The climatic snow line is the boundary between a snow-covered and snow-free surface. The actual snow line may adjust seasonally, be either higher in elevation, or lower; the permanent snow line is the level above which snow will lie all year. Snow line is an umbrella term for different interpretations of the boundary between snow-covered surface and snow-free surface; the definitions of the snow line may have different spatial focus. In many regions the changing snow line reflect seasonal dynamics; the final height of the snow line in a mountain environment at the end of the melting season is subject to climatic variability, therefore may be different from year to year. The snow line is measured using aerial photographs, or satellite images; because the snow line can be established without on-the-ground measurements, it can be measured in remote and difficult to access areas. Therefore, the snow line has become an important variable in hydrological models; the average elevation of a transient snow line is called the "climatic snow line" and is used as a parameter to classify regions according to climatic conditions.
The boundary between the accumulation zone and the ablation zone on glaciers is called the "annual snow line". The glacier region below this snow line was subject to melting in the previous season; the term "orographic snow line" is used to describe the snow boundary on surfaces other than glaciers. The term "regional snow line" is used to describe large areas; the "permanent snow line" is the level. The interplay of altitude and latitude affects the precise placement of the snow line at a particular location. At or near the equator, it is situated at 4,500 meters above sea level; as one moves towards the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn, the parameter at first increases: in the Himalayas the permanent snow line can be as high as 5,700 metres, whilst on the Tropic of Capricorn no permanent snow exists at all in the Andes because of the extreme aridity. Beyond the Tropics the snow line becomes progressively lower as the latitude increases, to just below 3,000 metres in the Alps and falling all the way to sea level itself at the ice caps near the poles.
In addition, the relative location to the nearest coastline can influence the altitude of the snow line. Areas near a coast might have a lower snow line than areas of the same altitude and latitude situated in a landmass interior due to more winter snowfall and because the average summer temperature of the surrounding lowlands would be warmer away from the sea.. A higher altitude is therefore necessary to lower the temperature further against the surroundings and keep the snow from melting. Furthermore, large-scale oceanic currents such as the North Atlantic Current can have significant affects over large areas. In the northern hemisphere the snow line on the north facing slopes is at a lower altitude, as the north facing slopes receive less sun light than south facing slopes; the glacier equilibrium line is the point of transition between the accumulation zone and ablation zone. It is the line. Depending on the thickness of the glacier, this line can seem as though it is leaning more towards one zone but it is determined by the actual mass of ice in either zone.
The rates of ablation and accumulation can be used to determine the location of this line. This point is an important location to use in determining whether a glacier is shrinking. A higher glacier equilibrium line will indicate that the glacier is shrinking, whereas a lower line will indicate that the glacier is growing; the terminus of a glacier advances or retreats based on the location of this equilibrium line. Scientists are using remote sensing to better estimate the locations of this line on glaciers around the world. Using satellite imagery, scientists are able to identify whether the glacier is receding; this is a helpful tool for analyzing glaciers that are difficult to access. Using this technology we can better gauge the effects of climate change on glaciers around the world; the highest mountain in the world below the snow line is Ojos del Salado. Compare the usage of "snow line" indicating the boundary between snow and non-snow. Frost line Frost line Glacier High Alps Ice cap climate Tree line Charlesworth J.
K.. The quaternary era. With special reference to its glaciation, vol. I. London, Edward Arnold Ltd, 700 pp. Flint, R. F.. Glacial and Pleistocene geology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, xiii+553+555 pp. Kalesnik, S. V.. Obshchaya glyatsiologiya. Uchpedgiz, Leningrad, 328 pp. Tronov, M. V.. Voprosy svyazi mezhdu klimatom i oledeneniem. Izdatel'stvo Tomskogo Universiteta, Tomsk, 202 pp. Wilhelm, F.. Schnee- und Gletscherkunde, De Gruyter, Berlin, 414 pp. Braithewaite, R. J. and Raper, S. C. B. "Estimating Equilibrium Line Altitude From Glacier Inventory Data." Annals of Glaciology, 50, pp. 127–132. Doi:10.3189/172756410790595930. Leonard, K. C. and Fountain, A. G.. "Map-Based Methods for Estimating Glacier Equilibrium-Line Altitudes." Journal of Glaciology, vol. 49, no. 166, pp. 329–336. Doi:10.3189/172756503781830665. Ohmura, A. Kasser, P. and Funk, M.. "Climate at the Equilibrium Line
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas. There are 49 such countries, including five recognised states; as a rule, being landlocked creates political and economic handicaps that access to the high seas avoids. For this reason, states large and small across history have striven to gain access to open waters at great expense in wealth and political capital; the economic disadvantages of being landlocked can be alleviated or aggravated depending on degree of development, language barriers, other considerations. Some landlocked countries are quite affluent, such as Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Austria, all of which employ neutrality to their political advantage; the majority, are classified as Landlocked Developing Countries. Nine of the twelve countries with the lowest Human Development Indices are landlocked. Being landlocked has been disadvantageous to a country's development, it cuts a nation off from important sea resources such as fishing, impedes or prevents direct access to seaborne trade, a crucial component of economic and social advance.
As such, coastal regions tended to be wealthier and more populated than inland ones. Paul Collier in his book The Bottom Billion argues that being landlocked in a poor geographic neighborhood is one of four major development "traps" by which a country can be held back. In general, he found that when a neighboring country experiences better growth, it tends to spill over into favorable development for the country itself. For landlocked countries, the effect is strong, as they are limited in their trading activity with the rest of the world, he states, ``, you serve the world. Others have argued that being landlocked may be a blessing as it creates a "natural tariff barrier" which protects the country from cheap imports. In some instances, this has led to more robust local food systems. Landlocked developing countries have higher costs of international cargo transportation compared to coastal developing countries. Countries thus have made particular efforts to avoid being landlocked, by acquiring land that reaches the sea: As result of a 2005 territorial exchange with Ukraine, Moldova received a 600 m-long bank of the Danube River, subsequently building its Port of Giurgiulești there.
The International Congo Society, which owned the territory now constituting the Democratic Republic of the Congo, was awarded a narrow piece of land cutting through Angola to connect it to the sea by the Conference of Berlin in 1885. The Republic of Ragusa once gave the town of Neum to the Ottoman Empire because it did not want to have a land border with Venice. Since Bosnia and Herzegovina is a new country and ports have not been built for its need. There is no freight port along its short coastline at Neum, making it landlocked, although there are plans to change this. Instead the port of Ploče in Croatia is used. After World War I, in the Treaty of Versailles, a part of Germany designated "the Polish corridor" was given to the new Second Polish Republic, for access to the Baltic Sea; this without a large harbour. This was the pretext for making Danzig with its harbour the Free City of Danzig, to which Poland was given free access. However, the Germans placed obstacles to this free access when it came to military material.
In response, the small fishing harbour of Gdynia was soon enlarged. Until the dissolution of Austria–Hungary in 1918 at the end of World War I, Austrians and that empire's other nationalities had served in that country's navy, but since Austria and Hungary have both been landlocked countries. Countries can make agreements on getting free transport of goods through neighbor countries: The Treaty of Versailles required Germany to offer Czechoslovakia a lease for 99 years of parts of the ports in Hamburg and Stettin, allowing Czechoslovakia sea trade via the Elbe and Oder rivers. Stettin was annexed by Poland after World War II, but Hamburg continued the contract so that part of the port may still be used for sea trade by a successor of Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic; the Danube is an international waterway, thus landlocked Austria, Moldova and Slovakia have secure access to the Black Sea. However, oceangoing ships cannot use the Danube, so cargo must be transloaded anyway, many overseas imports into Austria and Hungary use land transport from Atlantic and Mediterranean ports.
A similar situation exists for the Rhine river where Switzerland has boat access, but not oceangoing ships. Luxembourg has such through the Moselle, but Liechtenstein has no boat access though it is located along the Rhine, as the Rhine is not navigable that far upstream; the Mekong is an international waterway. However, it is not navigable above the Khone Phapheng Falls. Free ports allow transshipment to short-distance ships or river vessels; the TIR Treaty allows sealed road transport without customs checks and charges in Europe. Losing access to the sea is a great blow to a nation, politically and economically; the following ar
Province No. 3
Province No. 3 is one of the seven provinces of Nepal established by the country's new constitution of 20 September 2015. Home to the country's capital Kathmandu, it is hilly and mountainous, home to peaks including Gaurishankar, Langtang and Ganesh; the province covers an area of 20,300 km2, about 14% of the country's total area, has an altitude low enough to support deciduous and alpine forest and woodland. Temperature varies with altitude. Rainfall takes place during the summer; the Province borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Province No. 1 to the east, Gandaki Pradesh to the west, both Province No. 2 and the Indian state of Bihar to the south. As per a 17 January 2018 Federal cabinet meeting, Hetauda has been declared the interim state capital; the most populous province of Nepal, it possesses rich cultural diversity, with resident communities and castes including Newar, Sherpa, Chepang, Brahmin, Tharu, Chepang and more. It hosted the highest number of voters in the last election for the House of Representatives and Provincial Assembly, which took place in 2017.
The Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Patan High Court is the head of the judiciary; the present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Anuradha Koirala, Dormani Poudel and Tek Bahadur Moktan respectively. The province has 110 provincial assembly constituencies and 35 House of Representative constituencies. Province No. 3 has a unicameral legislature, like all of the other provinces in Nepal. The term length of provincial assembly is five years; the Provincial Assembly of Province No. 3 is temporarily housed at the Regional Education Directorate in Hetauda. Province No. 3 is divided into 13 districts, which are listed below. A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer; the districts are further divided into rural municipalities. The municipalities include three metropolitan cities, one sub-metropolitan city and 41 municipalities.
There are 74 rural municipalities in the province. Bhaktapur District Chitwan District Dhading District Dolakha District Kathmandu District Kavrepalanchok District Lalitpur District Makwanpur District Nuwakot District Ramechhap District Rasuwa District Sindhuli District Sindhupalchok District List of provinces of Nepal List of districts of Nepal
Geography of Nepal
Nepal measures about 800 kilometers along its Himalayan axis by 150 to 250 kilometers across. Nepal has an area of 147,181 square kilometers. Nepal is landlocked by China's Tibet Autonomous Region to the north. West Bengal's narrow Siliguri Corridor or Chicken's Neck separate Bangladesh. To the east are India and Bhutan. Nepal depends on India for goods transport facilities and access to the sea for most goods imported from China. For a small country, Nepal has tremendous geographic diversity, it rises from as low as 59 metres elevation in the tropical Terai—the northern rim of the Gangetic Plain, beyond the perpetual snow line to some 90 peaks over 7,000 metres including Earth's highest 8,848 metres Mount Everest or Sagarmatha. In addition to the continuum from tropical warmth to cold comparable to polar regions, average annual precipitation varies from as little as 160 millimetres in the rainshadow north of the Himalaya to as much as 5,500 millimetres on windward slopes. Along a south-to-north transect, Nepal can be divided into three belts: Terai and Himal.
In the other direction, it is divided into three major river systems, from east to west: Koshi, Gandaki/Narayani and Karnali, all tributaries of the Ganges. The Ganges-Yarlung Zangbo/Brahmaputra watershed coincides with the Nepal-Tibet border, however several Ganges tributaries rise inside Tibet. Terai is a low land region containing some hill ranges; the Terai region begins at the Indian border and includes the southernmost part of the flat, intensively farmed Gangetic Plain called the Outer Terai. By the 19th century and other resources were being exported to India. Industrialization based on agricultural products such as jute began in the 1930s and infrastructure such roadways and electricity were extended across the border before it reached Nepal's pahad; the Outer Terai is culturally more similar to adjacent parts of India's Bihar and Uttar Pradesh than to the Pahad of Nepal. Nepali is taught in schools and spoken in government offices, however the local population uses Maithali and Tharu languages.
The Outer Terai ends at the base of the first range of foothills called the Siwaliks or Churia. This range has a densely forested skirt of coarse alluvium called the bhabhar. Below the bhabhar, less permeable sediments force groundwater to the surface in a zone of springs and marshes. In Persian, terai refers to marshy ground. Before the use of DDT this was dangerously malarial. Nepal's rulers used. Above the bhabhar belt, the Siwaliks rise to about 700 metres with peaks as high as 1,000 metres, steeper on their southern flanks because of faults known as the Main Frontal Thrust; this range is composed of poorly consolidated, coarse sediments that do not retain water or support soil development so there is no agricultural potential and sparse population. In several places beyond the Siwaliks there are dūn valleys called Inner Terai; these valleys have productive soil but were dangerously malarial except to indigenous Tharu people who had genetic resistance. In the mid-1950s DDT came into use to suppress mosquitos and the way was open to settlement from the land-poor hills, to the detriment of the Tharu.
The terai ends and the Pahad begin at a higher range of foothills called the Mahabharat Range. Hilly is a mountain region which doesn't contain snow, it is situated south of the Himal, the hilly is betw altitude. This region begins at the Mahabharat Range where a fault system called the Main Boundary Thrust creates an escarpment 1,000 to 1,500 metres high, to a crest between 1,500 and 2,700 metres; these steep southern slopes are nearly uninhabited, thus an effective buffer between languages and culture in the Terai and hilly. Hindu Paharis populate river and stream bottoms that enable rice cultivation and are warm enough for winter/spring crops of wheat and potato; the urbanized Kathmandu and Pokhara valleys fall within the Hill region. Newars are an indigenous ethnic group with their own Tibeto-Burman language; the Newar were indigenous to the Kathmandu valley but have spread into Pokhara and other towns alongside urbanized Pahari. Other indigenous janajati ethnic groups -— natively speaking localized Tibeto-Burman languages and dialects -— populate hillsides up to about 2,500 metres.
This group includes Magar and Kham Magar west of Pokhara, Gurung south of the Annapurnas, Tamang around the periphery of Kathmandu Valley and Rai, Koinch Sunuwar and Limbu further east. Temperate and subtropical fruits are grown as cash crops. Marijuana was grown and processed into Charas until international pressure persuaded the government to outlaw it in 1976. There is increasing reliance on animal husbandry with elevation, using land above 2,000 metres for summer grazing and moving herds to lower elevations in winter. Grain production has not kept pace with population growth at elevations above 1,000 metres where colder temperatures inhibit double cropping. Food deficits drive emigration out of the pahad in search of employment; the Hilly ends where ridges begin rising out of the temperate climate zone into subalpine zone above 3,000 metres. Himal is a mountain region containing snow; the Mountain Region or Parbat begins where high ridges begin rising above 3,000 metres into the subalpi
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located between the tropics at latitude 23.5° and temperate zones north and south of the Equator. Subtropical climates are characterized by warm to hot summers and cool to mild winters with infrequent frost. Most subtropical climates fall into two basic types: humid subtropical, where rainfall is concentrated in the warmest months, dry summer climate or, where seasonal rainfall is concentrated in the cooler months. Subtropical climates can occur at high elevations within the tropics, such as in the southern end of the Mexican Plateau and in Vietnam and Taiwan. Six climate classifications use the term to help define the various temperature and precipitation regimes for the planet Earth. A great portion of the world's deserts are located within the subtropics, due to the development of the subtropical ridge. Within savanna regimes in the subtropics, a wet season is seen annually during the summer, when most of the yearly rainfall falls. Within Mediterranean climate regimes, the wet season occurs during the winter.
Areas bordering warm oceans are prone to locally heavy rainfall from tropical cyclones, which can contribute a significant percentage of the annual rainfall. Plants such as palms, mango, pistachio and avocado are grown within the subtropics; the tropics have been defined as lying between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn, located at latitudes 23.45° north and south, respectively. According to the American Meteorological Society, the poleward fringe of the subtropics is located at latitudes 35° north and south, respectively. Several methods have been used to define the subtropical climate. In the Trewartha climate classification, a subtropical region should have at least eight months with a mean temperature greater than 10 °C and at least one month with a mean temperature under 18 °C. German climatologists Carl Troll and Karlheinz Paffen defined Warm temperate zones as plain and hilly lands having an average temperature of the coldest month between 2 °C and 13 °C in the Northern Hemisphere and between 6 °C and 13 °C in the Southern Hemisphere, excluding oceanic and continental climates.
According to the Troll-Paffen climate classification, there exists one large subtropical zone named the warm-temperate subtropical zone, subdivided into seven smaller areas. According to the E. Neef climate classification, the subtropical zone is divided into two parts: Rainy winters of the west sides and Eastern subtropical climate. According to the Wilhelm Lauer & Peter Frankenberg climate classification, the subtropical zone is divided into three parts: high-continental and maritime. According to the Siegmund/Frankenberg climate classification, subtropical is one of six climate zones in the world. Heating of the earth near the equator leads to large amounts of upward motion and convection along the monsoon trough or intertropical convergence zone; the upper-level divergence over the near-equatorial trough leads to air rising and moving away from the equator aloft. As the air moves towards the mid-latitudes, it cools and sinks, which leads to subsidence near the 30th parallel of both hemispheres.
This circulation leads to the formation of the subtropical ridge. Many of the world's deserts are caused by these climatological high-pressure areas, located within the subtropics; this regime is known as an arid subtropical climate, located in areas adjacent to powerful cold ocean currents. Examples of this climate are the coastal areas of southern Africa, the south of the Canary Islands and the coasts of Peru and Chile; the humid subtropical climate is located on the western side of the subtropical high. Here, unstable tropical airmasses in summer bring convective overturning and frequent tropical downpours, summer is the season of peak annual rainfall. In the winter the monsoon retreats, the drier trade winds bring more stable airmass and dry weather, frequent sunny skies. Areas that have this type of subtropical climate include Australia, Southeast Asia, parts of South America, the deep south of the United States. In areas bounded by warm ocean like the southeastern United States and East Asia, tropical cyclones can contribute to local rainfall within the subtropics.
Japan receives over half of its rainfall from typhoons. The Mediterranean climate is a subtropical climate with a wet season in winter and a dry season in the summer. Regions with this type of climate include the rim lands of the Mediterranean Sea, southwestern Australia around the Perth area, parts of the west coast of South American around Santiago, the coastal areas of western Mexico, coastal California in the United States; these climates do not see hard frosts or snow, which allows plants such as palms and citrus to flourish. As one moves toward the tropical side the slight winter cool season disappears, while at the poleward threshold of the subtropics the winters become cooler; some crops which have been traditionally farmed in tropical climates, such as mango and avocado, are cultivated in the subtropics. Pest control of the crops is less difficult than within the tropics, due to the cooler winters. Tree ferns are grown within subtropical areas within the subtropics and within topography within the tropics.
Dracaena and yucca can grow within the subtropics. Tre
Kakani is a Gaunpalika and former village development committee in Nuwakot District in Province No. 3 of central Nepal. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census, the Kakani village development committee administered a population of 7816 living in 1343 individual households; as one of the most accessible settlements from Kathmandu over 2000 meters, this hill station hosts a British Gurkhas welfare bungalow and a number of hotels. The village is home to a memorial park to the victims of Thai Airways International Flight 311. A notable local industry is strawberry farming. With the assistance of a United Nations Development Programme project, a local farmers' cooperative now produces close to 250 000 kg of the fruit per year. UN map of the municipalities of Nuwakot District
Province No. 1
Province No. 1 is one of the seven provinces established by the new constitution of Nepal, adopted on 20 September 2015. As per a CDC report, Province No. 1 has 28 parliamentary seats and 56 provincial seats under the first-past-the-post voting system. As per a 17 January 2018 cabinet meeting, the city of Biratnagar has been declared the interim capital of Province No. 1. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, the Indian states of Sikkim and West Bengal to the east, Province No. 3 and Province No. 2 to the west, Bihar of India to the south. According to the 2011 census, there are around 4.5 million people in the province, with a population density of 175.6 per square kilometer. The Kiratas were the aborigines of the north-eastern Himalayas. According to Baburam Acharya, they ruled over it, they were short and had robust bodies, broad cheeks, flat noses, thin whiskers, dark eyes. They were well trained in the art of warfare, were skillful archers, they were the ancestors of the present day Kiratas.
Yalamber the king of the Kiratas defeated Bhuvan Singh, the last king of the Ahir dynasty and established Kirat rule in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. He extended his kingdom as far as the Trishuli River in the west. Kirata's Kingdom was divided into many principalities and chiefs ruled in eastern Nepal. Limbuwan, Morang Kingdom belonged to them. King of Gorkha unified all the kirati kingdoms or Principalities in Nepal from 1771 to 1789. Before establishment of new constitution on 20 September 2015, the area of Province No. 1 was one of the five Development Regions of Nepal, named Eastern Development Region. It had 16 districts, 14 existing districts of Province No. 1 and 2 districts Siraha and Saptari of Province No. 2. The Eastern Development Region was divided into 3 zones; the zones were: Kosi Zone and Sagarmatha Zone. Mechi included 4 districts, Kosi included Sagarmatha included 6 districts; the total area of The region was 28,456 km². Province No. 1 covers an area of 25,905 km2. The Province has three-fold geographical division: Himalayan in the north, Hilly in the middle and Terai in the southern part of Nepal, varying between an altitude of 60 m and 8,848 m.
Terai, extended from east to west, is made up of alluvial soil. To the west of Koshi River, in between Mahabharat Range and Churia Range, there elongates a valley called Inner Terai. Churai Range, Mahabharat Range and other hills of various height, basins and valleys form the hilly region; some parts of this region are favorable for agriculture but some other parts are not. Himalayan region, in the north, consists of many mountains ranges. Mahalangur, Umvek, Lumba Sumba and Janak being some of them; the highest mountain in the world, Mount Everest. Nepal's lowest point, Kechana Kawal at 58 m, is located in Jhapa district of this Province. There are gentle slopes as well. Chure, many basins and valleys form the Terai region. Between the Churia and Mahabharat a low land of inner Terai exists; the Koshi river flows through the region with its seven tributaries. Tundra vegetables, coniferous forest, deciduous monsoon forests and sub-tropical evergreen woods are vegetations found here. Sub-tropical, sub-temperate, alpine and tundra types of climates are found here.
Province No. 1 includes the snow fall capped peaks including Mt. Everest, Makalu with Solukhumbu and Taplejung districts towards the north, the jungle clad hill tracts of Okhaldhunga, Bhojpur, Tehrathum and Panchthar in the middle and the alluvial fertile plains of Udayapur, Sunsari and Jhapa. Province 1 includes places like Haleshi Mahadev Temple, Pathivara Temple and Barahachhetra, which are the famous religious shrines for Hindus. Climatic conditions of Nepal vary from one place to another in accordance with their geographical features. Province no. 1 has three geographical folds: The low-land of Terai, the hilly region and the highlands of the Himalayas. The low land altitude is 59 m. Whereas the highest point is 8848 m. In the north summers are cool and winters severe, while in the south summers are tropical and winters are mild. Climatically, the southern belt of Province, the Terai, experiences warm and humid climate. Eastern Nepal receives 2,500 millimeters of rain annually. Province no. 1 has five seasons: spring, monsoon and winter.
Northern part of Province No. 1 has the highest mountain of the world and there are many peaks that are higher. Here is a list of mountains in Province No. 1. There are many rivers in the region which flow towards south from the Himalayas which are tributaries of other large rivers which joins Ganga River. Sapt Koshi or the Koshi is the main river of the region. Seven tributaries join the Koshi; the major rivers in the province are: Mechi River Kankai River Koshi River Below given names are tributaries: Tamor Arun River Sun Koshi Dudh Koshi Likhu Khola Bhote Koshi Indrawati River Sagarmatha National Park – 1,148 km2 Makalu Barun National Park – 1,500 km2 Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve – 175 km2 Kanchenjunga Conservation Area – 2,035 km2 Gokyo Lake Complex – 7,770 ha Kosi