Humans are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina. Together with chimpanzees and orangutans, they are part of the family Hominidae. A terrestrial animal, humans are characterized by their erect bipedal locomotion. Early hominins—particularly the australopithecines, whose brains and anatomy are in many ways more similar to ancestral non-human apes—are less referred to as "human" than hominins of the genus Homo. Several of these hominins used fire, occupied much of Eurasia, gave rise to anatomically modern Homo sapiens in Africa about 315,000 years ago. Humans began to exhibit evidence of behavioral modernity around 50,000 years ago, in several waves of migration, they ventured out of Africa and populated most of the world; the spread of the large and increasing population of humans has profoundly affected much of the biosphere and millions of species worldwide. Advantages that explain this evolutionary success include a larger brain with a well-developed neocortex, prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes, which enable advanced abstract reasoning, problem solving and culture through social learning.
Humans use tools better than any other animal. Humans uniquely use such systems of symbolic communication as language and art to express themselves and exchange ideas, organize themselves into purposeful groups. Humans create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families and kinship networks to political states. Social interactions between humans have established an wide variety of values, social norms, rituals, which together undergird human society. Curiosity and the human desire to understand and influence the environment and to explain and manipulate phenomena have motivated humanity's development of science, mythology, religion and numerous other fields of knowledge. Though most of human existence has been sustained by hunting and gathering in band societies many human societies transitioned to sedentary agriculture some 10,000 years ago, domesticating plants and animals, thus enabling the growth of civilization; these human societies subsequently expanded, establishing various forms of government and culture around the world, unifying people within regions to form states and empires.
The rapid advancement of scientific and medical understanding in the 19th and 20th centuries permitted the development of fuel-driven technologies and increased lifespans, causing the human population to rise exponentially. The global human population was estimated to be near 7.7 billion in 2015. In common usage, the word "human" refers to the only extant species of the genus Homo—anatomically and behaviorally modern Homo sapiens. In scientific terms, the meanings of "hominid" and "hominin" have changed during the recent decades with advances in the discovery and study of the fossil ancestors of modern humans; the clear boundary between humans and apes has blurred, resulting in now acknowledging the hominids as encompassing multiple species, Homo and close relatives since the split from chimpanzees as the only hominins. There is a distinction between anatomically modern humans and Archaic Homo sapiens, the earliest fossil members of the species; the English adjective human is a Middle English loanword from Old French humain from Latin hūmānus, the adjective form of homō "man."
The word's use as a noun dates to the 16th century. The native English term man can refer to the species as well as to human males, or individuals of either sex; the species binomial "Homo sapiens" was coined by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th-century work Systema Naturae. The generic name "Homo" is a learned 18th-century derivation from Latin homō "man," "earthly being"; the species-name "sapiens" means "wise" or "sapient". Note that the Latin word homo refers to humans of either gender, that "sapiens" is the singular form; the genus Homo evolved and diverged from other hominins in Africa, after the human clade split from the chimpanzee lineage of the hominids branch of the primates. Modern humans, defined as the species Homo sapiens or to the single extant subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, proceeded to colonize all the continents and larger islands, arriving in Eurasia 125,000–60,000 years ago, Australia around 40,000 years ago, the Americas around 15,000 years ago, remote islands such as Hawaii, Easter Island and New Zealand between the years 300 and 1280.
The closest living relatives of humans are gorillas. With the sequencing of the human and chimpanzee genomes, current estimates of similarity between human and chimpanzee DNA sequences range between 95% and 99%. By using the technique called a molecular clock which estimates the time required for the number of divergent mutations to accumulate between two lineages, the approximate date for the split between lineages can be calculated; the gibbons and orangutans were the first groups to split from the line leading to the h
The Dark Swan
"The Dark Swan" is the first episode of the fifth season of the American fantasy drama series Once Upon a Time, which aired on September 27, 2015. In this episode, the events of Emma Swan being consumed by the Darkness have left the residents of Storybrooke without "The Savior," leaving Regina, Mary Margaret, David, Henry and Belle to find a way to save her if it means turning to an unlikely individual that they cannot trust. Meanwhile, Emma finds herself in the Enchanted Forest where she encounters Merida en route to Camelot in her search for Merlin before the darkness consumes her for good. Commentators gave the episode positive reviews, citing the episode's dark and more human tone following the events of the fourth-season finale. Granny's Diner is shown in the forest; the Land Without Magic flashbacks take place in 1989, a few years after the events of "The Stranger" and a few years before "Snow Drifts". The Camelot flashbacks take place before the scene where King Arthur shows Excalibur to his subjects in "The Broken Kingdom" and before Lancelot's banishment in the same episode.
