The DFB-Pokal is a German knockout football cup competition held annually by the Deutscher Fußball-Bund. Sixty-four teams participate in the competition, including all clubs from the Bundesliga and the 2. Bundesliga, it is considered the second-most important club title in German football after the Bundesliga championship. Taking place from August until June, the winner qualifies for the DFL-Supercup and the UEFA Europa League unless the winner qualifies for the UEFA Champions League in the Bundesliga; the competition was founded in 1935 called the Tschammer-Pokal. The first titleholder were 1. FC Nürnberg. In 1937, Schalke 04 were the first team to win the double; the Tschammer-Pokal was suspended in 1944 due to World War II and disbanded following the demise of Nazi Germany. In 1952–53, the cup was reinstated in West Germany as the DFB-Pokal, named after the DFB, was won by Rot-Weiss Essen. Bayern Munich have won the most titles with 18 wins, while Eintracht Frankfurt are the incumbent title holders.
Fortuna Düsseldorf hold the record for most consecutive tournament game wins between 1978 and 1981, winning the cup in 1979 and 1980. The competition format has varied since the inception of the Tschammer-Pokal in 1935; the DFB-Pokal begins with a round of 64 teams. The 36 teams of the Bundesliga and 2. Bundesliga, along with the top four finishers of the 3. Liga are automatically qualified for the tournament. Of the remaining slots 21 are given to the cup winners of the regional football associations, the Verbandspokale; the three remaining slots are given to the three regional associations with the most men's teams. They may assign the slot as they see fit but give it to the runner-up in the association cup; as every team taking part in the German football league system is entitled to participate in local tournaments which qualify for the association cups, every team can in principle compete in the DFB-Pokal. Reserve teams like Borussia Dortmund II are not permitted to enter. For the first round, the 64 teams are split into two pots of 32.
One pot contains the 18 teams from the previous season of the Bundesliga and the top 14 teams from the previous season of the 2. Bundesliga; the other pot contains the bottom 4 teams from the previous season of the 2. Bundesliga, the top 4 teams from the previous season of the 3. Liga and the 24 amateur teams that qualified through regional football tournaments. Teams from one pot are drawn against teams from the other pot. Since 1982, the teams from the pot containing amateur teams play the game at home. For the second round, the teams are again divided into two pots according to the same principles. Depending on the results of the first round, the pots might not be equal in terms of number. Teams from one pot are drawn against teams from the other pot; the remaining teams are drawn against each other with the team first drawn playing the game at home. For the remaining rounds, other than the final, the teams are drawn from one pot. Since 1985 the final has been held in the Olympic Stadium in Berlin.
Extra time will be played if the scores are level after 90 minutes with a penalty shootout following if needed. The number of participants in the main tournament has varied between four from 1956 until 1960 and 128 from 1973 through 1982 resulting in tournaments of two to seven rounds. Since the inception of the Bundesliga in 1963 all clubs from the Bundesliga are automatically qualified for the DFB-Pokal as are all clubs from the 2. Bundesliga since its inception in 1974. Reserve sides for most of the time were allowed to participate in the DFB-Pokal but have been excluded since 2008; the final has been held at the Olympic Stadium in Berlin every season since 1985. Before 1985, the host of the final was determined on short notice. In the decision, the German Football Association took into consideration that, due to the political situation between Germany and East Germany, Berlin was not chosen to be a venue for the UEFA Euro 1988; the cup games were held over two 45 minute halves with two 15 minute overtime periods in case of a draw.
If the score was still level after 120 minutes the game was replayed with the home field right reversed. In the 1939 Tschammer-Pokal the semi-final between Waldhof Mannheim and Wacker Wien was played to a draw three times before the game was decided by lot; the German Football Association decided to hold a penalty shootout if the replay was another draw after a similar situation arose in the 1970 cup, when the match between Alemannia Aachen and Werder Bremen had to be decided by lot after two draws. In 1971–72 and 1972–73, the matches were held over two legs; the second leg was extended by two additional 15-minute overtime periods if the aggregate was a draw after both legs. In case the extension brought no decision, a penalty shootout was held. In 1977, the final 1. FC Köln vs. Hertha BSC had to be replayed. In the aftermath, the DFB opted not to replay cup finals in the future, instead holding a penalty shootout after extra time; this change was extended to all cup games in 1991. Since 1960, the winner of the DFB-Pokal qualified for the European Cup Winners' Cup.
If the cup winner had qualified for the European Club Champions Cup, the losing finalist moved into the Cup Winners' Cup instead. Following the abolition of the Cup Winners' Cup in 1999, the winner of the DFB-Pokal qualified for the UEFA Cup, known as the UEFA Europa League since 2009. If the DFB-Pokal winner or both finalists qualify through the B
Feyenoord Rotterdam is a Dutch professional football club based in Rotterdam, that plays in the Eredivisie, the top tier in Dutch football. Founded as Wilhelmina in 1908, the club changed its name to SC Feijenoord in 1912, SC Feyenoord in 1974, Feyenoord Rotterdam in 1978, when SC Feyenoord became a separate amateur team. Since 1937, Feyenoord's home ground has been Stadion Feijenoord, nicknamed De Kuip. Feyenoord is one of the most successful clubs in the Netherlands, winning 15 Eredivisie titles, 13 KNVB Cups, 4 Johan Cruyff Shields. Internationally, it has won one European Cup, two UEFA Cups, one Intercontinental Cup; the club has played continuously in the top tier of the Dutch football system since gaining promotion to Eerste Klasse in 1921, more times than any other club in the country, including the likes of Ajax and PSV Eindhoven. Feyenoord is known as a people's club with a huge international support; the club's most successful period in history was the 1960s and'70s, when Coen Moulijn and Ove Kindvall led the club to six league titles, two European trophies, an Intercontinental Cup, thereby becoming the first Dutch club in history to win both the European Cup and the Intercontinental Cup.
In the 21st century, Feyenoord ended an 18-year league title drought in 2017 and won the 2002 UEFA Cup against Borussia Dortmund in its home stadium. Feyenoord has a longstanding rivalry with Ajax, a clash between two teams from the two biggest cities in the Netherlands, called De Klassieker; the club's anthem is "Hand in Hand". As of 2019, Feyenoord will become a multi-sports club; the football club Wilhelmina was founded in the pub De Vereeniging on 19 July 1908 and played in blue-sleeved red shirts and white shorts. Between 1908, 1910, 1911, 1912, the club underwent a series of changes of name and team colours, becoming Hillesluise Football Club in 1909, RVV Celeritas. Upon earning promotion to the National football association in 1912, the club renamed to SC Feijenoord, changed uniform once again, adopting the red and white shirts, black shorts and black socks that they still wear today. In 1918, Feijenoord were promoted to the highest level of Dutch football and moved to the ground Kromme Zandweg.
After 18 years, the formation of the club and a mere three years after they were promoted to the highest level of Dutch football Feijenoord earned their first honours by capturing the national league championship in 1924. The team enjoyed a string of successes in the latter half of the decade, taking divisional titles in 1926, 1927, 1928 and 1929, winning their second national championship in 1928. Feijenoord won their first Dutch Cup in 1930 by scoring the only goal in a derby final against Excelsior, they continued to dominate their division with three consecutive titles, but were winless in subsequent championship finals. Five years after their first cup win, Feijenoord took the prize for a second time in 1935, by beating Helmond Sport. Feijenoord started to attract more fans to their stadium at Kromme Zandweg, in 1933, they decided to build a new facility; the club moved to the Feijenoord Stadion in 1937, playing the first match there on 27 March against Beerschot. During this period Feijenoord won three consecutive division titles from 1936 to 1938, with their third and fourth national championships coming in 1936 and 1938.
