been losing a significant amount of popularity due to the launches of MTV Base Africa, Trace Urban and Trace Africa; the channel has been trying several means to gain popularity including the popular method of creating a South African feed and a Rest of Africa feed Dance Xpress O-xpress Kasi 101 Xpress Xpress: Breakfast Crispy Fresh Xpress Hip Hop SA Xpress Heat Wave O-Africa Xpress Hip Hop vs Dance Xpress Old Skool Xpress Soul Xpress Southern Africa Xpress Urban G's Xpress O-Rocks Young & Fresh Xpress O-Gospel Zone-In Bassment Channel O Call-In Channel O Countdown: African Edition Channel O Countdown: Viewers Edition Celebrity Bassment Battle Channel O Chart Top 30 Original African Stories The Houstons Split Seconds Emcee Africa Goal Diggerz Dance Africa O-Access Volt Channel O Africa Music Video Awards American Music Awards Grammy Awards Top 20 of the year Official Site

Fabella

The fabella is a small sesamoid bone found in some mammals embedded in the tendon of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle behind the lateral condyle of the femur. It is an anatomical variation present in 39 % of humans. There are two or three of these bones, it can be mistaken for osteophyte. In humans, it is more common in men than women, older individuals compared to younger, there is high regional variation, with fabellae being most common in people living in Asia and Oceania and least common in people living in North America and Africa. Bilateral cases are more common than unilateral ones, within individual cases, fabellae are likely to be present in right or left knees. Taken together, these data suggest the ability to form a fabella may be genetically controlled, but fabella ossification may be environmentally controlled. Although the fabella seems to have disappeared with the evolution of Hominidae, it reappeared in humans sometime after they diverged from chimpanzees, it is unknown whether it reappeared soon after this divergence, 5–7 million years ago, or more in human evolution."The fabella can lead to posterolateral knee pain either due to cartilage softening or other osteoarthritic changes on its articular surface."

Fabella sign Duncan W, Dahm D: "Clinical anatomy of the fabella" Clin Anat, 16, pp. 448–449 PMID 12903068, doi:10.1002/ca.10137 Werner, Platzer: Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 1: Locomotor System, published by Thieme, 2015