Zuwarah, or Zuwara or Zwara, is a port city in northwestern Libya, with a population of around 32,893, famous for its beaches and seafood. It is situated 102 km west of 60 km from the Tunisian border, it is the capital of the Nuqat al Khams district. Its population speaks a Zenati Berber language; the settlement was first mentioned by the traveller al-Tidjani in the years 1306-1309 as Zwara al-saghirah. In a Catalan sailing manual it was called as Punta dar Zoyara; the town is mentioned by Leo Africanus in the 16th century. It served as the western outpost of Italian Libya, being the terminus of the now-defunct Italian Libya Railway from Tripoli 105 kilometres to the east, its artificial harbour shelters a motorized fishing fleet. Cereals and esparto grass are local products. In 1973, it was here in Zuwara that Muammar Gaddafi first proclaimed the Libyan "Cultural Revolution". In the 2011 Libyan Civil War battles, the city was reported by Al Jazeera to be under control of the local anti-Gaddafi forces on 23 February 2011, lost by the government of Muammar Gaddafi.
Thousands of anti-government protesters, gathered in the Zuwara town square on 24 February, repulsed another Libyan Army attempt to retake the city. Loyalist forces used the pro-government towns of Jumayl and Riqdalin to the south as bases for their attacks on the city. However, from March onwards, the city was under the control of loyalist forces. Amidst the August rebel coastal offensive, rebels took Zuwara on 18 August. In September 2011, following the fall of the Gaddafi government, Zuwara was the first town in Libya to democratically elect its local council. Zuwara has a hot semi-arid climate. List of cities in Libya Zuwara Berber Terence Frederick Mitchell, Ferhat. An Everyday Story of Berber Folk in and around Zuara, Köln, Köppe, 2007 - ISBN 978-3-89645-396-9 Official Zuwara Municipality website - in Tamazight and Arabic official Zuwara website - in Arabic
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Jabal al Gharbi District
Jabal al Gharbi is one of the districts of Libya. It is named after the Nafusa Mountains, it was formed in 2007 from the former districts of Yafran and Mizda. From 1995 to 1998 Jabal al Gharbi existed as a Baladiyah. Jabal al Gharbi borders Sirte and Misrata to the east, Murqub to the northeast and Zawiya to the north, Nuqat al Khams to the northwest, Nalut to the west, Tripoli to the north, Wadi al Shatii to the south and Jufra to the southeast. Per the census of 2012, the total population in the region was 157,747 with 150,353 Libyans; the average size of the household in the country was 6.9, while the average household size of non-Libyans being 3.7. There were 22,713 households in the district, with 20,907 Libyan ones; the population density of the district was 1.86 persons per km2. Per 2006 census, there were 104,584 economically active people in the district. Libya has a flat undulating plain and occasional plateau, with an average elevation of around 423 m. Around 91 per cent of the land is covered by desert, with only 8.8 per cent agricultural land and 0.1 per cent of forests.
The major resources are petroleum and natural gas. Along the coastal regions, the climate is Mediterranean in coastal areas, while it is desert climate in all other parts. Dust storms lasting four to eight days is pretty common during Spring. Triplotania is the northwest region, while it is Fezzen in southwest. Triplotania runs from north to south and has set of coastal oases and limestone plateaus having an elevation of 2,000 ft to 3,000 ft; the region receives an annual rainfall of 16 in. There are no perennial rivers in the region. Most of the major cities of Libya are located in the coastal regions. Per the census of 2012, the total population in the region was 157,747 with 150,353 Libyans; the average size of the household in the country was 6.9, while the average household size of non-Libyans being 3.7. There were 22,713 households in the district, with 20,907 Libyan ones; the population density of the district was 1.86 persons per km2. Per 2006 census, there were 104,584 economically active people in the district.
There were 55,257 government employees, 9,638 employers, 36,074 first level workers and 008 second level workers. There were 18,322 workers in state administration, 10,413 in agriculture, animal husbandry and forestry, 11,065 in agriculture & hunting, 31,371 in education, 8,390 in private enterprises, 4,344 in health & social work, 7,725 in production, 30,421 in technical work and 1,221 service workers; the total enrollment in schools was 98,685 and the number of people above secondary stage and less than graduation was 5,002. As per the report from World Health Organization, there were 1 communicable disease centres, 4 dental clinics, 1 general clinics, 0 in-patient clinics, 11 out-patient clinics, 42 pharmacies, 58 PHC centres, 3 polyclinics, 2 rural clinics and 1 specialized clinics. Islam is the state and major religion of the country. Libya became independent in 1951 from the colonial empire and known for its oil rich resources. All the powers rested centrally with the president, for 42 years till the 2011 armed rebellion which toppled him.
As per the constitution, Libya is the most decentralized Arab nation, but all powers are vested on central government on account of control over the oil revenues. Local governmental institutions manage the administration of education and communities; as a part of decentralization in 2012, the country is administratively split into 13 regions from the original 25 municipalities, which were further divided in 1,500 communes. Since 2015, the chief of the state is a chairman of Presidential Council, while the prime minister is the head of the state; the House of Representatives is an elected body, elected on universal suffrage and popular vote. As of 2016, there were 22 administrative divisions in the country in the form of districts
Tunisia is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa, covering 163,610 square kilometres. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent, it is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was 11.435 million in 2017. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil, its 1,300 kilometres of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, it is considered to be the only democratic sovereign state in the Arab world.
It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union. In addition, Tunisia is a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe – in particular with France and with Italy – have been forged through economic cooperation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC; the Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574; the Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881.
Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections; the country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, for President on 23 November 2014. The word Tunisia is derived from Tunis; the present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -ia, evolved from French Tunisie. in turn associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed tns, which means "to lay down" or "encampment". It is sometimes associated with the Punic goddess Tanith, ancient city of Tynes; the French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country. Other languages remained untouched, such as Spanish Túnez. In this case, the same name is used for both country and city, as with the Arabic تونس, only by context can one tell the difference. Before Tunisia, the territory's name was Ifriqiya or Africa, which gave the present-day name of the continent Africa.
Farming methods reached the Nile Valley from the Fertile Crescent region about 5000 BC, spread to the Maghreb by about 4000 BC. Agricultural communities in the humid coastal plains of central Tunisia were ancestors of today's Berber tribes, it was believed in ancient times that Africa was populated by Gaetulians and Libyans, both nomadic peoples. According to the Roman historian Sallust, the demigod Hercules died in Spain and his polyglot eastern army was left to settle the land, with some migrating to Africa. Persians became the Numidians; the Medes settled and were known as Mauri Moors. The Numidians and Moors belonged to the race from; the translated meaning of Numidian is Nomad and indeed the people were semi-nomadic until the reign of Masinissa of the Massyli tribe. At the beginning of recorded history, Tunisia was inhabited by Berber tribes, its coast was settled by Phoenicians starting as early as the 12th century BC. The city of Carthage was founded in the 9th century BC by Phoenicians. Legend says that Dido from Tyre, now in modern-day Lebanon, founded the city in 814 BC, as retold by the Greek writer Timaeus of Tauromenium.
The settlers of Carthage brought their culture and religion from Phoenicia, now present-day Lebanon and adjacent areas. After the series of wars with Greek city-states of Sicily in the 5th century BC, Carthage rose to power and became the dominant civilization in the Western Mediterranean; the people of Carthage worshipped a pantheon of Middle Eastern gods including Tanit. Tanit's symbol, a simple female figure with extended arms and long dress, is a popular icon found in ancient sites; the founders of Carthage established a Tophet, altered in Roman times. A Carthaginian invasion of Italy led by Hannibal during the Second Punic War, one of a series of wars with Rome, nearly crippled the rise of Roman power. From the conclusion of the Second Punic War in 202 BC, Carthage functioned as a client state of the Roman Republic for another 50 years. F
Tripolitania is a historic region and former province of Libya. Tripolitania was a separate Italian colony from 1927 to 1934. From 1934 to 1963, Tripolitania was one of three administrative divisions within Italian Libya and the Kingdom of Libya, alongside Cyrenaica to the east and Fezzan to the south; the region had been settled since antiquity, first coming to prominence as part of the Carthaginian empire. Following the defeat of Carthage in the Punic Wars, Rome organized the region, into a province known as Africa, placed it under the administration of a proconsul. During the Diocletian reforms of the late 3rd century, all of North Africa was placed into the newly created Diocese of Africa, of which Tripolitania was a constituent province. After the Fall of Rome in the 5th century, Tripolitania changed hands between the Vandals and the Byzantine Empire, until it was taken during the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in the 8th century, it was part of the region known to the Islamic world as Ifriqiya, whose boundaries mirrored those of the old Roman province of Africa Proconsularis.
Though nominally under the suzerainty of the Abbasid Caliphate, local dynasties such as the Aghlabids and the Fatimids were independent. Native Berber people, who had inhabited the area locally for centuries before the arrival of the Arabic peoples, established their own native Hafsid dynasty over Ifriqiya in the 13th century, would control the region until it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, who established Ottoman Tripolitania as a distinct province. In the old system, Tripolitania included Tripoli, the capital city of Libya and a vast northwestern portion of the country; because the city and the sha'biyah are nowadays coextensive, the term "Tripolitania" has more historical than contemporary value. In Arabic the same word is used for both the city and the region, that word, used alone, would be understood to mean only the city; the system of administrative divisions that included Tripolitania was abolished in the early 1970s in favor of a system of smaller-size municipalities or baladiyat.
The baladiyat system was subsequently changed many times and has become the "Sha'biyat" system. The region, Tripolitania is now composed of several smaller baladiyat or sha'biyat — see administrative divisions in Libya; the city of Oea, on the site of modern Tripoli, was founded by the Phoenicians in the 7th century BC. It was conquered by the Greek rulers of Cyrenaica; the Greek name Τρίπολις "three cities" referred to Oea and Leptis Magna. The Roman Republic captured Tripolitania in 146 BC, the area prospered during the Roman Empire period; the Latin name Regio Tripolitania dates to the 3rd century. The Vandals took over in 435, were in turn supplanted by the counter offensive of the Eastern Roman Empire in the 530s. In the 7th century, Tripolitania was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate, was inherited by its descendants the Umayyads and the Abbasids; the Fatimids, established a Caliphate from Tunisia to Syria. In the 1140s, the Normans of Sicily invaded Tripoli, but were ousted by the Almohad Caliphate in 1158.
Emir Abu Zakariya, an Almohad vassal, established an independent state in Tunisia in 1229 and took control of Tripolitania shortly after. The Hafsids would control the region until the Ottoman conquest of 1553. Ottoman Tripolitania extended beyond the region of Tripolitania proper including Cyrenaica. Tripolitania became independent under the rulers of the Karamanli dynasty from 1711 until Ottoman control was re-imposed by Mahmud II in 1835. Ottoman rule persisted until 1911 -- 12. Italy granted autonomy after the war, but occupied the region. After World War I, an Arab Republic, Al-Jumhuriya al-Trabulsiya, or "Tripolitanian Republic", declared the independence of Tripolitania from Italian Libya; the proclamation of the Tripolitanian Republic in autumn 1918 was followed by a formal declaration of independence at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. This was the first formally declared republican form of government in the Arab world, but it gained little support from international powers, disintegrated by 1923.
Italy under Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini managed to reestablish full control over Libya by 1930. Administered as part of a single colony, Italian Tripolitania was a separate colony from 26 June 1927 to 3 December 1934, when it was merged into Libya; the Italian fascists constructed the Marble Arch as a form of an imperial triumphal arch at the border between Tripolitani and Cyrenaica near the coast. Tripolitania experienced a huge development in the late 1930s, when was created the Italian 4th shore with the Province of Tripoli and with Tripoli as a modern "westernized" city; the Tripoli Province was established in 1937, with the official name: Commissariato Generale Provinciale di Tripoli. It was considered a province of the Kingdom of Italy and lasted until 1943. During World War II, several see-saw back and forth campaigns with mobile armour vehicles ebbed and flowed across the North African coastal deserts between first Italian Fascists and the British, soon joined by the Nazi Ge
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was or desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years, the Messinian salinity crisis, before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago. It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, representing 0.7 % of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar-the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa- is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere.
The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, in the south by Africa, it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is 4,000 km; the sea's average north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is 800 km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travellers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region; the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, Monaco, Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Albania, Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea.
The Ancient Greeks called the Mediterranean ἡ θάλασσα or sometimes ἡ μεγάλη θάλασσα, ἡ ἡμέτερα θάλασσα, or ἡ θάλασσα ἡ καθ'ἡμᾶς. The Romans called it Mare Mare Internum and, starting with the Roman Empire, Mare Nostrum; the term Mare Mediterrāneum appears later: Solinus used it in the 3rd century, but the earliest extant witness to it is in the 6th century, in Isidore of Seville. It means'in the middle of land, inland' in Latin, a compound of medius, -āneus; the Latin word is a calque of Greek μεσόγειος, from μέσος and γήινος, from γῆ. The original meaning may have been'the sea in the middle of the earth', rather than'the sea enclosed by land'; the Carthaginians called it the "Syrian Sea". In ancient Syrian texts, Phoenician epics and in the Hebrew Bible, it was known as the "Great Sea" or as "The Sea". Another name was the "Sea of the Philistines", from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites. In Modern Hebrew, it is called HaYam HaTikhon'the Middle Sea'. In Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ'the Middle Sea'.
In Islamic and older Arabic literature, it was Baḥr al-Rūm'the Sea of the Romans' or'the Roman Sea'. At first, that name referred to only the Eastern Mediterranean, but it was extended to the whole Mediterranean. Other Arabic names were Baḥr al-šām'the Sea of Syria' and Baḥr al-Maghrib'the Sea of the West'. In Turkish, it is the Akdeniz'the White Sea'; the origin of the name is not clear, as it is not known in earlier Greek, Byzantine or Islamic sources. It may be to contrast with the Black Sea. In Persian, the name was translated as Baḥr-i Safīd, used in Ottoman Turkish, it is the origin of the colloquial Greek phrase Άσπρη Θάλασσα. Johann Knobloch claims that in Classical Antiquity, cultures in the Levant used colours to refer to the cardinal points: black referred to the north, yellow or blue to east, red to south, white to west; this would explain both the Turkish Akdeniz and the Arab nomenclature described above. Several ancient civilizations were located around the Mediterranean shores and were influenced by their proximity to the sea.
It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages. Due to the shared climate and access to the sea, c
Nalut is one of the districts of Libya. Its capital is the city of Nalut; the second most notable city is Ghadames. To the north and west, Nalut district borders Algeria. Domestically, it borders Nuqat al Khams - northeast, Jabal al Gharbi in the east and Wadi al Shatii in south. In 2007, Nalut District was enlarged to include the Ghadames District, while the eastern part of former Nalut was moved to Jabal al Gharbi. Per the census of 2012, the total population in the region was 157,747 and the average size of the household in the country was 6.9. There were 22,713 households in the district, with 20,907 Libyan ones; the population density of the district was 1.86 persons per sq. km. Nalut District is located in the north eastern part of Libya, called Tripolitania. Most of the country has a flat undulating plain and occasional plateau, with an average elevation of around 423 m. Around 91 per cent of the land is covered by desert, with only 8.8 per cent agricultural land and 0.1 per cent of forests.
The major resources are petroleum and natural gas. Along the coastal regions, the climate is Mediterranean in coastal areas, while it is desert climate in all other parts. Dust storms lasting four to eight days is pretty common during Spring. Triplotania is the northwest region, while it is Fezzen in southwest. Triplotania runs from north to south and has set of coastal oases and limestone plateaus having an elevation of 2,000 ft to 3,000 ft; the region receives an annual rainfall of 16 in. There are no perennial rivers in the region. Per the census of 2012, the total population in the region was 157,747 with 150,353 Libyans; the average size of the household in the country was 6.9, while the average household size of non-Libyans being 3.7. There were 22,713 households in the district, with 20,907 Libyan ones; the population density of the district was 1.86 persons per sq. km. Per 2006 census, there were 35,830 economically active people in the district. There were 21,584 government employees, 4,153 employers, 10,565 first level workers and 000 second level workers.
There were 8,788 workers in state administration, 4,345 in agriculture, animal husbandry and forestry, 4,576 in agriculture & hunting, 10,240 in education, 2,429 in private enterprises, 2,121 in health & social work, 2,795 in production, 9,494 in technical work and 203 service workers. The total enrollment in schools was 30,033 and the number of people above secondary stage and less than graduation was 1,884; as per the report from World Health Organization, there were two communicable disease centres, two dental clinics, two general clinics, no in-patient clinics, twi out-patient clinics, 20 pharmacies, 43 PHC centres, three rural clinics and zero specialized clinics. In 2007, Nalut District was enlarged to include what had been the Ghadames District, while the eastern part of former Nalut was moved to Jabal al Gharbi. Libya became independent in 1951 from the colonial empire and known for its oil rich resources; as a part of decentralization in 2012, the country is administratively split into 13 regions from the original 25 municipalities, which were further divided in 1,500 communes.
Local governmental institutions manage the administration of education and communities