A nurse's cap or nursing cap is part of the female nurse's uniform, introduced early in the history of the profession. The cap's original purpose was to keep the nurse's hair neatly in place and present a modest appearance. Male nurses do not wear caps. In some schools, a capping ceremony presents new nursing students their caps before beginning their clinical training; the nurse's cap originated from a group of women in the early Christian era, called "deaconesses." Deaconesses are now recognized as religious order nuns. These women were distinguished from other women during this time by white coverings worn on their heads; this particular head covering was worn to show that this group of women worked in the service of caring for the sick. This head covering was more of a veil, but it evolved into a white cap during the Victorian era, it was during this era. The cap worn was hood-shaped with a ruffle around the face and tied under the chin, similar to cleaning ladies of that day. Long hair was fashionable during the Victorian era, so the cap kept the nurse's hair up and out of her face, as well as keeping it from becoming soiled.
The nurse's cap was derived from the nun's habit and developed over time into two types: A long cap, that covers much of the nurse's hair, A short cap, that sits atop the nurse's hair. The nursing cap was used by Florence Nightingale in the 1800s. Different styles of caps were used to depict the seniority of the nurse, the frillier and longer the more senior the nurse; the nursing cap is a nearly universally recognized symbol of nursing. It allows patients to identify a nurse in the hospital from other members of the health team; some claim the cap is a potential carrier of bacteria and other disease-causing pathogens that could be transmitted from patient to patient. However, such incidents can be prevented. Around 1874, the Bellevue Hospital School of Nursing in New York City adopted a special nursing cap as a way to identify nurses who had graduated from Bellevue; the Bellevue cap covered the entire head except the ears, can be compared to a current ski hat, although it was made out of white linen and had fringe around the bottom.
As the number of nursing schools increased, so did the need for unique caps. Each nursing school decided to design their own style of nurse's cap; some became elaborate and some were different shapes. Because each school had their own cap, it became easy to determine from which school the nurse had graduated, it was common for a black stripe on the cap to signify a Registered Nurse. In some regions, two thinner stripes were used to signify the award of a Bachelors of Science in Nursing; the caps needed to be washed and the black stripe needed to be easy to remove and reattach. Water-soluble lubricants such as KY jelly become solid when were plentiful in hospitals. Nurses used a thin layer of these lubricants applied to the back of the ribbon to attach stripes to their caps. In a global perspective, the nurses' cap continues to be used. However, the use of the nurses' cap had begun to decline in Western Europe and Northern America by the mid 1970s; the use of nurses' caps in the medical facilities of the United States all but disappeared by the late 1980s with the near universal adoption of "scrubs."In areas where healthcare facilities no longer required their nurses to wear nurse's caps, nursing schools eliminated the cap as a mandatory part of the students’ uniform.
In addition, with the growth of technology in the health-care setting, some felt that the nurse's caps were an obstacle for nurses wearing them, while others disagreed. With the rapid growth of the number of men in nursing, some felt a need for a unisex uniform, while others saw no difficulty with gender specific uniforms as is the case in many uniformed professions. However, nurses' caps can still be found in developed nations. Japan and South Korea are examples of developed countries with near universal use of the nurses' cap, it is common for students of nursing to have their graduation portraits taken while wearing nurses' caps. In countries where the nursing cap is no longer required as a part of a nurse's uniform, it still holds the same significance that it did during the time of Florence Nightingale; the nursing cap symbolizes the goal of the nurse, to provide “service to those in need.” Furthermore, the cap is a sign of the industry's ageless values of dedication, honesty and faith. Scrubs Coif Beret Nightcap Cap Civilization.ca - Symbol of a Profession: One Hundred Years Of Nurses' Caps What Happened to the Cap?: Part 1: Dignity and Dedication, Part 2: Losing Our Tradition, Part 3: A Profession Moves On Nurses cap - a revision of nurse uniforms
Epaulette is a type of ornamental shoulder piece or decoration used as insignia of rank by armed forces and other organizations. In the French and other armies, epaulettes are worn by all ranks of elite or ceremonial units when on parade, it may bear rank or other insignia, should not be confused with a shoulder mark - called an shoulder board, rank slide, or slip-on - a flat cloth sleeve worn on the shoulder strap of a uniform. Epaulettes are fastened to the shoulder by a shoulder strap or passenten, a small strap parallel to the shoulder seam, the button near the collar, or by laces on the underside of the epaulette passing through holes in the shoulder of the coat. Colloquially, any shoulder straps with marks are called epaulettes; the placement of the epaulette, its color and the length and diameter of its bullion fringe are used to signify the wearer's rank. At the join of the fringe and the shoulderpiece is a metal piece in the form of a crescent. Although worn in the field, epaulettes are now limited to dress or ceremonial military uniforms.
Épaulette is a French word meaning "little shoulder". Epaulettes bear some resemblance to the shoulder pteruges of ancient Roman military costumes; however their direct origin lies in the bunches of ribbons worn on the shoulders of military coats at the end of the 17th century, which were decorative and intended to prevent shoulder belts from slipping. These ribbons were tied into a knot; this established the basic design of the epaulette as it evolved through the 18th and 19th centuries. From the 18th century on, epaulettes were used in the other armies to indicate rank; the rank of an officer could be determined by whether an epaulette was worn on the left shoulder, the right shoulder or on both. A "counter-epaulette" was worn on the opposite shoulder of those who wore only a single epaulette. Epaulettes were made in silver or gold for officers, in cloth of various colors for the enlisted men of various arms. Certain categories of cavalry wore flexible metal epaulettes referred to as shoulder scales worn on the field.
By the early 18th century, epaulettes had become the distinguishing feature of commissioned rank. This led officers of military units still without epaulettes to petition for the right to wear epaulettes, to ensure that their status would be recognized. During the Napoleonic Wars and subsequently through the 19th century, light infantry and other specialist categories of infantry in many European armies wore cloth epaulettes with wool fringes in various colours to distinguish them from ordinary line infantry. "Flying artillery" wore "wings", similar to an epaulette but with only a bit of fringe on the outside, which matched the shoulder seam. Heavy artillery wore small balls representing ammunition on their shoulders."An intermediate form in some services, such as the Russian Army, is the shoulder board, which neither has a fringe nor extends beyond the shoulder seam. This originated during the 19th century as a simplified version for service wear of the heavy and conspicuous full dress epaulette with bullion fringes.
Today, epaulettes have been replaced by a five-sided flap of cloth called a shoulder board, sewn into the shoulder seam and the end buttoned like an epaulette. From the shoulder board was developed the shoulder mark, a flat cloth tube, worn over the shoulder strap and carries embroidered or pinned-on rank insignia; the advantages of this are the ability to change the insignia as occasions warrant. Airline pilot uniform shirts include cloth flattened tubular epaulettes having cloth or bullion braid stripes, attached by shoulder straps integral to the shirts; the rank of the wearer is designated by the number of stripes: Traditionally four for captain, three for first officer, two for second officer. However, rank insignia are airline specific. For example, at some airlines, two stripes denote junior first officer and one stripe second officer. Airline captains' uniform caps will have a braid pattern on the bill. In the Belgian army, red epaulettes with white fringes are worn with the ceremonial uniforms of the Royal Escort while red ones are worn by the Grenadiers.
Trumpeters of the Royal Escort are distinguished by all red epaulettes while officers of the two units wear silver or gold respectively. In the Canadian Armed Forces, epaulettes are still worn on some Army Full Dress, Patrol Dress, Mess Dress uniforms. Epaulettes in the form of shoulder boards are worn with the officer's white Naval Service Dress. After the unification of the Forces, prior to the issue of the Distinct Environmental Uniforms, musicians of the Band Branch wore epaulettes of braided gold cord; until 1914, officers of most French Army infantry regiments wore gold epaulettes in full dress, while those of mounted units wore silver. No insignia was worn on the epaulette itself, though the bullion fringe falling from the crescent differed according to rank. Other ranks of most branches of the infantry, as well as cuirassiers wore detachable epaulettes of various colours with woollen fringes, of a traditional pattern that dated back to the 18th Century. Other cavalry such as hussars and chasseurs à cheval wore special epaulettes of a style intended to deflect sword blows from the shoulder.
In the modern French Army, epaulettes are still worn by those units retaining 19th-century-style full dress uniforms, notably the ESM Saint-Cyr and the
An operating theater is a facility within a hospital where surgical operations are carried out in an aseptic environment. The term "operating theatre" referred to a non-sterile, tiered theater or amphitheater in which students and other spectators could watch surgeons perform surgery. Contemporary operating rooms are devoid of a theatre setting, making the term "operating theater" a misnomer. There are only two old-style operating theaters left, both of which are preserved as part of museums. Operating rooms are spacious, easy to clean in a cleanroom, well-lit with overhead surgical lights, may have viewing screens and monitors. Operating rooms are windowless and feature controlled temperature and humidity. Special air handlers filter the air and maintain a elevated pressure. Electricity support has backup systems in case of a black-out. Rooms are supplied with wall suction and other anesthetic gases. Key equipment consists of the anesthesia cart. In addition, there are tables to set up instruments.
There is storage space for common surgical supplies. There are containers for disposables. Outside the operating room is a dedicated scrubbing area, used by surgeons, anesthetists, ODPs, nurses prior to surgery. An operating room will have a map to enable the terminal cleaner to realign the operating table and equipment to the desired layout during cleaning. Several operating rooms are part of the operating suite that forms a distinct section within a health-care facility. Besides the operating rooms and their wash rooms, it contains rooms for personnel to change and rest, preparation and recovery rooms and cleaning facilities, dedicated corridors, other supportive units. In larger facilities, the operating suite is climate- and air-controlled, separated from other departments so that only authorized personnel have access; the operating table in the center of the room can be raised and tilted in any direction. The operating room lights are over the table to provide bright light, without shadows, during surgery.
The anesthesia machine is at the head of the operating table. This machine has tubes that connect to the patient to assist them in breathing during surgery, built-in monitors that help control the mixture of gases in the breathing circuit; the anesthesia cart is next to the anesthesia machine. It contains the medications and other supplies that the anesthesiologist may need. Sterile instruments to be used during surgery are arranged on a stainless steel table. An electronic monitor; the pulse oximeter machine attaches to the patient's finger with an elastic band aid. It measures the amount of oxygen contained in the blood. Automated blood pressure measuring machine that automatically inflates the blood pressure cuff on patient's arm. An electrocautery machine uses high frequency electrical signals to cauterize or seal off blood vessels and may be used to cut through tissue with a minimal amount of bleeding. If surgery requires, a Heart-lung machine, or other specialized equipment, may be brought into the room.
Heart lung machine takes the temporary control of the heart and lung during the surgery maintaining the circulation of blood and oxygen content of the body Advances in technology now support Hybrid Operating Rooms, which integrate diagnostic imaging systems such as MRI and Cardiac Catheterization into the operating room to assist surgeons in specialized Neurological and Cardiac procedures. People in the operating room wear PPE to help prevent bacteria from infecting the surgical incision; this PPE includes the following: Similar to germless. A protective cap covering their hair Masks over their lower face, covering their mouths and noses with minimal gaps to prevent inhalation of plume or airborne microbes Shades or glasses over their eyes, including specialized colored glasses for use with different lasers. A fiber-optic headlight may be attached for greater visibility Sterile gloves. Protective covers on their shoes If x-rays are expected to be used, lead aprons/neck covers are used to prevent overexposure to radiationThe surgeon may wear special glasses that help him/her to see more clearly.
The circulating nurse and anesthesiologist will not wear a gown in the OR because they are not a part of the sterile team. They must keep a distance of 12-16 inches from person, or field. Early operating theatres in an educational setting had raised tables or chairs at the center for performing operations surrounded by steep tiers of standing stalls for students and other spectators to observe the case in progress; the surgeons wore street clothes with an apron to protect them from blood stains, they operated bare-handed with unsterilized instruments and supplies. The University of Padua began teaching medicine in 1222, it played a leading role in the identification and treatment of diseases and ailments, specializing in autopsies and the inner workings of the body. In 1884 German surgeon Gustav Neuber implemented a comprehensive set of restrictions to ensure sterilization and aseptic operating conditions through the use of gowns and shoe covers, all of which were cleansed in his newly invented autoclave.
In 1885 he designed and built a private hospital in the woods where the walls and hands, arms and faces of staff were wash
Florence Nightingale, was an English social reformer and statistician, the founder of modern nursing. Nightingale came to prominence while serving as a manager and trainer of nurses during the Crimean War, in which she organised care for wounded soldiers, she gave nursing a favourable reputation and became an icon of Victorian culture in the persona of "The Lady with the Lamp" making rounds of wounded soldiers at night. Recent commentators have asserted Nightingale's Crimean War achievements were exaggerated by media at the time, but critics agree on the importance of her work in professionalising nursing roles for women. In 1860, Nightingale laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment of her nursing school at St Thomas' Hospital in London, it was the first secular nursing school in the world, is now part of King's College London. In recognition of her pioneering work in nursing, the Nightingale Pledge taken by new nurses, the Florence Nightingale Medal, the highest international distinction a nurse can achieve, were named in her honour, the annual International Nurses Day is celebrated around the world on her birthday.
Her social reforms included improving healthcare for all sections of British society, advocating better hunger relief in India, helping to abolish prostitution laws that were harsh for women, expanding the acceptable forms of female participation in the workforce. Nightingale was a versatile writer. In her lifetime, much of her published work was concerned with spreading medical knowledge; some of her tracts were written in simple English so that they could be understood by those with poor literary skills. She was a pioneer in the use of infographics using graphical presentations of statistical data. Much of her writing, including her extensive work on religion and mysticism, has only been published posthumously. Florence Nightingale was born on 12 May 1820 into a rich, upper-class, well-connected British family at the Villa Colombaia, in Florence, Tuscany and was named after the city of her birth. Florence's older sister Frances Parthenope had been named after her place of birth, Parthenope, a Greek settlement now part of the city of Naples.
The family moved back to England in 1821, with Nightingale being brought up in the family's homes at Embley and Lea Hurst, Derbyshire. Florence inherited a liberal-humanitarian outlook from both sides of her family, her parents were William Edward Nightingale, born William Edward Shore and Frances Nightingale née Smith. William's mother Mary née Evans was the niece of Peter Nightingale, under the terms of whose will William inherited his estate at Lea Hurst, assumed the name and arms of Nightingale. Fanny's father was Unitarian William Smith. Nightingale's father educated her. In 1838, her father took the family on a tour in Europe where he was introduced to the English-born Parisian hostess Mary Clarke, with whom Florence bonded, she recorded that "Clarkey" was a stimulating hostess who did not care for her appearance, while her ideas did not always agree with those of her guests, "she was incapable of boring anyone." Her behaviour was said to be exasperating and eccentric and she had no respect for upper-class British women, whom she regarded as inconsequential.
She said that if given the choice between being a woman or a galley slave she would choose the freedom of the galleys. She rejected female company and spent her time with male intellectuals. However, Clarkey made an exception in the case of Florence in particular, she and Florence were to remain close friends for 40 years despite their 27-year age difference. Clarke demonstrated that women could be equals to men, an idea that Florence had not obtained from her mother. Nightingale underwent the first of several experiences that she believed were calls from God in February 1837 while at Embley Park, prompting a strong desire to devote her life to the service of others. In her youth she was respectful of her family's opposition to her working as a nurse, only announcing her decision to enter the field in 1844. Despite the intense anger and distress of her mother and sister, she rebelled against the expected role for a woman of her status to become a wife and mother. Nightingale worked hard to educate herself in the art and science of nursing, in the face of opposition from her family and the restrictive social code for affluent young English women.
As a young woman, Nightingale was described as attractive and graceful. While her demeanour was severe, she was said to be charming and to possess a radiant smile, her most persistent suitor was the politician and poet Richard Monckton Milnes, but after a nine-year courtship she rejected him, convinced that marriage would interfere with her ability to follow her calling to nursing. In Rome in 1847, she met Sidney Herbert, a politician, Secretary at War, on his honeymoon, he and Nightingale became lifelong close friends. Herbert would be Secretary of War again during the Crimean War, when he and his wife would be instrumental in facilitating Nightingale's nursing work in the Crimea, she became Herbert's key adviser throughout his political career, though she was accused by some of having hastened Herbert's death from Bright's Disease in 1861 because of the pressure her programme of reform placed on him. Nightingale much had strong relations with academic Benjamin Jowett, who may have wanted to marry her.
Nightingale continued her travels as far as Egypt. Her writings on Egypt in particular are testimony to her learn
An apron is a garment, worn over other clothing and covers the front of the body. It may have several different purposes and is today most known as a functional accessory that protects one's clothes and skin from stains and marks. However, various types of aprons may be worn as a decoration, for hygienic reasons, as part of a uniform, or as protection from certain dangers such as acid, allergens or excessive heat. An apron can gain sentimental value over time by the way we're of it or people depending on the wearer; the routine of putting an apron on before doing ones work can begin to feel ceremonial, as a signal to the self to prepare mentally and physically for the task at hand. As a top layer that covers the front body, the apron is worn as a uniform, ceremonial garb or fashion statement. Apron styles can be practical and sentimental. There are many different apron forms depending on the purpose of the apron. A basic distinction is between waist aprons, which cover the body from the waist down, bib aprons, which cover the upper part of the body.
An apron is held in place by two ribbon-like strips of cloth that are tied at the back. A bib apron may either have a strap around the neck, or shoulder straps that criss-cross at the back and attach to the waistband; the advantage of the former design is that it makes it simple to put on the bib apron. The advantage of the shoulder strap design is; some modern-day aprons have designs or corporate logos. The bib apron has been worn for centuries; the bib apron's humble beginnings began when people used scraps of fabric to make a bib-like covering that slipped over the neck and tied at the back. The bib apron's intuitive design and full coverage have made it a popular apron for tradesmen and people in low-economic classes since the 1880s—and maybe earlier. In the 1960s—when women no longer wanted an apron that symbolized domestic ideals—the bib apron became the most-used apron and is now offered in a multitude of variations, colors and fabrications. Pinafores may be worn by girls and women as a protective apron.
A related term is pinafore dress. A pinafore is a full apron with two holes for the arms, tied or buttoned in the back just below the neck. Pinafores have complete front shaped over shoulder while aprons have no bib, or only a smaller one. A child's garment to wear at school or for play would be a pinafore. A tabard is a type of apron, it is fastened with waist bands that tie in the back. It covers most of the upper part of the body and is used in many occupations, like bakeries and large retail stores; the original cobbler's apron was made of leather. An alternative version uses closes at the front; such an apron is in effect like a vest and is more sold for domestic rather than occupational use. A bungalow apron is an item of women's at-home clothing. Most bungalow aprons were simple garments with kimono sleeves, little or no trim, the fewest possible fasteners. Most date from the first half of the 20th century, when they evolved into or were replaced by the "patio dress" or Lounger available today.
In contrast to most aprons, they were intended to be worn as a stand-alone garment, not over another dress. They developed from the full-coverage wraparound or pullover aprons of the early years of the 20th century. Bungalow aprons fell between nightgowns or house coats and house-dresses; the term apron refers to an item of clerical clothing, now obsolete, worn by Anglican bishops and archdeacons. The clerical apron resembles a short cassock reaching just above the knee, is colored black for archdeacons and purple for bishops; the apron is worn with black breeches, reaching to just below the knee, knee-length gaiters. The history behind the vesture is that it symbolically represents the mobility of bishops and archdeacons, who at one time would ride horses to visit various parts of a diocese or archdeaconry. In this sense, the apparel was much more practical. In latter years, this vesture was more symbolic than practical, since the mid-twentieth century it has fallen out of favor; the apron was traditionally viewed as an essential garment for anyone doing housework.
Cheaper clothes and washing machines made aprons less common beginning in the mid-1960s in some countries such as the United States. However, the practice of wearing aprons remains strong in many places. Today, the apron has enjoyed a minor renaissance in terms of both women and men now wearing them when performing household chores. For instance, an article in the Wall Street Journal claimed in 2005 that the apron is "enjoying a renaissance as a retro-chic fashion accessory" in the United States. However, it still is not as prevalent. Aprons are nowadays considered appropriate for both women and men by most people. However, prevailing social norms ensure that w
Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach to patient care and scope of practice. Nurses practice in many specialties with differing levels of prescription authority. Many nurses provide care within the ordering scope of physicians, this traditional role has shaped the public image of nurses as care providers. However, nurse practitioners are permitted by most jurisdictions to practice independently in a variety of settings. In the postwar period, nurse education has undergone a process of diversification towards advanced and specialized credentials, many of the traditional regulations and provider roles are changing. Nurses develop a plan of care, working collaboratively with physicians, the patient, the patient's family and other team members, that focuses on treating illness to improve quality of life.
In the United States and the United Kingdom, advanced practice nurses, such as clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners, diagnose health problems and prescribe medications and other therapies, depending on individual state regulations. Nurses may help coordinate the patient care performed by other members of a multidisciplinary health care team such as therapists, medical practitioners and dietitians. Nurses provide care both interdependently, for example, with physicians, independently as nursing professionals. Nursing historians face the challenge of determining whether care provided to the sick or injured in antiquity was nursing care. In the fifth century BC, for example, the Hippocratic Collection in places describes skilled care and observation of patients by male "attendants," who may have been early nurses. Around 600 BC in India, it is recorded in Sushruta Samhita, Book 3, Chapter V about the role of the nurse as "the different parts or members of the body as mentioned before including the skin, cannot be described by one, not well versed in anatomy.
Hence, any one desirous of acquiring a thorough knowledge of anatomy should prepare a dead body and observe, by dissecting it, examine its different parts." Before the foundation of modern nursing, members of religious orders such as nuns and monks provided nursing-like care. Examples exist in Christian and Buddhist traditions amongst others. Phoebe, mentioned in Romans 16 has been described in many sources as "the first visiting nurse"; these traditions were influential in the development of the ethos of modern nursing. The religious roots of modern nursing remain in evidence today in many countries. One example in the United Kingdom is the use of the historical title "sister" to refer to a senior nurse in the past. During the Reformation of the 16th century, Protestant reformers shut down the monasteries and convents, allowing a few hundred municipal hospices to remain in operation in northern Europe; those nuns, serving as nurses were given pensions or told to get married and stay home. Nursing care went to the inexperienced as traditional caretakers, rooted in the Roman Catholic Church, were removed from their positions.
The nursing profession suffered a major setback for 200 years. Florence Nightingale laid the foundations of professional nursing after the Crimean War, her Notes on Nursing became popular. The Nightingale model of professional education, having set up the first school of nursing, connected to a continuously operating hospital and medical school, spread in Europe and North America after 1870. Nightingale was a pioneer of the graphical presentation of statistical data. Other important nurses in the development of the profession include: Agnes Hunt from Shropshire was the first orthopedic nurse and was pivotal in the emergence of the orthopedic hospital The Robert Jones & Agnes Hunt Hospital in Oswestry, Shropshire. Agnes Jones, who established a nurse training regime at the Brownlow Hill infirmary, Liverpool, in 1865. Linda Richards, who established quality nursing schools in the United States and Japan, was the first professionally trained nurse in the US, graduating in 1873 from the New England Hospital for Women and Children in Boston.
Clarissa Harlowe "Clara" Barton, a pioneer American teacher, patent clerk and humanitarian, the founder of the American Red Cross. Saint Marianne Cope, a Sister of St. Francis who opened and operated some of the first general hospitals in the United States, instituting cleanliness standards which influenced the development of America's modern hospital system. Catholic orders such as Little Sisters of the Poor, Sisters of Mercy, Sisters of St. Mary, St. Francis Health Services, Inc. and Sisters of Charity built hospitals and provided nursing services during this period. In turn, the modern deaconess movement began in Germany in 1836. Within a half century, there were over 5,000 deaconesses in Europe. Formal use of nurses in the modern military began in the latter half of the nineteenth century. Nurses saw active duty in the First Boer War, the Egyptian Campaign, the Sudan Campaign. Hospital-based training came to the fore in the early 1900s, with an emphasis on practical experience; the Nightingale-style school began to disappear.
Hospitals and physicians saw women in nursing as a source of inexpensive labor. Exploitation of nurses was not uncommon by employers and educational providers. Many nurses saw active duty in World War I, but the profession was transformed during the second World War. British nurses of the Army Nursing Service were part of every overseas campaign. More nurses volunteered for service in the US Army and Navy than any other occupat
A nursing pin is a type of badge made of metal such as gold or silver, worn by nurses to identify the nursing school from which they graduated. They are traditionally presented to the newly graduated nurses by the faculty at a pinning ceremony as a symbolic welcome into the profession. Most pins have a symbolic meaning representing the history of the nursing program for that school of nursing; the ancestor of the nursing pin is the Maltese cross. Some significant historical contributors to the foundation of hospital standards involved in using the Maltese cross were the Knights Hospitaller and Order of Saint Lazarus, pioneers of communicable disease care, such as leprosy and other chronic skin diseases during their period, established one of a few hospitals in the territories of their reign; as the Renaissance period progressed, the use of the symbol has evolved into family coat of arms given to those who were providers of exclusive services. Such pins were awarded to nurses who were needed by society during periods of spread of uncontrolled illnesses during the early period, to recognize them as nurses who are educated and experienced in the said field.
Modern designs of nurses' pins have evolved through time. The Maltese cross, in some nursing educational institutions, has not been incorporated in their pins. Instead, their own seal or logo, such as that of their nursing school, nursing organization or university affiliation is used; the pin is still worn as part of nurses' uniforms today, in such cases, before or after they graduate from their respective nursing schools and work for medical institutions, such as hospitals and health and wellness centers. Pins vary in shape and imagery about the proportions of a woman's brooch. A common graphic is an old pattern oil lamp; these lamps or candles were the only lighting available before kerosene became available early in the twentieth century. There are a selection of lamps in the Florence Nightingale museum, thought to have been used in the Scutari hospital in the area known geographically as the Balkans, during the war with Russia. American Poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote a poem "Saint Philomena" dedicated to the work of Florence in 1857.
In this verses, Longfellow characterised Florence as "The lady with the lamp". The poem was used in fundraising for the wounded veterans of the empire; the image of the lamp used by the emerging modern nursing profession took hold. Another common graphic found on nursing pins is the symbol we associate with the international association of the red crescent and red cross, namely the red cross itself. In times past, young women who adopted the profession of nursing were accepted as nurses in overseas service roles, such as military and mission work, when they joined the red cross society. Volunteers had to supply their own uniforms and had to undertake charitable works in order to raise funds for their own passage to the area of identified need. Red cross nurses are honoured in the 1916 song Rose of no man's land but were by no means the only volunteers. Nurses were drawn from organisations like the ancient order of deaconesses and quaker ambulance units; the situation changed during the great war, in which the contribution of nursing to the war effort was recognised in several urgent recruitment drives.
As nurses were granted access to postings and pensions, amateur involvement declined. Another symbol used was the sword entwined by double winged serpents; this sword of caduceus was mistakenly used by the United States medical forces in place of the wand of Asclepius, a long-standing symbol of medical doctors and physicians. Other common symbols include stork and baby, legacy torch, fountain of youth religious symbols – crucifix, star of David, crescent moon. Maltese cross Nurse uniform Nursing Knights Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus