The Nuremberg Chronicle is an illustrated biblical paraphrase and world history that follows the story of human history related in the Bible. Written in Latin by Hartmann Schedel, with a version in German, translation by Georg Alt, it appeared in 1493, it is one of the best-documented early printed books—an incunabulum—and one of the first to integrate illustrations and text. Latin scholars refer to it as Liber Chronicarum as this phrase appears in the index introduction of the Latin edition. English-speakers have long referred to it as the Nuremberg Chronicle after the city in which it was published. German-speakers refer to it as Die Schedelsche Weltchronik in honour of its author. Two Nuremberg merchants, Sebald Schreyer and his son-in-law, Sebastian Kammermeister, commissioned the Latin version of the chronicle, they commissioned George Alt, a scribe at the Nuremberg treasury, to translate the work into German. Both Latin and German editions were printed in Nuremberg; the contracts were recorded by scribes, bound into volumes, deposited in the Nuremberg City Archives.
The first contract, from December, 1491, established the relationship between the illustrators and the patrons. Wolgemut and Pleydenwurff, the painters, were to provide the layout of the chronicle, to oversee the production of the woodcuts, to guard the designs against piracy; the patrons agreed to advance 1000 gulden for paper, printing costs, the distribution and sale of the book. A second contract, between the patrons and the printer, was executed in March 1492, it stipulated conditions for managing the printing. The blocks and the archetype were to be returned to the patrons; the author of the text, Hartmann Schedel, was a medical doctor and book collector. He earned a doctorate in medicine in Padua in 1466 settled in Nuremberg to practice medicine and collect books. According to an inventory done in 1498, Schedel's personal library contained 370 manuscripts and 670 printed books; the author used passages from the classical and medieval works in this collection to compose the text of Chronicle.
He borrowed most from another humanist chronicle, Supplementum Chronicarum, by Jacob Philip Foresti of Bergamo. It has been estimated that about 90% of the text is pieced together from works on humanities, science and theology, while about 10% of the chronicle is Schedel's original composition. Nuremberg was one of the largest cities in the Holy Roman Empire in the 1490s, with a population of between 45,000 and 50,000. Thirty-five patrician families comprised the City Council; the Council controlled all aspects of printing and craft activities, including the size of each profession and the quality and type of goods produced. Although dominated by a conservative aristocracy, Nuremberg was a centre of northern humanism. Anton Koberger, printer of the Nuremberg Chronicle, printed the first humanist book in Nuremberg in 1472. Sebald Shreyer, one of the patrons of the chronicle, commissioned paintings from classical mythology for the grand salon of his house. Hartmann Schedel, author of the chronicle, was an avid collector of both Italian Renaissance and German humanist works.
Hieronymus Münzer, who assisted Schedel in writing the chronicle's chapter on geography, was among this group, as were Albrecht Dürer and Johann and Willibald Pirckheimer. The Chronicle was first published in Latin on 12 July 1493 in the city of Nuremberg; this was followed by a German translation on 23 December 1493. An estimated 1400 to 1500 Latin and 700 to 1000 German copies were published. A document from 1509 records that 60 German versions had not been sold. 400 Latin and 300 German copies survived into the twenty-first century. They are scattered around the world in collections; the larger illustrations were sold separately as prints hand-coloured in watercolour. Many copies of the book are coloured, with varying degrees of skill; the colouring on some examples has been added much and some copies have been broken up for sale as decorative prints. The publisher and printer was Anton Koberger, the godfather of Albrecht Dürer, who in the year of Dürer's birth in 1471 ceased goldsmithing to become a printer and publisher.
He became the most successful publisher in Germany owning 24 printing presses and having many offices in Germany and abroad, from Lyon to Buda. The chronicle is an illustrated world history, in which the contents are divided into seven ages: First age: from creation to the Deluge Second age: up to the birth of Abraham Third age: up to King David Fourth age: up to the Babylonian captivity Fifth age: up to the birth of Jesus Christ Sixth age: up to the present time Seventh age: outlook on the end of the world and the Last Judgment The large workshop of Michael Wolgemut Nuremberg's leading artist in various media, provided the unprecedented 1,809 woodcut illustrations. Sebastian Kammermeister and Sebald Schreyer financed the printing in a contract dated March 16, 1492, although preparations had been well under way for several years. Wolgemut and his stepson Wilhelm Pleydenwurff were first commissioned to provide the illustrations in 1487-88, a further contract of December 29, 1491, commissioned manuscript layouts of the text and illustrations.
Albrecht Dürer was an apprentice with Wolgemut from 1486 to 1489, so may well have participated in designing some of the illustrations for the specialist craftsmen (called "formschneiders"
No. 7 Operational Training Unit RAAF was a Royal Australian Air Force heavy bomber training unit of World War II. 7OTU was formed on 12 February 1944 at RAAF Station Tocumwal in southern New South Wales to train RAAF B-24 Liberator crews. 7OTU was equipped with ex-USAAF B-24Bs but received new B-24Js. At full strength the unit was equipped with 54 B-24s and was responsible for training 28 crews per month. 7OTU was disbanded following the end of the war. In 1944 one of the few verified instances of sabotage occurred at Tocumwal, when major sections of the wiring looms in 12 B-24s were cut and removed; this put the aircraft out of service for several months until the damage could be assessed, replacement looms fabricated in the USA installed by Consolidated technicians flown to Australia to do the work. The sabotage was believed to have been carried out by a Japanese cell, under cover in Australia since prior to the war, however no one was captured nor convicted of the act. B-24 Liberators in Australian service Nelmes, Michael V..
Shirley Herz was an American Broadway theatre production press representative. Herz had publicized Broadway, Off-Broadway and Off-Off Broadway productions, ballet companies, worlds fairs and television programs, beginning in 1954, aged 28, when she was the press assistant for the Truman Capote and Harold Arlen musical, House of Flowers, she worked with many notables, including Tallulah Bankhead, Rosalind Russell, Eva Le Gallienne, Jerry Herman, Julie Harris, as well as with many off-Broadway and off-off-Broadway companies. The Broadway League and the American Theatre Wing presented Herz with a special Tony Award for Excellence in Theatre at the 63rd Tony Awards ceremony on June 7, 2009. Herz suffered a stroke on July 18, 2013 and died on August 11, aged 87, her sole immediate survivor is her widower, Herbert Boley, to whom she was married from 1948 until her death. Broadway productions for which she acted as press agent or representative include: Shirley Herz papers, 1959-1984, held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts