Rodney Roy Jerkins known by his stage name Darkchild, is an American record producer and songwriter. He has collaborated with a broad range of popular artists, including H. E. R. Janet Jackson, Beyoncé, Mary J. Blige, Mariah Carey, Whitney Houston, Britney Spears, Lady Gaga, Michael Jackson, Aaliyah, Ariana Grande, Justin Bieber, Sam Smith, Jennifer Lopez, Toni Braxton, Destiny's Child. Songs and albums which Jerkins has produced have sold over 250 million records worldwide. Jerkins has won multiple Grammy Awards. Among his most successful productions are "The Boy Is Mine" for Brandy and Monica, "You Rock My World" for Michael Jackson, "It's Not Right but It's Okay" for Whitney Houston, "Say My Name" for Destiny's Child, "If You Had My Love" for Jennifer Lopez, "Déjà Vu" for Beyoncé, "He Wasn't Man Enough" for Toni Braxton, "Telephone" for Lady Gaga, "Overprotected" for Britney Spears Jerkins' father, Frederick, is an Evangelical pastor. Jerkins began playing piano at age five, he would follow his father, who both played at church gatherings.
At age 14, Jerkins was mentored by his idol, Teddy Riley, but he did not accept a contract offer to work with the producer due to an aspiration to build an "empire" without such support. Jerkins' first recorded output was a "gospel rap" collaboration with his brother, Fred Jerkins III, entitled On the Move, he incorporated the name "Darkchild", at the age of 17, subsequently accepting a worldwide publishing deal with the EMI Music Corporation. The producer proceeded to establish a commercial music career working with artists such as Joe, Mary J. Blige and Brandy. Jerkins has produced and written for Brandy, Patti LaBelle, The Saturdays, Toni Braxton, Vanessa Williams, Will Smith, Keyshia Cole, Michael Jackson, Ayumi Hamasaki, Jessica Simpson, Jennifer Lopez, Britney Spears, Mary Mary, Kirk Franklin, Kierra Sheard, The Black Eyed Peas, Destiny's Child, Spice Girls, TLC, Janet Jackson, Danity Kane, Beyoncé, Linda Király, Lady Gaga, Tamia, Pussycat Dolls, Whitney Houston, Natasha Bedingfield, Mary J. Blige, Lionel Richie, Tiffany Evans, JYJ, Wonder Girls, Austin Brown, Kanye West, Katy Perry, Utada Hikaru, Hala Al Turk, Nelly Furtado, Justin Bieber, Brian McKnight and LMFAO.
In the 2010s, he has produced songs for Mariah Carey, Leona Lewis, JLS, Kylie Minogue, Ayumi Hamasaki, The Saturdays'. Jerkins was a music mentor on season 10 of American Idol; when asked by Ryan Seacrest in 2013 the favourite people he's produced for he said "Definitely The Saturdays. Without a doubt. I had a lot of fun working with them and was impressed with their voices, they were down to earth and I like that a lot in an artist. I wish them all the best in America and think they could end up as big as The Spice Girls."In preparation for the 2014 FIFA World Cup opening ceremony, Jerkins produced a song featuring the Palestinian 2013 Arab Idol winner Mohammed Assaf. In 2017, he produced Makings Of You for Tamar Braxton. In 1999, Jerkins joined Sony/Epic Records to promote power vocalist Rhona, Pop/R&B girl group So Plush and rapper Fats. Fats appeared on two tracks Jerkins produced for Michael Jackson's album Invincible, So Plush released the single "Things I've Heard Before". Subsequently, So Plush's singles, "Damn" and "Things I've Heard Before", were pressed and made available as promos, Rhona's album was released in Japan.
In 2005 Darkchild Records reappeared when Jerkins signed brand new acts including Shamari Fears of R&B group Blaque, female MC Asia Lee, dancehall artist Atiba, gospel singer Anesha Birchett. In 2006, he was appointed VP of repertoire for The Island Def Jam Group. Jerkins released his wife Joy Enriquez's second album Atmosphere of Heaven, which features a religious direction, on his independent gospel imprint JoyFul Child Records; the Darkchild name has been loaned to Darkchild Gospel, a record company run by Jerkins' brother, Fred Jerkins III. which released the latest album from Virtue – Testimony. In late 2008, Jerkins joined Nicholas Longano, Ray Brown, Jonathan E. Eubanks in creating Music Mogul, Inc. MusicMogul.com represents an browser-based online destination where celebrity artists can unite with their fans. Aspiring artists and producers have a chance to be discovered as the next superstar, it is responsible for discovering up and coming producer/songwriter Keri Malena out of Dallas Texas, making a good name for himself producing quality music.
As a result of this exposure, MALENA ICON, as he is called, is now appearing on major label releases such as, Justin Bieber, Lady Gaga, Keyshia Cole, Jamie Foxx, among others. Each quarter, members vote for the best video performances; the top performers are flown to Los Angeles to compete in front of a panel of celebrity judges. The winner gets a demo deal with Darkchild Productions. Jerkins has been married to singer Joy Enriquez since April 4, 2004, they have four children: Rodney David Jerkins, Jr. born on May 28, 2008. Heavenly Joy Jerkins, born on November 17, 2009. Hannah Joy Jerkins, born on October 19, 2012 Royal David Jerkins, born in 2015, he has resided in New Jersey. In 2015, his daughter Heavenly Joy was a contestant on season 10 of America's Got Talent. 1996: Aaliyah - "Everything's Gonna Be Alright" 1998: Brandy and Monica – "The Boy Is Mine" 1998: Brandy – "Angel in Disguise" 1998: Monica – "Angel of Mine" 1998: Whitney Houston – "It's Not Right but It's Okay" 1999: Destiny's Child – "Say My Name" 1999: Jennifer Lopez – "If You Had My Love" 2000: Toni Braxton – "He Wasn't Man Enough" 2000: Spice Girls – "Holler" 2001: Michael Jackson – "You Rock My World" 200
Stayve Jerome Thomas, better known by his stage name Slim Thug, is an American rapper. He gained mainstream attention for his contribution to the hit single by rapper Mike Jones, "Still Tippin'". Stayve Thomas is engaged to Leslie Harden. Slim Thug grew up in Houston's Northside neighborhood of Homestead/Scenic Woods. Slim says that his rap name came from the fact that as a teenager, he was tall and lanky before he filled out, he stands 6'6" tall. The Thug part comes from people's assumptions of him due to his sunglasses. At age 17, he performed freestyle raps at local high school parties, he began his rap career with Swishahouse in the late 1990s. After realizing how much money he could make distributing his own mixtapes, he parted ways with Swishahouse on good terms and formed his own independent label, Boss Hogg Outlawz. Thomas worked in real estate. Slim Thug's big debut album with Star Trak Entertainment & Interscope Records, Already Platinum, was released in July 2005 after many delays, it sold 130,000 copies in its first week.
Singles included "3 Kings", "I Ain't Heard of That". Slim Thug appeared on Still Tippin' with Mike Jones and Paul Wall, Beyoncé Knowles's #1 single "Check on It" and Gwen Stefani's "Luxurious". With the Boss Hogg Outlawz, Slim Thug released three albums, Boyz N Blue, Serve & Collect and Back by Blockular Demand: Serve & Collect II, he left Star Trak & Interscope Records in 2008. Slim Thug's second solo album Boss of All Bosses was released in 2009. Although not as successful as his debut album, Boss of All Bosses debuted at #15 on the Billboard 200 with 32,000 copies sold in the first week released, it included the single "I Run". Slim Thug's third studio album Tha Thug Show, his first single was "Gangsta". His second single featured rapper/singer B.o. B entitled "So High", it was released November 30, 2010. On April 23, 2013 he released a new EP titled Welcome to Texas EP featuring guest appearances from Rick Ross, Pimp C and Ludacris among others. In October 2009 he appeared on The Daily Show, in a parody discussing the effects of the recession upon wealthy rappers such as himself.
The skit was filmed in part at The Lion's Den Recordings in Texas. According to MTV News, Lupe Fiasco's video for "Hip Hop Saved My Life" was based on Slim Thug's life story. "It is based on Slim Thug," Fiasco revealed. On June 7, 2010, Vibe released controversial statements Slim Thug had made regarding treatment of black men by black and white women saying "it’s hard to find so Black women have to bow down and let it be known that they gotta start working hard. White women treat they man like a king." The article elicited varied reactions from online commentators. Cultural critic and Columbia University professor Marc Lamont Hill and singers Aubrey O'Day, D. Woods, Talib Kweli have all responded publicly to his comments. Platinum Boss of All Bosses Tha Thug Show Boss Life Hogg Life: The Beginning Hogg Life, Vol. 2: Still Surviving Hogg Life, Vol. 3: Hustler of the Year Hogg Life, Vol. 4: American King Welcome 2 Houston The World Is Yours Suga Daddy Slim: On tha Prowl MTV Video Music Awards Slim Thug on IMDb Slim Thug on Twitter
Michelle Williams (singer)
Tenitra Michelle Williams is an American recording artist and actress. Williams rose to fame in the 2000s as a member of R&B girl group Destiny's Child, one of the best-selling female groups of all time with over 60 million records, of which more than 35 million copies sold with the trio lineup with Williams. During their hiatus, she released her debut solo album Heart to Yours which topped the US gospel album chart and became the best-selling gospel release of the year. In 2002, named her the fifth Top Gospel Artist of the year and she received a MOBO Award for "Best Gospel Act". Following this she released Do You Know which gained her a nomination for "Best Gospel Act" at the 2004 MOBO Awards. After Destiny's Child's disbanded in 2006, Williams released her first pop album, which spawned the internationally charting single "We Break the Dawn" and the US Dance number-one "The Greatest", her fourth studio album, Journey to Freedom, received positive reviews and became her highest-charting album in the US.
Journey to Freedom was nominated for Outstanding Gospel Album at the 46th NAACP Image Awards and earned Williams four nominations at the 30th annual Stellar Awards, winning Music Video of the Year for "Say Yes". In 2015 and 2016, Williams sang for U. S. President Barack First Lady Michelle Obama at the White House. Williams has found success as a television and West End theatre actress, gaining a nomination for "Best Lead Female – Equity" in 2008 at the 18th Annual NAACP Theatre Awards. Making her acting debut on Broadway in Aida, she has since starred in the sitcom series Half & Half and the musical productions: The Color Purple, What My Husband Doesn't Know and Fela!. Furthermore, she was a featured judge on MTV's Top Pop Group, a contestant in season 8 of Strictly Come Dancing in the United Kingdom and co-starred alongside gospel musician Deitrick Haddon in the Oxygen reality television series Fix My Choir, she has earned several awards and accolades including a Grammy Award and star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame as part of Destiny's Child.
In 2018, Williams starred alongside Chad Johnson in the OWN reality show, Chad Loves Michelle and released the pop single "Fearless". Williams returned to Broadway as Erzulie in the Tony Award-winning revival of Once On This Island on November 30, 2018, leaving in December on doctor's orders. In 2019, Williams will star as Diana Ross in BET's American Soul series. Williams was born in Rockford, Illinois in 1980, her mother was a nurse and her father was a car salesman. She made her musical debut at the age of seven, performing a rendition of the hymn "Blessed Assurance" at the St. Paul Church of God in Christ, she sang in the gospel groups United Harmony and Chosen Expression. Williams graduated from Rockford Auburn High School in 1996. Shortly after graduating, she pursued a degree in criminal justice at Illinois State University, doubtful of her ability to make a career as a professional singer. However, after two years of college, she left to pursue a music career, as a backing vocalist for other artists such as Monica.
In late 1999, 19-year-old Williams met Destiny's Child band members Beyoncé and Kelly Rowland in the lobby of an Atlanta hotel. Months Beyoncé asked an acquaintance if she knew anyone who could sing for the possible spot with the group and was referred to Michelle. After the much-publicized turmoil, alongside backup dancer Farrah Franklin—officially joined the group in early 2000, replacing LeToya Luckett and LaTavia Roberson without notice. Buoyed by the group's breakout success and Roberson had both attempted to split with the group's manager in late 1990s, claiming that he kept a disproportionate share of the band's profits and unfairly favored Knowles and Rowland; the issue was heightened after Williams and Franklin appeared in the video of "Say My Name", implying that the original band members were replaced. Franklin, faded from the group after five months, as evidenced by her absences during promotional appearances and concerts. Franklin attributed her departure to negative vibes in the group resulting from the strife.
After settling on this final lineup, the trio recorded "Independent Women Part I", which appeared on the soundtrack to the 2000 film Charlie's Angels. It became their best-charting single yet, topping the official US singles chart for eleven consecutive weeks. In May 2001, Destiny's Child released the group's third studio album Survivor, it debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200 with sales of 663,000 copies. Survivor has sold over ten million copies worldwide; the album's other number-one hits are "Bootylicious" and the title track "Survivor", the latter earning the group a Grammy Award for Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals. After releasing their holiday album, 8 Days of Christmas, the group announced their temporary break-up to pursue solo projects. While Williams was still with Destiny's Child, she intensified work on her debut solo album Heart to Yours; the album material included collaborations with singers Carl Thomas, Shirley Caesar and the Mary Mary duo, taking the singer's work further into urban contemporary gospel and Christian music.
"Some people will do gospel when their career fails, but I chose to do it at the height of
Kelendria Trene Rowland is an American singer, songwriter and television personality. Rowland rose to fame in the late 1990s as a member of Destiny's Child, one of the world's best-selling girl groups of all time. During their hiatus, Rowland released her debut solo album Simply Deep, which sold 2.5 million copies worldwide and included the number-one single "Dilemma" with Nelly, as well as the UK top-ten singles "Stole" and "Can't Nobody". Rowland ventured into acting, with guest appearances in television shows and starring roles in successful films, Freddy vs. Jason and The Seat Filler. Following the disbandment of Destiny's Child in 2006, she released her second album Ms. Kelly, which produced the international hits "Like This" and "Work". In 2009, Rowland hosted the first season of The Fashion Show, was featured on David Guetta's number-one dance hit "When Love Takes Over"; the song's global success influenced Rowland to explore dance music on her third album Here I Am, which spawned the international top-ten hit "Commander" and the US R&B/Hip-Hop number-one "Motivation".
In 2011, she returned to television as a judge on the eighth season of The X Factor UK, in 2013, became a judge on the third and final season of The X Factor USA. Following the release of Rowland's fourth album Talk a Good Game, she married her manager, Tim Weatherspoon, gave birth to their son, Titan Jewell Weatherspoon, in 2014. Since Rowland has continued her television career by hosting Chasing Destiny in 2016 and starring as a coach on The Voice Australia since 2017. Throughout her career, Rowland has sold over 30 million records as a solo artist, a further 60 million records with Destiny's Child, her work has earned her several awards and nominations, including four Grammy Awards, one Billboard Music Awards, two Soul Train Music Awards. Rowland has received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame as part of Destiny's Child, as a solo artist she has been honored by the American Society of Composers and Publishers and Essence for her contributions to music. In 2014, Fuse ranked Rowland in their "100 Most Award-Winning Artists" list at number 20.
Kelendria Trene Rowland was born on February 1981, in Atlanta, Georgia. She is the daughter of Doris Rowland Christopher Lovett. Kelly has an older brother named Orlando; when she was six, her mother left her father, an abusive alcoholic due to PTSD from Vietnam and Rowland went with her. At the age of eight, she relocated to Houston. In 1992, Rowland joined a girl group named Girl's Tyme. Rowland's addition made it a six-member group. West coast R&B producer, Arne Frager, flew to Houston to see them and brought them to his studio, The Plant Recording Studio, in Northern California; as part of efforts to sign Girl's Tyme to a major label record deal, Frager's strategy was to debut them on Star Search, the biggest talent show on national TV at that time. They lost the competition to Skeleton Crew. In 1995, Rowland moved in with best friend Beyoncé's family. Not long after the inclusion of Rowland, Beyoncé's father, cut the original lineup from six to four with LeToya Luckett joining in 1993; the group continued performing as an opening act for other established R&B groups of the time, such as SWV, Dru Hill, Immature.