The Enchanted Forest events take place after "Fall" and before "The Broken Kingdom". The Storybrooke events take place after "Operation Mongoose Part 2" and the present Camelot events take place years after Lancelot's banishment, before "The Price". In a movie theater in 1989 Minneapolis, Minnesota, a young Emma is watching The Sword in the Stone, she steals a woman's candy bar, is approached by an usher, who tells Emma "Don't do it". She expects him to reprimand her, but he instead offers her advice by saying, "When you do something that you're not supposed to do if you're doing it for the right reason, bad things will happen", he mentions that she will have the opportunity to remove Excalibur from its stone and warns her not to touch it, just before he disappears. King Arthur and two of his knights, Sir Lancelot and Sir Percival, arrive to the location of the stone in which Excalibur is embedded. Sir Kay has found it first and as he tries to pull the sword out, he is turned to ash. Despite this, Arthur proceeds with his mission and manages to pull the sword out, only to discover that the tip is missing.
He vows to seek out the missing piece, revealed to be the blade of the Dark One's Dagger. Just moments after Emma absorbs the powers of the Dark One and vanished, leaving behind only the Dagger with her name on it, everyone is left stunned and angry at each other. While Regina is furious over what Emma has done, Mary Margaret still believes that Emma has good in her and that she can be saved. Hook takes the Dagger to to no avail, they learn from the Apprentice that Emma is now in the Enchanted Forest, he has a wand, given to him by Merlin, which contains all of the light magic, which can help them find Emma, but it can only open a portal to another realm if it is wielded with "two sides of the coin", the light and the dark. The Apprentice drops the wand. Regina and Robin Hood go to the hospital ward to see Zelena. Zelena agrees to help if she could see the wand, but needs something meaningful to Emma so the spell will work, she cannot use her magic unless Regina removes the cuff, restricting Zelena's magic, so she asks her to remove it.
Regina refuses. At Granny's, Hook and Henry formulate a plan to release Zelena. However, their plan backfires, Zelena breaks free from the cell, after cutting off her hand to remove the magic cuff. Zelena trades him for the wand, which she intends to use to return to Oz; as Zelena opens a portal, which takes the form of a cyclone and drains her powers, Regina takes advantage of Zelena's weakened state to put the cuff back on her wrist, as well as to redirect the portal to take them to the Enchanted Forest, using Emma's blanket to locate her. The cyclone heads towards Granny's diner, transports everyone in the establishment to the location of Emma's whereabouts. Emma emerges in the Enchanted Forest through the Vault of the Dark One, finds herself haunted by the voice of the darkness inside of her, which has manifested as personification of Rumplestiltskin, she struggles to resist, vows not to hurt her family. Emma runs up to a peddler, only to become consumed by Rumplestiltskin's guidance, to the point of nearly using her dark magic to kill the peddler.
The Dark One guides Emma through using a transportation spell, she sees a will-o-the-wisp. The Dark One tells her that for the Wisp to answer her question, she will have to catch it; as she chases it, Emma comes upon a red-headed archer named Merida, who nabs the wisp and places it in her bag. Emma confronts Merida, accidentally using dark magic, tries to convince her that she needs it to find Merlin. Merida decides to go with her, keeping the wisp in her bag. Merida informs Emma that more wisps can are born at the Hill of Stones, so they head in that direction. Emma learns that Merida needs the wisp in order to restore her family’s kingdom and save her triplet younger brothers who were kidnapped by the United Clans of her country after they refused to let her rule as queen. After they make camp for the night, the manifestation of Rumplestiltskin tries to guide Emma into betraying Merida once they reach the home of the wisps; the manifestation of Rumplestiltskin tells Emma that once Merida speaks into the Wisp, it will continue to do her bidding until she dies, thus, the only solution would be for Emma to kill her.
Ryan Murphy (writer)
Ryan Patrick Murphy is an American screenwriter and producer. Murphy is best known for creating/co-creating/producing a number of successful television series, including the FX medical drama Nip/Tuck, the Fox musical comedy-drama Glee, the FX anthology series American Horror Story, American Crime Story, Feud, the Fox procedural drama 9-1-1, he is known for directing the 2010 film adaptation of Elizabeth Gilbert's best-selling memoir Eat, Pray and the 2014 HBO film adaptation of Larry Kramer's The Normal Heart, which earned a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Television Movie. Murphy was born on November 9, 1965, in Indianapolis, where he was raised in an Irish Catholic family, he attended Catholic school from first through eighth grade, graduated from Warren Central High School in Indianapolis. He has described his mother J. Andy Murphy as a "beauty queen who left it all to stay at home and take care of her two sons", she worked in communications for over 20 years before retiring. His father worked in the newspaper industry as a circulation director before he retired after 30 years.
After coming out as gay, Murphy saw his first therapist, who found nothing wrong with him other than being "too precocious for his own good". During a 2012 interview on Inside the Actors Studio, Murphy claimed that he secretly dated "a lot of football players" in high school, he performed with a choir as a child, which would inform his work on Glee. Murphy attended Indiana University Bloomington. Murphy started as a journalist working for The Miami Herald, Los Angeles Times, New York Daily News, Knoxville News Sentinel and Entertainment Weekly, he began scriptwriting in the late 1990s, when Steven Spielberg purchased his script Why Can't I Be Audrey Hepburn?. Murphy started his career in television with the teen comedy series Popular, which he co-created with Gina Matthews; the series premiered on The WB on September 29, 1999 and ran for two seasons, ending in 2001. He created the FX drama series Nip/Tuck, which premiered on July 18, 2003. In 2004, Murphy earned his first Primetime Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series.
Murphy took the show's signature line, "Tell me what you don't like about yourself," from a plastic surgeon he met when he was a journalist researching an undercover story on plastic surgery in Beverly Hills. The series ended after six seasons in 2010. On May 19, 2009, Murphy's musical comedy-drama series, premiered on Fox, he co-created the series with Ian Brennan. In its early seasons, the show was critically lauded. Murphy won his first Primetime Emmy Award for directing the pilot episode; the series concluded in 2015 following its sixth season. Murphy was one of four executive producers on the reality television series The Glee Project, which premiered on Oxygen on June 12, 2011; the show featured a group of contestants vying for the prize of a seven-episode arc on Glee, with someone being eliminated each week, until the winner is chosen in the final episode. The show was renewed for a second season. Murphy and Glee co-executive producer Ali Adler created the half-hour comedy The New Normal, which premiered on NBC on September 10, 2012.
The series was based on Murphy's own experiences of having a child via surrogate, with the main characters and David, named for Ryan and his husband. The series was cancelled after one season. Murphy and Falchuk created the anthology series American Horror Story, which premiered on FX on October 5, 2011; some of the same cast have played different characters in different settings each subsequent season. In October 2014, FX greenlit a companion anthology series, American Crime Story, which Murphy and Falchuk executive produce; the series premiered on February 2, 2016. Murphy and Brennan next co-created the comedy-horror series Scream Queens, which premiered on Fox on September 22, 2015; the series was cancelled after two seasons. Murphy's next project, the drama anthology series Feud, premiered on FX in 2017; the first season focused on the rivalry between Bette Davis and Joan Crawford on the set of their 1962 film What Ever Happened to Baby Jane?. With newcomer Steven Canals, a research assistant for Dustin Lance Black before his Master of Fine Arts at UCLA, Murphy and Falchuk launched a new series set in the Ball community in mid-1980s New York City.
Murphy had wanted to adapt Paris is Burning as a series and Canals had been writing a script while at graduate school centered on a young African American teen made homeless for being gay, who moved to New York with dreams of going to dance school and who became adopted by a House mother. Joining Canals and Falchuk in the writing room were Our Lady J and Janet Mock, who Murphy encouraged to direct an episode, making her the first trans woman of colour to do so, as well as the first trans woman of colour in a TV series writing room; the series premiered on FX on June 2018, attracting critical acclaim. The first season boasted the largest cast of transgender actors for a scripted network series with over 50 transgender characters, all played by trans actors. On July 12, 2018, it was announced that the series had been renewed for a second season, set to premiere sometime in 2019. In May 2018, ahead of the premiere, Murphy announced that he would be donating all his profits from Pose to charitable organizations working with LGBTQ+ people, tweeting a different non-profit including Sylvia Rivera Law Project, Transgender Legal Defense & Education Fund, Callen-Lorde Community Health Center telling Variety that: “The thing that struck me in talking to so many of them, was
Geraldine Sue Page was an American actress. She earned acclaim for her work on Broadway as well as in major Hollywood films and television productions, garnering an Academy Award, two Primetime Emmy Awards, two Golden Globes, one BAFTA Award, four nominations for the Tony Award. A native of Kirksville, Page studied at the Art Institute of Chicago and with Uta Hagen and Lee Strasberg in New York City before being cast in her first credited part in the Western film Hondo, which earned her her first Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress, she was subsequently blacklisted in Hollywood based on her association with Hagen and did not work in film for eight years. Page continued to appear in television and on stage and earned her first Tony Award nomination for her performance in Sweet Bird of Youth, a role she reprised in the 1961 film adaptation, the latter of which earned her a Golden Globe Award, she earned additional Academy Award nominations for her roles in You're a Big Boy Now and Pete'n' Tillie, followed by a Tony nomination for her performance in the stage production of Absurd Person Singular.
Other film appearances during this time included in the thrillers What Ever Happened to Aunt Alice? Opposite Ruth Gordon, The Beguiled opposite Clint Eastwood. In 1977, she provided the voice of Madam Medusa in Walt Disney's The Rescuers, followed by a role in Woody Allen's Interiors, which earned her a BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role. After being inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame in 1979 for her stage work, Page returned to Broadway with a lead role in Agnes of God, earning her her third Tony Award nomination. Page was nominated for Academy Awards for her performances in The Pope of Greenwich Village and The Trip to Bountiful, the latter of which earned her the award for Best Actress. Page died in New York City 1987 in the midst of a Broadway run of Blithe Spirit, for which she earned her fourth Tony Award nomination. Page was born November 22, 1924 in Kirksville, the second child of Edna Pearl and Leon Elwin Page who worked at Andrew Taylor Still College of Osteopathy and Surgery.
He was an author whose works included Practical Anatomy, Osteopathic Fundamentals, The Old Doctor. She had Donald. At age five, Page relocated with her family to Illinois. Raised a Methodist and her family were active parishioners of the Englewood Methodist Church in Chicago, where she had her first foray into acting within the church's theatre group, playing Jo March in a 1941 production of Louisa May Alcott's Little Women. After graduating from Chicago's Englewood Technical Prep Academy, she attended the Goodman School of Drama at the Art Institute of Chicago, with the intention of becoming a visual artist or pianist. After graduating from the Art Institute of Chicago in 1945, Page studied acting at the Herbert Berghof School and the American Theatre Wing in New York City, studying with Uta Hagen for seven years, at the Actors Studio with Lee Strasberg. During this time, Page would return to Chicago in the summers to perform in repertory theatre in Lake Zurich, where she and several fellow actors had established their own independent theater company.
While attempting to establish her career, she worked various odd jobs, including as a hat-check girl, theater usher, lingerie model, a factory laborer. Page, a trained method actor, spent five years appearing in various repertory theater productions in the Midwest and New York after graduating from college. On October 25, 1945, she made her New York stage debut in Seven Mirrors, a play devised by Immaculate Heart High School students from Los Angeles; the play ran for a total of 23 performances at Blackfriars Repertory Theatre on Manhattan's Upper East Side. In February 1952, director José Quintero cast Page in a minor role in Yerma, a theatrical interpretation of a poem by Federico García Lorca, staged at Circle in the Square Theatre in New York City's Greenwich Village. Page was subsequently cast in the role of Alma in the Quintero-directed production of Summer and Smoke, written by Tennessee Williams. Page's role in Summer and Smoke garnered her significant exposure, including a Drama Desk Award, a profile in Time magazine.
Her official film debut and role in Hondo, opposite John Wayne, garnering her a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. Prior, she appeared in an uncredited role in Taxi. Speaking to a Kirksville newspaper, she said: "Actually Hondo wasn't my first movie. I had one small, but satisfactory scene in a Dan Dailey picture called Taxi, filmed in New York." Page was blacklisted in Hollywood after her debut in Hondo based on her association with Uta Hagen and did not work in film for nearly ten years. Her work continued on Broadway playing a spinster in the 1954–1955 production of The Rainmaker, written by N. Richard Nash. Page remained friends with Dean until his death the following year and kept several personal mementos from the play—including two drawings by him. After Page's death, these items were acquired by Heritage Auctions in 2006. In 1959, Page earned an Emmy nomination, of Best Single Performance by an Actress, for her role in the Playhouse 90 episode "The Old
Dame Angela Brigid Lansbury is an English-Irish-American actress who has appeared in theater and film. Her career has spanned eight decades, much of it in the United States, her work has attracted international acclaim. Lansbury was born to Irish actress Moyna Macgill and English politician Edgar Lansbury, an upper-middle-class family in Regent's Park, central London. To escape the Blitz, in 1940 she moved to the United States with her mother and two brothers, studied acting in New York City. Proceeding to Hollywood in 1942, she signed with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and obtained her first film roles, in Gaslight and The Picture of Dorian Gray, earning her two Oscar nominations and a Golden Globe Award, she appeared in eleven further films for MGM in supporting roles, after her contract ended in 1952 she began supplementing her cinematic work with theatrical appearances. Although seen as a B-list star during this period, her appearance in the film The Manchurian Candidate received widespread acclaim and is cited as being one of her finest performances.
Moving into musical theatre, Lansbury gained stardom for playing the leading role in the Broadway musical Mame, which earned her a range of awards. Amid difficulties in her personal life, Lansbury moved from California to County Cork, Ireland in 1970, continued with a variety of theatrical and cinematic appearances throughout that decade; these included leading roles in the stage musicals Gypsy, Sweeney Todd, The King and I, as well as in the hit Disney film Bedknobs and Broomsticks. Moving into television, she achieved worldwide fame as fictional writer and sleuth Jessica Fletcher in the American whodunit series Murder, She Wrote, which ran for twelve seasons from 1984 until 1996, becoming one of the longest-running and most popular detective drama series in television history. Through Corymore Productions, a company that she co-owned with her husband Peter Shaw, Lansbury assumed ownership of the series and was its executive producer for the final four seasons, she moved into voice work, thereby contributing to animated films such as Disney's Beauty and the Beast and 20th Century Fox's Anastasia.
Since she has toured in a variety of international theatrical productions and continued to make occasional film appearances. Lansbury has received an Honorary Oscar and a Lifetime Achievement Award from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts and has won five Tony Awards, six Golden Globes, an Olivier Award, she has been nominated for numerous other industry awards, including the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress on three occasions, various Primetime Emmy Awards on eighteen occasions, as well as a Grammy award for her work on the Original Motion Picture Soundtrack for the 1994 Disney animated film Beauty and the Beast. In 2014, Lansbury was made a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II, she has been the subject of three biographies. Lansbury was born to an upper middle class family on October 16, 1925. Although her birthplace has been given as Poplar, East London, she has rejected this, asserting that while she had ancestral connections to Poplar, she was born in Regent's Park, Central London.
Her mother was Belfast-born actress Moyna Macgill, who appeared on stage in the West End and who had starred in several films. Her father was the wealthy English timber merchant and politician Edgar Lansbury, a member of the Communist Party of Great Britain and former mayor of the Metropolitan Borough of Poplar, her paternal grandfather was the Labour Party leader and anti-war activist George Lansbury, a man whom she felt "awed" by and considered "a giant in my youth." Angela had an older half sister, the daughter of Moyna's previous marriage to writer and director Reginald Denham. In January 1930, when Angela was four, her mother gave birth to twin boys and Edgar, leading the Lansburys to move from their Poplar flat to a house in Mill Hill, North London; when Lansbury was nine, her father died from stomach cancer. In 2014, Lansbury described this event as "the defining moment of my life. Nothing before or since has affected me so deeply." Facing financial difficulty, her mother became engaged to a Scottish colonel, Leckie Forbes, moved into his house in Hampstead, with Lansbury receiving an education at South Hampstead High School from 1934 until 1939.
She considered herself self-educated, learning from books and cinema. She became a self-professed "complete movie maniac", visiting the cinema and imagining herself as certain characters. Keen on playing the piano, she studied music at the Ritman School of Dancing, in 1940 began studying acting at the Webber Douglas School of Singing and Dramatic Art in Kensington, West London, first appearing onstage as a lady-in-waiting in the school's production of Maxwell Anderson's Mary of Scotland; that year, Angela's grandfather died, with the onset of the Blitz, Macgill decided to take Angela and Edgar to the United States. Macgill secured a job supervising sixty British children who were being evacuated to North America aboard the Duchess of Athol, arriving with them in Montreal, Canada, in mid-August. From there, she proceeded by train to New York City, where she was financially sponsored by a Wall Street businessman, Charles T. Smith, moving in with his family at t
Estelle Louise Fletcher, known professionally as Louise Fletcher, is an American actress. Fletcher had her acting debut in the television series Yancy Derringer in 1958, she guest starred in the television series Wagon Train in 1959 before making her film debut in A Gathering of Eagles in 1963. In 1974, after a decade-long hiatus from acting in which she raised a family, Fletcher appeared in Robert Altman's Thieves Like Us; the following year, Fletcher gained international recognition for her performance as Nurse Ratched in the drama film One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, for which she won the Academy Award for Best Actress, BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role and Golden Globe Award for Best Actress. She became only the third actress to win an Academy Award, BAFTA Award and Golden Globe Award for a single performance, after Audrey Hepburn and Liza Minnelli. Other notable film roles include Exorcist II: The Heretic, Firestarter, Flowers in the Attic, 2 Days in the Valley, Cruel Intentions.
In her career, Fletcher returned to television, appearing as Winn Adami in Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, as well as receiving Primetime Emmy Award nominations for her guest-starring roles in the television series Picket Fences and Joan of Arcadia. In 2011–2012, she appeared in a recurring role on the Showtime television series Shameless as Frank Gallagher's foul-mouthed and hard-living mother, serving a prison sentence for manslaughter. More she portrayed the recurring role of Rosie on the Netflix series Girlboss. Fletcher was born in Birmingham, the second of four children to Estelle Caldwell and the Reverend Robert Capers Fletcher, an Episcopal missionary from Arab, Alabama. Both of her parents were worked with the deaf and hard-of-hearing. Fletcher's father founded more than forty churches for the deaf in Alabama. Fletcher and her siblings, Roberta and Georgianna, were all born without any hearing loss. After attending the University of North Carolina, she traveled to Los Angeles, where she found work as a secretary by day and received acting lessons by night.
Fletcher began appearing in several television series including Lawman and Maverick.. In 1959, she appeared in the second episode of the original Untouchables TV series, "Ma Barker and Her Boys" as Elouise. Fletcher recalled having greater success being cast in Westerns due to her height: "I was 5 feet 10 inches tall, no television producer thought a tall woman could be sexually attractive to anybody. I was able to get jobs on westerns because the actors were taller than I was."In 1960, Fletcher made two guest appearances on Perry Mason, both times as defendant Gladys Doyle in "The Case of the Mythical Monkeys," and Susan Connolly in "The Case of the Larcenous Lady." In the summer of 1960, she was cast as Roberta McConnell in the episode "The Bounty Hunter" of NBC's western television series Tate, starring David McLean. In 1974, she returned to film in Thieves Like Us, co-produced by her husband and Robert Altman, who directed; when the two had a falling out on Altman's next project, Altman decided to cast Lily Tomlin for the role of Linnea Reese created for and by Fletcher.
Meanwhile, director Miloš Forman saw Fletcher in Thieves and cast her as McMurphy's nemesis Nurse Ratched in One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest. Fletcher gained international recognition and fame for the role, winning Academy Award for Best Actress, as well as a BAFTA Award and Golden Globe; when Fletcher accepted her Oscar, she used sign language to thank her parents. After Cuckoo's Nest, Fletcher had mixed success in film, she made several financially and critically successful films. Fletcher's film roles were in such features as Exorcist II: The Heretic, The Cheap Detective, The Lady in Red, The Magician of Lublin, Firestarter, Invaders From Mars, Flowers in the Attic, Two Moon Junction, Best of the Best, Blue Steel, High School High, Cruel Intentions. Additionally, she played the character Ruth Shorter, a supporting role, in Aurora Borealis, alongside Joshua Jackson and Donald Sutherland, appeared in the Fox Faith film The Last Sin Eater. Fletcher co-starred in such made-for-TV movies as The Karen Carpenter Story, Nightmare on the 13th Floor, The Haunting of Seacliff Inn, The Stepford Husbands.
From 1993 to 1999, she held a recurring role in Star Trek: Deep Space Nine as the scheming Bajoran religious leader Kai Winn Adami. She earned Emmy Award nominations for her guest roles on the Tom Skerritt's CBS television series, Picket Fences, on Joan of Arcadia. In 2009, Fletcher appeared in the NBC series Heroes as the physician mother of character Emma Coolidge. In 2011, she appeared in the Showtime series Shameless as Grammy Gallagher, Frank Gallagher's foul-mouthed and hard-living mother, serving a prison sentence for manslaughter related to a meth lab explosion. Fletcher married literary agent and producer Jerry Bick in 1960, divorcing in 1977; the couple had John Dashiell Bick and Andrew Wilson Bick. Fletcher took an 11-year hiatus from acting to raise her sons. Fletcher received an honorary degree from Gallaudet University in 1982. Louise Fletcher on IMDb