A nursery rhyme is a traditional poem or song for children in Britain and many other countries, but usage of the term only dates from the late 18th/early 19th century. The term Mother Goose rhymes is interchangeable with nursery rhymes. From the mid-16th century nursery rhymes begin to be recorded in English plays, most popular rhymes date from the 17th and 18th centuries; the first English collections, Tommy Thumb's Song Book and a sequel, Tommy Thumb's Pretty Song Book, were published by Mary Cooper in 1744. Publisher John Newbery's stepson, Thomas Carnan, was the first to use the term Mother Goose for nursery rhymes when he published a compilation of English rhymes, Mother Goose's Melody, or, Sonnets for the Cradle; the oldest children's songs of which we have records are lullabies, intended to help a child fall asleep. Lullabies can be found in every human culture; the English term lullaby is thought to come from "lu, lu" or "la la" sounds made by mothers or nurses to calm children, "by by" or "bye bye", either another lulling sound or a term for good night.
Until the modern era lullabies were only recorded incidentally in written sources. The Roman nurses' lullaby, "Lalla, Lalla, aut dormi, aut lacta", is recorded in a scholium on Persius and may be the oldest to survive. Many medieval English verses associated with the birth of Jesus take the form of a lullaby, including "Lullay, my liking, my dere son, my sweting" and may be versions of contemporary lullabies. However, most of those used today date from the 17th century. For example, a well known lullaby such as "Rock-a-bye, baby on a tree top", cannot be found in records until the late-18th century when it was printed by John Newbery. A French poem, similar to "Thirty days hath September", numbering the days of the month, was recorded in the 13th century. From the Middle Ages there are records of short children's rhyming songs as marginalia. From the mid-16th century they begin to be recorded in English plays. "Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake, baker's man" is one of the oldest surviving English nursery rhymes.
The earliest recorded version of the rhyme appears in Thomas d'Urfey's play The Campaigners from 1698. Most nursery rhymes were not written down until the 18th century, when the publishing of children's books began to move from polemic and education towards entertainment, but there is evidence for many rhymes existing before this, including "To market, to market" and "Cock a doodle doo", which date from at least the late 16th century. Nursery rhymes with 17th century origins include, "Jack Sprat", "The Grand Old Duke of York", "Lavender's Blue" and "Rain Rain Go Away"; the first English collections, Tommy Thumb's Song Book and a sequel, Tommy Thumb's Pretty Song Book, were published by Mary Cooper in London in 1744, with such songs becoming known as'Tommy Thumb's songs'. A copy of the latter is held in the British Library. John Newbery's stepson, Thomas Carnan, was the first to use the term Mother Goose for nursery rhymes when he published a compilation of English rhymes, Mother Goose's Melody, or, Sonnets for the Cradle.
These rhymes seem to have come from a variety of sources, including traditional riddles, ballads, lines of Mummers' plays, drinking songs, historical events, and, it has been suggested, ancient pagan rituals. About half of the recognised "traditional" English rhymes were known by the mid-18th century. In the early 19th century printed collections of rhymes began to spread to other countries, including Robert Chambers's Popular Rhymes of Scotland and in the United States, Mother Goose's Melodies. From this period we sometimes know the origins and authors of rhymes—for instance, in "Twinkle Twinkle Little Star" which combines the melody of an 18th-century French tune "Ah vous dirai-je, Maman" with a 19th-century English poem by Jane Taylor entitled "The Star" used as lyrics. Early folk song collectors often collected nursery rhymes, including in Scotland Sir Walter Scott and in Germany Clemens Brentano and Achim von Arnim in Des Knaben Wunderhorn; the first, the most important academic collection to focus in this area was James Orchard Halliwell's The Nursery Rhymes of England and Popular Rhymes and Tales in 1849, in which he divided rhymes into antiquities, fireside stories, game-rhymes, alphabet-rhymes, nature-rhymes and families, superstitions and nursery songs.
By the time of Sabine Baring-Gould's A Book of Nursery Songs, folklore was an academic study, full of comments and footnotes. A professional anthropologist, Andrew Lang produced The Nursery Rhyme Book in 1897; the early years of the 20th century are notable for the illustrations to children's books including Randolph Caldecott's Hey Diddle Diddle Picture Book and Arthur Rackham's Mother Goose. The definitive study of English rhymes remains the work of Peter Opie. Many nursery rhymes have been argued to have hidden origins. John Bellenden Ker, for example, wrote four volumes arguing that English nursery rhymes were written in'Low Saxon', a hypothetical early form of Dutch, he then'translated' them back into English, revealing in particular a strong tendency to anti-clericalism. Many of the ideas about the links between rhymes and historical persons, or events, can be traced back to Katherine Elwes's book The Real Personages of Mother Goose, in which she linked famous nursery-rhyme characters with real people, on little or no evidence.
She assumed that children's songs were a peculiar form of coded historical narrative, propaganda or covert protest, considered that they could have been written for ent
The 1996 DFB-Pokal Final decided the winner of the 1995–96 DFB-Pokal, the 53rd season of Germany's premier knockout football cup competition. It was played on 25 May 1996 at the Olympiastadion in Berlin. 1. FC Kaiserslautern won the match 1–0 against Karlsruher SC to claim their second cup title; the DFB-Pokal was a 64 teams in a single-elimination knockout cup competition. There were a total of five rounds leading up to the final. Teams were drawn against each other, the winner after 90 minutes would advance. If still tied, 30 minutes of extra time was played. If the score was still level, a penalty shoot-out was used to determine the winner. Note: In all results below, the score of the finalist is given first. Match report at kicker.de Match report at WorldFootball.net Match report at Fussballdaten.de
Indur was a Palestinian village, located 10.5 kilometres southeast of Nazareth. Its name preserves that of ancient Endor, a Canaanite city state thought to have been located 1 kilometre to the northeast; the village was depopulated during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and its inhabitants became refugees, some of whom were internally displaced. In Israel today, there are a few thousand internally displaced Palestinians who hail from Indur, continue to demand their right of return; the name of this village is thought to preserve that of the ancient Canaanite city of Endor mentioned in the Bible as the place King Saul encountered a known medium. While a few scholars believe that Indur is the actual site of ancient Endor, no ancient remains have been found at the site, many believe that Khirbet Safsafa, located 1 kilometre to the northeast, is a more candidate. In 1596, Indur was a part of the Ottoman nahiya of Shafa under the liwa' of Lajjun with a population of 4 Muslim households, an estimated twenty-two persons.
The villagers paid a fixed tax rate of 25% on a number of crops, including wheat and olives, as well as goats and beehives. By the late nineteenth century, the village was made of adobe bricks, built against a steep hillside. To the east of the village there were several caves. In Ottoman era Palestine, an elementary school was founded in Indur, but closed during the British Mandate in Palestine. According to the 1922 census of Palestine, Indur had 311 inhabitants. By the 1931 census the population had increased to 445. Sheikh Tawfiq Ibrahim, one of the leaders of the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine and an associate of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam, was from Indur. In the 1945 statistics the population of Indur was 620 Muslims, with a total of 12,444 dunams of land, according to an official land and population survey. Of this, 24 dunams were for citrus and bananas, 394 for plantations and irrigable land, 10,061 for cereals, while 29 dunams were built-up land; the village was occupied by Israel's Golani Brigade on May 16, 1948.
Most of the population fled at the start of the battle, several who "tried to escape" were shot. A small garrison was left, which reported that the remaining population were being expelled in the direction of Nazareth. In 1992 the village site was described: "Many ruined walls still stand on the village site. Date, doum palm and almond trees grow on the village lands; the surrounding flat lands are cultivated by Israelis and the hilly lands serve as grazing area."During the 2004 commemorations of Nakba Day held by Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel, the annual right of return march led to Indur. Jewish Israelis joined in the march and the event received coverage by Israeli cable and Arab satellite TV stations. Indur's former residents and their descendants number a few thousand from among the tens of thousands of internally displaced Palestinians within Israel today. List of Arab towns and villages depopulated during the 1948 Palestinian exodus List of villages depopulated during the Arab–Israeli conflict Welcome To Indur Indur, Zochrot Survey of Western Palestine, Map 9: IAA, Wikimedia commons The District of Nazareth at Khalil Sakakini Cultural Center Ndoor Dr. Moslih Kanaaneh
The Adventure Game is a game show, broadcast on UK television channels BBC1 and BBC2 between 24 May 1980 and 18 February 1986. The story in each show was that the two celebrity contestants and a member of the public had travelled by space ship to the planet Arg, their overall task varied with each series. For example, the team might be charged with finding a crystal needed to power their ship to return to Earth; the programme is considered to have been a forerunner of The Crystal Maze. The programme was devised by experienced BBC producer Patrick Dowling. Dowling had an interest in Dungeons and Dragons and wanted to televise a show that would capture the mood; the programme had a similar sci-fi feel influenced by Douglas Adams. The first two series were written and produced by Dowling and directed by Ian Oliver, who wrote and produced the final two series after Dowling retired. Arg was inhabited by shapeshifting dragons known as Argonds; as a reference to this, most proper nouns in the programme were anagrams of the word dragon.
To avoid scaring contestants, Argonds shifted form to human, a few minutes before the contestants arrived. Notable characters within the game included: The Rangdo, the ruler of planet Arg and referred to as "Uncle" by the other Argonds. In the first series, his human form was played by Ian Messiter, who appeared as an old professor in a velvet jacket, but in series he became one of the few Argonds not to appear as a dragon. In series 2 and 3, he became an aspidistra atop an elegant plant stand. Any human meeting the Rangdo had to placate him by bowing while uttering the phrase "Gronda! Gronda!". In the last series, the Rangdo changed into a teapot instead. Darong. Gnoard, whose job it was to explain the initial stages of the game to the contestants. Dorgan, who took over from Gnoard in the final series. Gandor, an ancient, half-deaf butler who took the contestants through most of the puzzles and refereed the Vortex and Drogna games. In some episodes, he could only hear when he was wearing his spectacles, which he continually misplaced.
Rongad, because he was Australian, spoke English backwards and could only understand the contestants if they did the same. His Australian accent was a mild clue to help. Noted for habitually singing Waltzing Matilda in reverse, exclamations of "Doog yrev!" when the contestants did well. He appears in every episode of series 3 and episode 2 of series 4. Angord was an Argond, she always misbehaved when Dorgan were checking over the puzzles. The Mole, pretended to be one of the regular contestants but was working against them; the actress had been a genuine contestant in the first series. The look of the characters in Argond form was quite different in the various series. In Series 1, they looked like dragons, each was rather distinct. In Series 2, they didn't look much like dragons, but were furry, with no tails and mask-like faces, differed in colour. In Series 3 and 4, their heads returned to looking like dragons, with ruffs, though they had furry bodies and monkeylike tails, they were identical to each other.
Notable contestants included Keith Chegwin, Sue Cook, astronomer Heather Couper, John Craven, Paul Darrow, Noel Edmonds, Sarah Greene, Bonnie Langford, James Burke, Elizabeth Estensen, Janet Fielding and Richard Stilgoe. The credits for the series listed the human characters as being played by Argonds, rather than the other way round; the contestants had to complete a number of tasks. Many tasks involved the drogna, a small transparent plastic disc containing a solid geometric figure, the currency of Arg; the value of a drogna was its numbered position in the visible spectrum multiplied by the number of sides of the figure. For example, a red circle is worth one unit, an orange circle is worth two units, a red triangle and a yellow circle are both worth three, so on. Tasks which appeared included: Interaction with a computer, in series 1 a 2D dungeon-crawl-type game on an HP 9845 Technical Desktop later a text chat with an Apple II that failed to provide any useful information until the password was revealed elsewhere and entered into the computer in series 3 and 4 a pseudo-3D first-person POV dungeon crawl on a BBC Micro to find the password in the maze.
In series 3, the players were guiding an alien doglike creature called a Dogran down his "Dogran-hole" after meeting him in person. In series 4, the radio-controlled dog puppet was eliminated and the players guided an unseen entity speaking in a Scouse accent to find the password "somewhere in the north" of the maze; the Drogna Game, which came in the middle of the programme. The rules of play and end result of this game was changed always with each series and sometimes from one episode to another. One variation from series 3 was played by two players: one would be a contestant and the other wou
Claire McCardell was an American fashion designer of ready-to-wear clothing in the twentieth century. She is credited with the creation of American sportswear. McCardell was the eldest of four children born to Eleanor and Adrian McCardell in Frederick, Maryland. Adrian was a Maryland state president of the Frederick County National Bank; as a child, McCardell earned the nickname "Kick" for her ability to keep the boys from pushing her around. Fascinated by fashion from a young age, McCardell wanted to move to New York City to study fashion design at age 16. Unwilling to send a teenager so far away, McCardell's father convinced her to enroll in the home economics program at Hood College instead. After two years of study in Maryland, McCardell enrolled in Parsons. In 1927, McCardell went to Paris, continuing her studies at the Parsons branch school at the Place des Vosges. In Paris, McCardell and her classmates were able to purchases samples by couturiers such as Madeleine Vionnet that they took apart in order to study their structure.
McCardell was graduated from Parson with a certificate in costume design in 1923. After graduation, she worked odd jobs sketching at a fashionable dress shop, painting flowers on paper lamp shades, acting as a fit model for B. Altman, she met designer Robert Turk. Late in 1930, McCardell began working as an assistant designer for Robert Turk. Soon afterward, Turk moved to a larger company, Townley Frocks, brought McCardell with him. In 1932, Turk drowned and Claire was asked to finish his fall line; the 27-year-old chief designer soon traveled to Paris for inspiration, as did most American designers. Not interested in copying European high fashion, McCardell searched for inspiration in art and street fashion. During the 1930s, began to show innovations such as sashes, spaghetti string ties, the use of menswear details that would become part of her design signature. In 1938, she modernized the dirndl, she pioneered matching separates. In 1938, Claire McCardell introduced a bias-cut tentlike dress.
It had no seamed waist and hung loosely, but with a versatile belt it could be adapted to hug a woman's curves gracefully. Best & Co. sold the dress for $29.95 and it sold out in a day. The "Monastic Dress" was copied and the cost of trying to stop knock-offs drove Townley Frocks out of business. After the closure of Townley Frocks, Hattie Carnegie hired McCardell to work for her famed dressmaking firm, but her designs were not successful with Carnegie's clients, who were in search of more elaborate merchandise. While working for Hattie Carnegie, McCardell met Diana Vreeland, she would become champion. In 1940, just before leaving Carnegie, McCardell attended her last Parisian fashion show, preferring from on to avoid any French influence on her clothing. Townley Frocks reopened in 1940 under new management and McCardell returned to the brand; the company's labels read, "Claire McCardell Clothes by Townley", making her one of the first American designers to have name recognition. World War II cut American designers off from European inspiration and limited the availability of some materials.
McCardell flourished under these restrictions. Although many designers considered them too basic, McCardell worked with fabrics such as denim and wool jersey that were available during the war, she popularized the ballet flat when, responding to the shortage of leather, McCardell commissioned Capezio to produce a range of ballet flats to match her designs. When the government announced a surplus of weather balloon cotton materials in 1944, McCardell bought them up, using them to design clothes that patriotic American women wore with pride. In 1941, McCardell produced a line of separates; the pieces included a taffeta skirt, a jersey top, a jersey jacket. That same year, she showed her first "Kitchen Dinner Dress". Made of cotton, the "Kitchen Dinner Dress" had a full skirt with an attached apron. In 1942, McCardell created her famed "Popover Dress", it was a response to a Harper's Bazaar challenge to create something fashionable one could wear to clean the house and wear to a cocktail party. The simple grey dress came with a matching potholder.
The "Popover Dress" sold for $6.95 and more than 75,000 were sold in the first season alone. These dresses became a staple of McCardell collections and over time, she made versions in different lengths and fabrics; the "Popover Dress" received a citation from the American Fashion Critics Association and in 1943, McCardell won a Coty Award. Beginning in 1945, McCardell was featured as an "American Look" designer by Lord & Taylor's department store. In 1946, McCardell won the Best Sportswear Designer Award and in 1948 she won the Neiman-Marcus Award; as McCardell's fame grew, her influence within Townley rose. In 1952, she became a partner in the company. After the war, McCardell worked as a volunteer critic in the fashion design department at Parsons. In 1950, President Harry S. Truman, Bess Truman, Margaret Truman presented McCardell with a Woman of the Year Award from the Women's National Press Club; this was the award McCardell cherished most. In April 1953, the Frank Perls Gallery in Beverly Hills launched a retrospective exhibition of twenty years of McCardell's garments.
The exhibit included the "Monastic Dress", the "Diaper Bathing Suit", Capezio ballet flats, work-wear-inspired pieces with rivets. In his introduction to the exhibit, retailer Stanley Marcus wrote, "...she is one of the creative designers this country has produced... She is to America what
Hedwig Jagiellon was a Polish and Lithuanian princess, a member of the Jagiellon dynasty. For most of her life she, as the only child of Wladyslaw Jagiello, was considered to be heiress of the Polish and Lithuanian thrones. After the birth of Jagiello's sons in 1424 and 1427, Hedwig had some support for her claims to the throne, she died in 1431 amidst rumors. She was the only daughter of King of Poland and Supreme Duke of Lithuania Wladyslaw Jagiello by his second wife, Anna of Celje, daughter of William, Count of Celje, Anna of Poland. Anna of Celje was a granddaughter of King Casimir III of Poland and therefore a Piast heiress. Thanks to his marriage to her in 1402, Jagiello re-legitimized his rule as King of Poland after the death of his first wife, who reigned as King of Poland. Jagiello's and Anna's only daughter, born in 1408, was named after Queen Hedwig. After it became apparent that Anna of Celje would not be able to bear any further children, Hedwig was proclaimed heiress to the throne during a congress in Jedlnia in early 1413.
Queen Anna died in 1416. In 1417, Jagiello married Elisabeth of Pilica, in 1422, Sophia of Halshany. Hedwig was raised by both stepmothers; until the birth of Jagiello's son Władysław III in 1424, Hedwig's marriage was of paramount importance in Polish politics as her husband would become King of Poland after Jagiello's death. The first known negotiations for her marriage occurred in 1419 between Jagiello and Eric, King of Sweden and Dermark; the rulers met in Czerwińsk nad Wisłą to discuss an alliance against the Teutonic Knights. Eric proposed to marry Hedwig to his cousin and presumptive heir Bogislaw IX, Duke of Pomerania, who at the time was eight or nine years old. However, the Polish–Scandinavian–Pomeranian alliance did not materialize. On 12 April 1421, Hedwig was betrothed to Frederick II, Margrave of Brandenburg, second son of Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg, who sought Polish alliance in the long-standing Brandenburg–Pomeranian conflict. According to the terms of the agreement, the marriage would take place when Frederick II reached age 14 in 1427.
Five years after the marriage, Frederick II would be eligible to become King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. The young Brandenburg prince had to live in Poland as soon as was possible, in order to get acquainted with the language and customs of his future country; the agreement would be void. Ten months Jagiello married Sophia of Halshany, just a few years older than Hedwig. Frederick I was not sent his son to Kraków to be with his fiance. Tensions continued to rise as Brandenburg did not provide troops in the Gollub War against the Teutonic Knights. Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, lobbied against the marriage while Scandinavian King Eric renewed his proposal for the Polish–Scandinavian–Pomeranian alliance against Brandenburg. Despite political pressure, Jagiello did not annul the agreement. Fearing an assassination attempt, Grand Duke Vytautas took Frederick II from Kraków to Lithuania in 1424. In October 1424, Sophia gave birth to Jagiello's son. Frederick I continued to pursue the marriage.
A party of Polish nobles wanted Hedwig and her future husband to succeed her father, instead of her father's sons by Sophia of Halshany, who were not descended from the Piast dynasty of Poland. The death of her maternal grandmother, Anna of Poland, in 1425 left Hedwig without any close relatives in the power struggle with Sophia. Due to uncertainties of inheritance, Hedwig's marriage was postponed. For about a year, Hedwig battled an unknown illness, she was buried in the Wawel Cathedral. Queen Sophia had to defend herself against rumors. There is evidence to suggest that Frederick II was genuinely in love with Hedwig and suffered bouts of depression as a result of her death. Notes ReferencesDuczmal, Małgorzata. Jogailaičiai. Translated by Birutė Mikalonienė and Vyturys Jarutis. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos centras. ISBN 978-5-420-01703-6. Łowmiański, Polityka Jagiellonów, Poznań 2006. ISBN 83-7177-401-X Tęgowski, Pierwsze pokolenia Giedyminowiczów, Poznań - Wrocław 1999. ISBN 83-913563-1-0 Wdowiszewski, Genealogia Jagiellonów i Domu Wazów w Polsce, Kraków 2005.