During World War II, Feijenoord played their matches at Sparta Rotterdam's Kasteel, as the Nazis had occupied De Kuip. When Het Kasteel was unavailable due to clashes with Sparta fixtures, Feijenoord played at their former ground, the Kromme Zandweg. Feijenoord's again won a division title with a national championship in 1940, their fifth Dutch title. During the German occupation of the Netherlands, play continued in Dutch football leagues, though the 1945 championship was cancelled as the war came to its conclusion. During this period, Feijenoord's only trophy was a divisional championship in 1943. After the war, Feijenoord did not perform as well as they had in previous decades, not challenging in their division and so missing the national playoff rounds. On 30 June 1954, the chairmen of the three biggest Rotterdam teams organised a meeting in Utrecht, attended by several chairmen of other clubs and a delegation of the KNVB to discuss the start of professional football in the Netherlands; the professional era commenced with the first Eredivisie season in 1954/1955.
Feijenoord were one of the clubs participating in the inaugural Eredivisie and have never been relegated. One of the most memorable matches in these first years of professional football was the clash between Feijenoord and the Volewijckers at 2 April 1956, which Feijenoord won 11–4, with nine goals by Henk Schouten. Feijenoord would grow an intense rivalry with Ajax. Matches between the two clubs were dubbed as de Klassieker; the first memorable Klassieker from a Feijenoord point of view took place at 11 November 1956, when Daan den Bleijker scored four times to give Feijenoord a 7–3 win over their archrivals. Feijenoord claimed their first professional Eredivisie Championship and their sixth Dutch Championship in 1961. On the road to the title Ajax was beaten 9–5 in De Kuip, four of Feijenoord's goals were scored by Henk Schouten; the following season, they played their first European Cup match facing IFK Göteborg. The Swedes were beaten 8 -- 2 in Rotterdam. Feijenoord were eliminated by Tottenham Hotspur in the following round.
In 1962, Feijenoord defended their Dutch Championship title and rea
SV Werder Bremen
Sportverein Werder Bremen von 1899 e. V. known as Werder Bremen, is a German sports club located in Bremen in the northwest German federal state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen. The club has grown to 40,400 members, it is best known for its association football team. Bremen's football club has been a mainstay in the Bundesliga, the top league of the German football league system. Bremen has won the Bundesliga championship the DFB-Pokal six times, their latest Bundesliga championship came in 2004, when they won a double, their last win of the German cup came in 2009. Bremen has had European success, winning the 1992 European Cup Winners' Cup. Bremen reached the final match of the last edition of the UEFA Cup in 2009. During the mid-2000s, Bremen was one of the most successful teams in the Bundesliga, but the club has not played in a European competition since the 2010–11 campaign. Since 1924, Werder Bremen's stadium is the Weserstadion; the club has a rivalry with another club in northern Germany, known as the Nordderby.
The club was founded on 4 February 1899 as Fußballverein Werder by a group of 16 vocational high school students who had won a prize of sports equipment. The students took the club's name from a German word for "river peninsula", which described the riverside field on which they played their first football games; the predecessor to Bremen, known as SV Werder, played its first match on 10 September 1899 against ASC 1898 Bremen coming away with a 1–0 victory. In 1900, FV Bremen was represented at the founding of the German Football Association at Leipzig; the club enjoyed some early success, fielding competitive sides and winning a number of local championships. FV took part in the qualification play for the national championships in playoffs held by the Norddeutscher Fussball Verband, one of the seven major regional leagues after the turn of the century, but were unable to advance, they became the first club to charge spectators a fee to attend their games and to fence in their playing field.
In April 1914, the club became a department of Allgemeiner Bremer Turnverein 1860 and was known as Sportabteilung Werder des ABTV. The relationship was short-lived and the club went its own way again less than two months later. Steady growth after World War I led the club to adopt other sports and, on 19 January 1920, change their name to the current Sportverein Werder Bremen. Football remained their primary interest, so much so that in 1922, they became the first German club to hire a professional coach; the team made regular appearances in year-end NFV qualification round play through the 1920s and on into the early 1930s, but did not enjoy any success. German football was re-organized under the Third Reich in 1933 into 16 first division leagues known as Gauligen and Werder became part of the Gauliga Niedersachsen; the club scored its first real successes, capturing division titles in 1934, 1936, 1937, took part for the first time in national level playoff competition. The shape of the Gauligen changed through the course of World War II and in 1939, the Gauliga Niedersachsen was split into two divisions.
SV played in the Gauliga Niedersachsen/Nord where they captured a fourth title in 1942. As the war overtook the country, the Gauligen became progressively more local in character; the Gauliga Niedersachsen/Nord became the Gauliga Weser-Ems and the Gauliga Weser-Ems/Bremen over the next two years. Werder's 1944–45 season was cut short after just two matches. Like other organizations throughout Germany, the club was disbanded on the order of the occupying Allied authorities after the war, they re-constituted themselves on 10 November 1945 as Turn- und Sportverein Werder 1945 Bremen, changed to Sport-Club Grün-Weiß 99 Bremen on 4 February 1946. The team played in the Stadtliga Bremen, after capturing the title there, participated in the northern German championship round, advancing to the quarter-finals, they were able to reclaim the name SV Werder on 25 March 1946 before taking part in the playoffs. At the time, professionals were not permitted to play in the German game, so it was normal for football players to take on other jobs with the club's local patron.
In the case of Werder, a number of the players worked at the nearby Brinkmann tobacco factory, so the side took on the nickname Texas 11 after one of the company's popular cigarette brands. Between the end of WW2 and the formation of the Bundesliga in 1963, the club continued to do well, being recognized as one of the top two teams in northern Germany, along with Hamburger SV. In 1961, they managed, their performance was good enough to earn them a place as a charter member of the Bundesliga, in the league's second season, Werder took the championship. They earned a second-place finish in the 1967–68, but languished in the bottom half of the table for a dozen years. An attempt to improve their lot by signing high-priced talent earned the side the new, derisive nickname of the Millionaires and turned out to be an expensive failure; the club dropped out of the Bundesliga for the first and only time, being relegated to the 2nd Bundesliga-Nord for the 1980–81 season after a 17th-place finish. Werder Bremen recovered themselves under the direction of newly hired coach Otto Rehhagel, who led the side to a string of successes: Bundesliga runners-up in 1983, 1985 and 1986, champions in 1988.
In 1993, the club earned its third Bundesliga title and, in the following year, its third DFB-P
Real Madrid CF
Real Madrid Club de Fútbol referred to as Real Madrid, is a Spanish professional football club based in Madrid. Founded on 6 March 1902 as the Madrid Football Club, the club has traditionally worn a white home kit since inception; the word real is Spanish for "royal" and was bestowed to the club by King Alfonso XIII in 1920 together with the royal crown in the emblem. The team has played its home matches in the 81,044-capacity Santiago Bernabéu Stadium in downtown Madrid since 1947. Unlike most European sporting entities, Real Madrid's members have owned and operated the club throughout its history; the club was estimated to be worth €3.47 billion in 2018, it was the highest-earning football club in the world, with an annual revenue of €750.9 million in 2018. The club is one of the most supported teams in the world. Real Madrid is one of three founding members of La Liga that have never been relegated from the top division since its inception in 1929, along with Athletic Bilbao and Barcelona.
The club holds many long-standing rivalries, most notably El Clásico with Barcelona and El Derbi with Atlético Madrid. Real Madrid established itself as a major force in both Spanish and European football during the 1950s, winning five consecutive European Cups and reaching the final seven times; this success was replicated in the league, where the club won five times in the space of seven years. This team, which consisted of players such as Alfredo Di Stéfano, Ferenc Puskás, Francisco Gento, Raymond Kopa, is considered by some in the sport to be the greatest team of all time. In domestic football, the club has won 64 trophies. In European and worldwide competitions, the club has won a record 26 trophies. In international football, they have achieved a record seven club world championships. Real Madrid was recognised as the FIFA Club of the 20th Century on 11 December 2000, received the FIFA Centennial Order of Merit on 20 May 2004; the club was awarded Best European Club of the 20th Century by the IFFHS on 11 May 2010.
In June 2017, the team succeeded in becoming the first club to win back to back Champions Leagues made it three in a row in May 2018, extending their lead atop the UEFA club rankings. Real Madrid's origins go back to when football was introduced to Madrid by the academics and students of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza, which included several Cambridge and Oxford University graduates, they founded Sky Football in 1897 known as La Sociedad as it was the only one based in Madrid, playing on Sunday mornings at Moncloa. In 1900, conflict between members caused some of them to leave and create a new club, Nueva Sociedad de Football, to distinguish themselves from Sky Football. Among the dissenters were Julián Palacios, recognized as the first Real Madrid president, Juan Padrós and Carlos Padrós, the latter two being brothers and future presidents of Real Madrid. In 1901 this new club was renamed as Madrid Football Club. Following a restructuring in 1902, Sky was renamed as "New Foot-Ball Club".
On 6 March 1902, after a new Board presided by Juan Padrós had been elected, Madrid Football Club was founded. Three years after its foundation, in 1905, Madrid FC won its first title after defeating Athletic Bilbao in the Spanish Cup final; the club became one of the founding sides of the Royal Spanish Football Federation on 4 January 1909, when club president Adolfo Meléndez signed the foundation agreement of the Spanish FA. After moving between grounds the team moved to the Campo de O'Donnell in 1912. In 1920, the club's name was changed to Real Madrid after King Alfonso XIII granted the title of Real to the club. In 1929, the first Spanish football league was founded. Real Madrid led the first league season until the last match, a loss to Athletic Bilbao, meant they finished runners-up to Barcelona. Real Madrid won its first League title in the 1931–32 season and retained the title the following year, becoming the first team to win the championship twice. On 14 April 1931, the arrival of the Second Spanish Republic caused the club to lose the title Real and went back to being named Madrid Football Club.
Football continued during the Second World War, on 13 June 1943 Madrid beat Barcelona 11–1 in the second leg of a semi-final of the Copa del Generalísimo, the Copa del Rey having been renamed in honour of General Franco. It has been suggested Barcelona players were intimidated by police, including by the director of state security who "allegedly told the team that some of them were only playing because of the regime's generosity in permitting them to remain in the country." The Barcelona chairman, Enrique Piñeyro, was assaulted by Madrid fans. However, none of these allegations have been proven and FIFA and UEFA still consider the result as legitimate. According to Spanish journalist and writer, Juan Carlos Pasamontes, Barcelona player Josep Valle denied that the Spanish security forces came before the match. Instead, at the end of the first half, Barcelona coach Juan José Nogués and all of his players were angry with the hard-style of play Real Madrid was using and with the aggressiveness of the home crowd.
When they refused to take the field, the Superior Chief of Police of Madrid appeared, identified himself, ordered the team to take the field. Santiago Bernabéu Yeste became president of Real Madrid in 1945. Under his presidency, the club, its stadium Santiago Bernabéu and its training facilities Ciudad Deportiva were rebuilt after the Spa
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t
Liverpool Football Club is a professional football club in Liverpool, that competes in the Premier League, the top tier of English football. The club has won 5 European Cups, more than any other English club, 3 UEFA Cups, 3 UEFA Super Cups, 18 League titles, 7 FA Cups, a record 8 League Cups, 15 FA Community Shields. Founded in 1892, the club joined the Football League the following year and has played at Anfield since its formation. Liverpool established itself as a major force in English and European football in the 1970s and 1980s when Bill Shankly and Bob Paisley led the club to 11 League titles and seven European trophies. Under the management of Rafael Benítez and captained by Steven Gerrard, Liverpool became European champions for the fifth time in 2005. Liverpool was the ninth highest-earning football club in the world in 2016–17, with an annual revenue of €424.2 million, the world's eighth most valuable football club in 2018, valued at $1.944 billion. The club is one of the best supported teams in the world.
Liverpool has long-standing rivalries with Manchester Everton. The club's supporters have been involved in two major tragedies: the Heysel Stadium disaster, where escaping fans were pressed against a collapsing wall at the 1985 European Cup Final in Brussels, with 39 people – Italians and Juventus fans – dying, after which English clubs were given a five-year ban from European competition, the Hillsborough disaster in 1989, where 96 Liverpool supporters died in a crush against perimeter fencing; the team changed from red shirts and white shorts to an all-red home strip in 1964, used since. The club's anthem is "You'll Never Walk Alone". Liverpool F. C. was founded following a dispute between the Everton committee and John Houlding, club president and owner of the land at Anfield. After eight years at the stadium, Everton relocated to Goodison Park in 1892 and Houlding founded Liverpool F. C. to play at Anfield. Named "Everton F. C. and Athletic Grounds Ltd", the club became Liverpool F. C. in March 1892 and gained official recognition three months after The Football Association refused to recognise the club as Everton.
The team won the Lancashire League in its début season, joined the Football League Second Division at the start of the 1893–94 season. After finishing in first place the club was promoted to the First Division, which it won in 1901 and again in 1906. Liverpool reached its first FA Cup Final in 1914, it won consecutive League championships in 1922 and 1923, but did not win another trophy until the 1946–47 season, when the club won the First Division for a fifth time under the control of ex-West Ham Utd centre half George Kay. Liverpool suffered its second Cup Final defeat in 1950; the club was relegated to the Second Division in the 1953–54 season. Soon after Liverpool lost 2–1 to non-league Worcester City in the 1958–59 FA Cup, Bill Shankly was appointed manager. Upon his arrival he released 24 players and converted a boot storage room at Anfield into a room where the coaches could discuss strategy; the club was promoted back into the First Division in 1962 and won it in 1964, for the first time in 17 years.
In 1965, the club won its first FA Cup. In 1966, the club won the First Division but lost to Borussia Dortmund in the European Cup Winners' Cup final. Liverpool won both the League and the UEFA Cup during the 1972–73 season, the FA Cup again a year later. Shankly was replaced by his assistant, Bob Paisley. In 1976, Paisley's second season as manager, the club won another UEFA Cup double; the following season, the club retained the League title and won the European Cup for the first time, but it lost in the 1977 FA Cup Final. Liverpool retained the European Cup in 1978 and regained the First Division title in 1979. During Paisley's nine seasons as manager Liverpool won 21 trophies, including three European Cups, a UEFA Cup, six League titles and three consecutive League Cups. Paisley was replaced by his assistant, Joe Fagan. Liverpool won the League, League Cup and European Cup in Fagan's first season, becoming the first English side to win three trophies in a season. Liverpool reached the European Cup final again in 1985, against Juventus at the Heysel Stadium.
Before kick-off, Liverpool fans breached a fence which separated the two groups of supporters, charged the Juventus fans. The resulting weight of people caused a retaining wall to collapse, killing 39 fans Italians; the incident became known as the Heysel Stadium disaster. The match was played in spite of protests by both managers, Liverpool lost 1–0 to Juventus; as a result of the tragedy, English clubs were banned from participating in European competition for five years. Fourteen Liverpool fans received convictions for involuntary manslaughter. Fagan had announced his retirement just before the disaster and Kenny Dalglish was appointed as player-manager. During his tenure, the club won another three league titles and two FA Cups, including a League and Cup "Double" in the 1985–86 season. Liverpool's success was overshadowed by the Hillsborough disaster: in an FA Cup semi-final against Nottingham Forest on 15 April 1989, hundreds of Liverpool fans were crushed against perimeter fencing. Ninety-four fans died that day.
After the Hillsborough disaster there was a government review of stadium saf
Westfalenstadion is a football stadium in Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, the home of Borussia Dortmund. Called Signal Iduna Park for sponsorship reasons, the name derives from the former Prussian province of Westphalia; the stadium is one of the most famous football stadiums in Europe and is renowned for its atmosphere. It has a league capacity of 81,365 and an international capacity of 65,829, it is Germany's largest stadium, the seventh-largest in Europe, the third-largest home to a top-flight European club after Camp Nou and the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium. It holds the European record for average fan attendance, set in the 2011–2012 season with 1.37 million spectators over 17 games at an average of 80,588 per game. Sales of annual season tickets amounted to 55,000 in 2015; the 24,454 capacity Südtribüne is the largest terrace for standing spectators in European football. Famous for the intense atmosphere it breeds, the south terrace has been nicknamed the Die Gelbe Wand, meaning "The Yellow Wall".
The Borusseum, the museum of Borussia Dortmund, is near the stadium. The stadium hosted matches in the 1974 and 2006 FIFA World Cups, it hosted the 2001 UEFA Cup Final. Various national friendlies and qualification matches for World and European tournaments have been played there as well as matches in European club competitions. Plans to construct a new stadium were drawn up in the 1960s, as the need arose to expand and refurbish the traditional ground of Borussia Dortmund, the Stadion Rote Erde. Following the historic triumph in the 1966 Cup Winners' Cup, it became clear that the Stadion Rote Erde was too small for the increasing number of Borussia Dortmund supporters; the city of Dortmund, was not able to finance a new stadium and federal institutions were unwilling to help. In 1971, Dortmund was selected to replace the city of Cologne, forced to withdraw its plans to host games in the 1974 FIFA World Cup; the funds set aside for the projected stadium in Cologne were thus re-allocated to Dortmund.
However and planners had to keep an eye on the costs due to a tight budget. This meant that plans for a 60 million DM oval stadium featuring the traditional athletic facilities and holding 60,000 spectators had to be discarded. Instead, plans for a much cheaper 54,000 spectator football arena, built of pre-fabricated concrete sections, became a reality; the costs amounted to 32.7 million DM, of which 1.6 million DM were invested in the refurbishment of the Stadion Rote Erde. The city of Dortmund burdened with 6 million DM, only had to pay 800,000 DM, profited from the stadium's high revenues. On 2 April 1974, Borussia Dortmund moved into their new home and has played in the Westfalenstadion since. Having been relegated in 1972, Borussia Dortmund was the only member of the 2. Bundesliga to host the 1974 World Cup games in a new stadium. In 1976, after promotion to the Bundesliga, Borussia Dortmund played its first game in Germany's highest division in their new home stadium. On 16 May 2001, the Westfalenstadion hosted the 2001 UEFA Cup Final between Alavés.
In the 1974 FIFA World Cup, the Westfalenstadion hosted three group stage games and one final group game. The maximum capacity of the stadium was 54,000; the stadium was one of the venues for the 2006 FIFA World Cup. Due to sponsorship contracts, the arena was called FIFA World Cup Stadium Dortmund during the World Cup. Six games were played there during the tournament, including Germany's first loss at the stadium, a 2–0 defeat to Italy. Trinidad and Tobago played their first World Cup match at the stadium, against Sweden. Situated directly next to Stadion Rote Erde, the Westfalenstadion is composed of four roofed grandstands, each facing the playing field on the east, south and north sides; the eastern and western stands run the entire length of the field, while the breadth is covered by the north and south stands. The corners between the four grandstands remained empty and the spectators appreciated the extensive roof, which covered over 80% of the stands; the eastern and western stands housed the stadium's 17,000 seats, while the 37,000 standing places were housed in the northern and southern stands.
Located on the southern terrace of the stadium is Dortmund's "Yellow Wall", the largest free-standing grandstand in Europe with a capacity of 25,000. The "Yellow Wall" gives Westfalenstadion one of the most intimidating home atmospheres in all of Europe, aiding Borussia Dortmund to an unbeaten home campaign in the UEFA Champions League in 2012–13; the first expansion plans are dated back to 1961, although the funding required was not available until 4 October 1971 when the city council decided to rebuild the stadium between 1971 and 1974 for the FIFA World Cup. As part of the extensions an additional roof was added around the stadium; the original capacity of 54,000 was reduced in 1992 due to UEFA regulations. As the standing rows on the entire northern, the lower eastern and the lower western grandstands were converted into seats, the capacity shrank to 42,800. With 26,000 seats, the seating in the Westfalenstadion now outnumbered the standing rows. After Borussia Dortmund won the Bundesliga in 1995, the Westfalenstadion was expanded yet again.
In the first private venture stadium expansion in German history, the two main grandstands, the eastern and the western blocks, received a second tier. Covered by a ne