They auditioned before record labels and were signed to Elektra Records, only to be dropped months before they could release an album. Taken from a passage in the Biblical Book of Isaiah, the group changed their name to Destiny's Child in 1993. Together, they performed in local events and, after four years on the road, the group was signed to Columbia Records in late 1997; that same year, Destiny's Child recorded their major label debut song "Killing Time", for the soundtrack to the 1997 film, Men in Black. The following year, the group released their self-titled debut album, spawning hits such as "No, No, No"; the album established the group as a viable act in the music industry, amassing moderate sales and winning the group three Soul Train Lady of Soul Awards. The group rose to fame after releasing their multi-platinum second album The Writing's on the Wall in 1999; the album featured some of the group's most known songs such as "Bills, Bills", "Jumpin' Jumpin'" and "Say My Name", which became their most-successful song at the time, would remain as one of their signature songs.
"Say My Name" won Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals and Best R&B Song at the 43rd Annual Grammy Awards. The Writing's on the Wall sold more than 15 million copies worldwide becoming their breakthrough album. Along with their commercial successes, the group became entangled in much-publicized turmoil involving the filing of a lawsuit by Luckett and Roberson for breach of contract; the issue was heightened after Michelle Williams and Farrah Franklin appeared in the video of "Say My Name", implying that Luckett and Roberson had been replaced. Luckett and Roberson left the group. Franklin would fade from the group after five months, as evidenced by her absences during promotional appearances and concerts, she attributed her departure to negative vibes in the group resulting from the departure. After settling on their final lineup, the trio recorded "Independent Women Part I", which appeared on the soundtrack to the 2000 film, Charlie's Angels, it became topping the Billboard Hot 100 for eleven consecutive weeks.
The success skyrocketed them to fame. That year and Roberson withdrew their case against their now-former bandmates, while maintaining the suit ag
Rich Harrison is an American record producer and songwriter from Washington, D. C. specializing in R&B and hip hop music. The winner of a Grammy Award, Harrison is well known for producing songs such as "Get Right", "1 Thing" and "Crazy in Love". A classically trained pianist and trumpet player, from an early age Harrison demonstrated the ability to play music he heard on the radio attending Howard University in Washington, D. C. majoring in history and hip-hop music. Harrison's first big music deal came in 1999 when Harrison worked with Mary J. Blige on "Beautiful One" for her album Mary. In 2001, he created his own production company, Richcraft Inc. and wrote and produced Amerie's debut album, All I Have. In 2004 he won a Grammy Award for Beyoncé's "Crazy in Love", a nomination for his work on Usher's Confessions album. Harrison was back in the spotlight early in 2005 to work with Amerie, produced Amerie's "1 Thing", from her album Touch, known for its infectious breakbeats and Amerie's unconventional vocals.
A similar beat was used by Harrison for Toni Braxton's "Take This Ring" from her 2005 album Libra both tracks include elements of go-go. In 2005, The New York Times called him "one of R&B's most exciting producers."Harrison is involved in projects with 50 Cent, Missy Elliott, Brandy, Young Steff and Dawn Robinson. Harrison has worked with Janet Jackson, Alicia Keys and Jennifer Lopez, is still assisting the South Korean pop singer Se7en with his first American album, assisted by his producer Lionell Davis. Harrison has been approached by many artists to assist with album productions, but it appears he is now focusing his time on his own artists, such as Young Steff and girl group RichGirl. There is a possibility. Other works include tracks for Claudette Ortiz's solo album, 3LW's latest and as yet unreleased album and tracks that may appear on 50 Cent's next album. Mary J. Blige – Mary 04. "Beautiful Ones" Mary J. Blige – No More Drama 15. "In the Meantime", producer Amerie – All I Have and songwriter 01.
"Why Don't We Fall in Love" 02. "Talkin' to Me" 03. "Nothing Like Loving You" 04. "Can't Let Go" 05. "Need You Tonight" 06. "Got to Be There" 07. "I Just Died" 08. "Hatin' On You" 09. "Float" 10. "Show Me" 11. "All I Have" 12. "Outro" 13. "Just What I Needed to See" 14. "Why Don't We Fall in Love" 15. "Why Don't We Fall in Love" Kelly Rowland – Simply Deep 04. "Can't Nobody" Tha' Rayne – Reign Supreme 02. "Didn't You Know"Beyoncé – Dangerously in Love 01. "Crazy in Love" Sample credit: The Chi-Lites – "Are You My Woman" 05. "Be with You" Sample credits: The Brothers Johnson – "Strawberry Letter 23", Bootsy's Rubber Band – I'd Rather Be with You Usher – Confessions 11. "Take Your Hand" Sample credit: Harold Melvin & The Blue Notes – "Is There a Place for Me"Destiny's Child – Destiny Fulfilled 02. "Soldier" Jennifer Lopez – Rebirth 01. "Get Right" Sample credit: Maceo & the Macks – "Soul Power" 04. "Whatever You Wanna Do" Sample credit: The Nite-Liters – "Con-Funk-Shun"Christina Milian – Be Cool soundtrack 08.
"Ain't No Reason"Amerie – Touch 01. "1 Thing" 02. "All I Need" 05. "Like It Used to Be" 06. "Talkin' About" 07. "Come with Me" 08. "Rolling Down My Face" 13. "Why Don't We Fall in Love" Missy Elliott – The Cookbook 10. "Can't Stop"Pussycat Dolls – PCD 06. "I Don't Need a Man"Toni Braxton – Libra 04. "Take This Ring" Sample credit: The Meters – "Here Comes the Meter Man" Christina Milian – So Amazin' 11. "Wind You Up"Christina Aguilera – Back to Basics 02. "Makes Me Wanna Pray" Sample credit: Traffic – "Glad"Beyoncé – B'Day 03. "Suga Mama" Sample credit: Jake Wade and the Soul Searchers – "Searching for Soul" 07. "Freakum Dress" 11. "Creole" Diddy – Press Play 18. "Making It Hard" Mos Def – Tru3 Magic 02. "Undeniable" Sample credit: The Temptations – "Message From a Black Man", Run-DMC – "Sucker MC's" Che'Nelle – Things Happen for a Reason 10. "Summer Jam" Jean Grae – Jeanius 15. "That's What's Up Now" Marsha Ambrosius – Late Nights & Early Mornings 03. "Late Nights & Early Mornings" Sample credit: Prince – "The Beautiful Ones"Jennifer Hudson – I Remember Me 01.
"No One Gonna Love You"Eric Roberson – Mister Nice Guy 01. "Mister Nice Guy"RichGirl – RichGirl "24's" "Itty Bitty" "He Ain't Wit Me Now"RichGirl – Fall in Love with RichGirl 02. "Smile & Wave" 04. "Circles" Amerie - Drive 06. "Out Loud" 3LW "Do Ya" "No Matter What" "Senses"Amerie "Love's Off the Chain"Cynthia Lissette "Don't Wanna Go" "What U Say"Gwen Stefani "Parental Advisory"Janet Jackson "Clap Your Hands" "Pops Up" "Speed It Up" "What Can I Say"Mary J. Blige "Outta My Head"Natasha Ramos "Here I Am"RichGirl "Pimp Cup" "Foolish" "Treasures" "Blowin' Up Phones" "Millionaire"Se7en "This is My Year" Usher "Dat Girl Right There" "Ride" "Whatever I Want" "I Did It" Young Steff "Dat Gurl Right" "Don't Trip" "Feeling Myself" "Put That On Everything" Rich Harrison at MySpace Richgirl at Myspace
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis