Dutch East India Company
The Dutch East India Company was an early megacorporation founded by a government-directed amalgamation of several rival Dutch trading companies in the early 17th century. It was established on March 20, 1602 as a chartered company to trade with India and Indianised Southeast Asian countries when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on the Dutch spice trade, it has been labelled a trading company or sometimes a shipping company. However, VOC was in fact a proto-conglomerate company, diversifying into multiple commercial and industrial activities such as international trade and both production and trade of East Indian spices, Formosan sugarcane, South African wine.. The Company was a transcontinental employer and an early pioneer of outward foreign direct investment; the Company's investment projects helped raise the commercial and industrial potential of many underdeveloped or undeveloped regions of the world in the early modern period. In the early 1600s, by issuing bonds and shares of stock to the general public, VOC became the world's first formally-listed public company.
In other words, it was the first corporation to be listed on an official stock exchange. It was influential in the rise of corporate-led globalisation in the early modern period. With its pioneering institutional innovations and powerful roles in global business history, the Company is considered by many to be the forerunner of modern corporations. In many respects, modern-day corporations are all the'direct descendants' of the VOC model, it was their 17th century institutional innovations and business practices that laid the foundations for the rise of giant global corporations in subsequent centuries — as a significant and formidable socio-politico-economic force of the modern-day world – to become the dominant factor in all economic systems today. They served as the direct model for the organisational reconstruction of the English/British East India Company in 1657; the Company, for nearly 200 years of its existence, had transformed itself from a corporate entity into a state or an empire in its own right.
One of the most influential and best expertly researched business enterprises in history, the VOC's world has been the subject of a vast amount of literature that includes both fiction and nonfiction works. The company was an exemplary company-state rather than a pure for-profit corporation. A government-backed military-commercial enterprise, the VOC was the wartime brainchild of leading Dutch republican statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt and the States-General. From its inception in 1602, the Company was not only a commercial enterprise but effectively an instrument of war in the young Dutch Republic's revolutionary global war against the powerful Spanish Empire and Iberian Union. In 1619, the Company forcibly established a central position in the Indonesian city of Jayakarta, changing the name to Batavia. Over the next two centuries the Company acquired additional ports as trading bases and safeguarded their interests by taking over surrounding territory. To guarantee its supply, the Company established positions in many countries and became an early pioneer of outward foreign direct investment.
In its foreign colonies, the VOC possessed quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war and execute convicts, negotiate treaties, strike its own coins, establish colonies. With increasing importance of foreign posts, the Company is considered the world's first true transnational corporation. Along with the Dutch West India Company, the VOC was seen as the international arm of the Dutch Republic and the symbolic power of the Dutch Empire. To further its trade routes, the VOC-funded exploratory voyages, such as those led by Willem Janszoon, Henry Hudson, Abel Tasman, revealed unknown landmasses to the western world. In the Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography, VOC navigators and cartographers helped shape geographical knowledge of the world as we know it today. Socio-economic changes in Europe, the shift in power balance, less successful financial management resulted in a slow decline of the VOC between 1720 and 1799. After the financially disastrous Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, the company was nationalised in 1796, dissolved in 1799.
All assets were taken over by the government with VOC territories becoming Dutch government colonies. The company has been criticised for its monopolistic policy, colonialism, uses of violence, slavery. In Dutch, the name of the company is Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, abbreviated to VOC; the company's monogram logo was the first globally recognised corporate logo. The logo of the VOC consisted of a large capital ` V' with a C on the right leg, it appeared on various corporate items, such as coins. The first letter of the hometown of the chamber conducting the operation was placed on top; the monogram, flexibility, simplicity, symmetry and symbolism are considered notable characteristics of the VOC's professionally designed logo. Those elements ensured its success at a time when the concept of the corporate identity was unknown. An Australian vintner has used the VOC logo since the late 20th century, having re-registered the company's name for the purpose.
The flag of the company was red and blue, with the company logo embroidered on it. Around the world, in Engl
Rear Admiral Sir John Franklin was a British Royal Navy officer and explorer of the Arctic. Franklin served as Lieutenant-Governor of Van Diemen's Land from 1837 to 1843, he disappeared while on his last expedition, attempting to chart and navigate the Northwest Passage in the North American Arctic. The icebound ships were abandoned and the entire crew died of starvation, tuberculosis, lead poisoning, scurvy. Franklin was born in Spilsby, Lincolnshire, on 16 April 1786, the ninth of twelve children born to Hannah Weekes and Willingham Franklin, his father was a merchant descended from a line of country gentlemen while his mother was the daughter of a farmer. One of his brothers entered the legal profession and became a judge in Madras. Educated at King Edward VI Grammar School in Louth, he soon became interested in a career at sea, his father, who intended for Franklin to enter the church or become a businessman, was opposed but was reluctantly convinced to allow him to go on a trial voyage on a merchant ship when he was aged 12.
His experience of seafaring only confirmed his interest in a career at sea, so in March 1800, Franklin's father secured him a Royal Navy appointment on HMS Polyphemus. Commanded by a Captain Lawford, the Polyphemus carried 64 guns and, at the time of Franklin's appointment, was still at sea, he did not join the vessel until the autumn of 1800. Serving as a first class volunteer, Franklin soon saw action in the Battle of Copenhagen in which the Polyphemus participated as part of Horatio Nelson's squadron. An expedition to the coast of Australia aboard HMS Investigator, commanded by Captain Matthew Flinders, with Franklin now a midshipman, he was present at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 aboard HMS Bellerophon, at the Battle of New Orleans. He accompanied Captain Nathaniel Dance on the Earl Camden, frightening off Admiral Charles de Durand-Linois at the Battle of Pulo Aura in the South China Sea on 14 February 1804. In 1819, Franklin was chosen to lead an expedition overland from Hudson Bay to chart the north coast of Canada eastwards from the mouth of the Coppermine River.
On his 1819 expedition, Franklin fell into the Hayes River at Robinson Falls and was rescued by a member of his expedition about 90 metres downstream. Between 1819 and 1822, he lost 11 of the 20 men in his party. Most died of starvation, but there were at least one murder and suggestions of cannibalism; the survivors were forced to eat lichen and attempted to eat their own leather boots. This gained Franklin the nickname of "the man who ate his boots". In 1823, after returning to England, Franklin married the poet Eleanor Anne Porden, their daughter, Eleanor Isabella, was born the following year. His wife died of tuberculosis in 1825. In 1825, he left for his second third Arctic expedition; the goal this time was the mouth of the Mackenzie River from which he would follow the coast westward and meet Frederick William Beechey who would try to sail northeast from the Bering Strait. With him was John Richardson who would follow the coast east from the Mackenzie to the mouth of the Coppermine River.
At the same time, William Edward Parry would try to sail west from the Atlantic. Supplies were better organized this time, in part because they were managed by Peter Warren Dease of the Hudson's Bay Company. After reaching the Great Slave Lake using the standard HBC route, Franklin took a reconnaissance trip 1,000 miles down the Mackenzie and on 16 August 1825, became the second European to reach its mouth, he erected a flagpole with buried letters for Parry. He returned to winter at Fort Franklin on the Great Bear Lake; the following summer he found the ocean frozen. He worked his way west for several hundred miles and gave up on 16 August 1826 at Return Reef when he was about 150 miles east of Beechey's Point Barrow. Reaching safety at Fort Franklin on 21 September, he left Fort Franklin on 20 February 1827 and spent the rest of the winter and spring at Fort Chipewyan, he reached Liverpool on the first of September 1827. Richardson's eastward journey was more successful. On 5 November 1828, he married Jane Griffin, a friend of his first wife and a seasoned traveller who proved indomitable in the course of their life together.
On 29 April 1829, he was knighted by George IV and the same year awarded the first Gold Medal of the Société de Géographie of France. On 25 January 1836, he was made Knight Commander of the Royal Guelphic Order and a Knight of the Greek Order of the Redeemer. Franklin was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Van Diemen's Land in 1837, but was removed from office in 1843, he is remembered by a significant landmark in the centre of Hobart—a statue of him dominates the park known as Franklin Square, the site of the original Government House. On the plinth below the statue appears Tennyson's epitaph: His wife worked to set up a university, established in 1890, a museum, credited to the Royal Society of Tasmania in 1843 under the leadership of her husband. Lady Franklin may have worked to have the Lieutenant-Governor's private botanical gardens, established in 1818, managed as a public resource. Lady Franklin established a glyptotheque and surrounding lands to support it near Hobart; the village of Frankli
The Fungiidae are a family of Cnidaria known as mushroom corals. The family contains thirteen extant genera, they range from solitary corals to colonial species. Some genera such as Cycloseris and Fungia are solitary organisms, Polyphyllia consists of a single organism with multiple mouths, Ctenactis and Herpolitha might be considered as solitary organisms with multiple mouths or a colony of individuals, each with its separate mouth. Species are solitary marine animals capable of benthic locomotion; these corals appear to be bleached or dead. In most genera, a single polyp emerges from the center of the skeleton to feed at night. Most species remain detached from the substrate in adulthood; some are immobile as well as colonial. Some species of mushroom coral such as Fungia repanda and Ctenactis echinata are able to change sex; this is posited to take place in response to environmental or energetic constraints, to improve the organism's evolutionary fitness. The World Register of Marine Species includes these genera in the family: Cantharellus Hoeksema & Best, 1984 Ctenactis Verrill, 1864 Cycloseris Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849 Danafungia Wells, 1966 Fungia Lamarck, 1801 Halomitra Dana, 1846 Heliofungia Wells, 1966 Herpolitha Eschscholtz, 1825 Lithophyllon Rehberg, 1892 Lobactis Verrill, 1864 Pleuractis Verrill, 1864 Podabacia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849 Polyphyllia Blainville, 1830 Sandalolitha Quelch, 1884 Sinuorota Oku, Naruse & Fukami, 2017 Zoopilus Dana, 1846 One fungiid species, Heliofungia actiniformis, can be mistaken for a sea anemone because its tentacles remain visible during the day.
Fungia spp. have a commensal pipefish, Siokunichthys nigrolineatus. Heliofungia actiniformis provides shelter to some fish species; some fungiids can look like a sea cucumber. Some fungiids have been observed eating jellyfish. Members of the family Fungiidae are not of any commercial importance, but are collected for the aquarium trade and are sold as "plate corals". Coral fungus Mussidae Fungiidae at the Encyclopedia of Life AIMS CoralSearch - Heliofungia actiniformis Stony Corals Image Gallery Fungia scruposa eating a jelly fish
Streaky Bay, South Australia
Streaky Bay is a coastal town on the western side of the Eyre Peninsula, in South Australia just off the Flinders Highway 303 km north west of Port Lincoln and 727 km by road from Adelaide. At the 2011 census, Streaky Bay recorded a population of 1,625; the town of Streaky Bay is the major population centre of the District Council of Streaky Bay, the centre of an agricultural district farming cereal crops and sheep, as well as having established fishing and tourism industries. The first European to sight the area was Dutch explorer Pieter Nuyts, in 1627 in the Golden Zeepaard. A monument has been erected on the median strip in Bay Road. In 1802 Matthew Flinders named Streaky Bay whilst on his voyage in the Investigator. In his log of 5 February 1802, he describes: "And the water was much discoloured in Streaks... and I called it Streaky Bay"It is now thought these streaks are caused by the release of oils by certain species of seaweed in the bay. The first European land exploration was conducted on behalf of the Secondary Towns Association by John Hill and Samuel Stephens, whose expedition arrived at Streaky Bay on 15 August 1839 using the chartered brig Rapid as a base.
A fortnight on 25 August 1839, Edward John Eyre, who had explored overland from Port Lincoln, arrived at this locality and established a small base about 3 kilometres from what is now the Streaky Bay Township which he used as a store for his overland expeditions to Point Bell. This site, known as Eyre's Waterhole, is listed on the South Australian Heritage Register, can still be seen today just off the Flinders Highway. Pastoralists moved into the area from 1854; the town was proclaimed in 1872 called Flinders, but was changed in 1940 to Streaky Bay to reflect local usage of the name. Wheat growing began in the 1880s and by 1906, 31,000 bags of wheat and 470 bales of wool had been exported from Streaky Bay by ship. By this time a telegraph office had been established and regular mail deliveries were made from Port Lincoln. In September 1918, a massive Blue Whale over 26 metres long, was cast onto rocks on Gibson's Peninsula, its skeleton is still on display in the South Australian Museum. Streaky Bay and the surrounding district show a great variety of landscapes, from untouched native scrubland and farming country to cliffs and extensive surf beaches.
The inland areas of the district are dominated by pastoral country. The areas most interesting geological features are Murphy's Haystacks; these pink granite formations have been dated at 1590 million years old. The features that most draw tourists are along the immense stretch of coastline surrounding the bay; the Bay itself is protected and quiet stretches of beach can be found along most of its length. However, where the coastline is exposed to the swells of the Southern Ocean, cliffs are exposed, along with sheltered areas that harbour large rockpools, such as Smooth Pool and The Granites; the islands of the Nuyts Archipelago lie to the north-west. Streaky Bay has a mild climate with the average a few degrees above Adelaide in summer and winter with an average rainfall of 378 mm per year; the township of Streaky Bay is situated on the southern end of the bay, on an enclosed inlet named Blanche Port or Augusta Harbor. Streaky Bay has a subtropical mediterranean climate with warm and hot summers with a long dry season, coupled by a moderately wet and mild winter season.
Due to its proximity to the vast desert to its north, Streaky Bay is prone to getting hot extreme temperature in spite of its seaside position. However, the same geographical position tends to reduce summer relative humidity compared to many other mediterranean climates; the hottest temperature was recorded at 47.8°C on January 24, 2019. Agriculture and fishing have long been the primary industries of the Streaky Bay region, with modern aquaculture now playing a large part in the local economy; the local economy is dominated by agriculture, with an emphasis on wheat and other cereals as well as sheep. Due to the arid conditions, dryland farming techniques are applied. Recent diversification has seen the successful testing of Damara sheep, Boer goats and olives which all offer potential future investments. Commercial fishing has played a major role in the economy of the area since the early 1900s, with Snapper and King George Whiting being the main targets of fishermen. More aquaculture of oysters and abalone has expanded and thrived in the waters of Streaky Bay.
Tourism is an ever-growing component of the local economy, with town numbers swelling during the summer holidays and at Easter. Tourists are attracted by the many natural attractions of the area as well as a host of recreational activities; the most popular of these is undoubtedly recreational fishing, with hundreds of anglers flocking to the area to sample the renowned whiting on offer. Beach and boat fishing are available, with a built boat ramp to cater for the boaters wishing to explore the area. King George whiting and Blue Swimmer Crabs are the most targeted species, with many more available. Other activities include hiking, surfing and scuba diving, with guided charters being available. In the 2011 census, Streaky Bay had a population of 1,625; the majority of residents were born in Australia. The most common response for religion was "No Religion" 26.6%, followed by Catholic 22.7%, Ang
A heath is a shrubland habitat found on free-draining infertile, acidic soils and is characterised by open, low-growing woody vegetation. Moorland is related to high-ground heaths with—especially in Great Britain—a cooler and damper climate. Heaths are fast disappearing and considered a rare habitat in Europe, they form extensive and diverse communities across Australia in humid and sub-humid areas where fire regimes with recurring burning are required for the maintenance of the heathlands. More diverse though less widespread heath communities occur in Southern Africa. Extensive heath communities can be found in the California chaparral, New Caledonia, central Chile and along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. In addition to these extensive heath areas, the vegetation type is found in scattered locations across all continents, except Antarctica. Heathland is favoured where climatic conditions are hard and dry in summer, soils acidic, of low fertility, sandy and free-draining. Heaths are dominated by low shrubs, 20 centimetres to 2 metres tall.
Heath vegetation can be plant-species rich, heathlands of Australia are home to some 3,700 endemic or typical species in addition to numerous less restricted species. The fynbos heathlands of South Africa are second only to tropical rainforests in plant biodiversity with over 7,000 species. In marked contrast, the tiny pockets of heathland in Europe are depauperate with a flora consisting of heather and gorse; the bird fauna of heathlands are cosmopolitan species of the region. In the depauperate heathlands of Europe, bird species tend to be more characteristic of the community and include Montagu's harrier, the tree pipit. In Australia the heathland avian fauna is dominated by nectar-feeding birds such as honey-eaters and lorikeets although numerous other birds from emus to eagles are common in Australian heathlands. Australian heathlands are home to the world's only nectar-feeding terrestrial mammal: the honey possum; the bird fauna of the South African fynbos includes sunbirds and siskins.
Heathlands are an excellent habitat for insects including ants, moths and wasps with many species being restricted to it. One such example of an organism restricted to heathland is the silver-studded blue butterfly, Plebejus argus. Anthropogenic heath habitats are a cultural landscape that can be found worldwide in locations as diverse as northern and western Europe, the Americas, New Zealand and New Guinea; these heaths were created or expanded by centuries of human clearance of the natural forest and woodland vegetation, by grazing and burning. In some cases this clearance went so far that parts of the heathland have given way to open spots of pure sand and sand dunes, with a local climate that in Europe, can experience temperatures of 50 °C in summer, drying the sand spot bordering the heathland and further raising its vulnerability for wildfires. Referring to heathland in England, Oliver Rackham says, "Heaths are the product of human activities and need to be managed as heathland. In recent years the conservation value of these man-made heaths has become much more appreciated, most heathlands are protected.
However they are threatened by tree incursion because of the discontinuation of traditional management techniques such as grazing and burning that mediated the landscapes. Some are threatened by urban sprawl. Anthropogenic heathlands are maintained artificially by a combination of grazing and periodic burning, or mowing; the re-colonising tree species will depend on what is available as the local seed source, thus it may not reflect the natural vegetation before the heathland became established. Bolster heath Chalk heath Garrigue Maquis shrubland Matorral Scrubland The Countryside Agency information on types of open land Origin of the word'heath'
Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organizations involved; the term "protected area" includes Marine Protected Areas, the boundaries of which will include some area of ocean, Transboundary Protected Areas that overlap multiple countries which remove the borders inside the area for conservation and economic purposes. There are over 161,000 protected areas in the world with more added daily, representing between 10 and 15 percent of the world's land surface area. By contrast, only 1.17% of the world's oceans is included in the world's ~6,800 Marine Protected Areas. Protected areas are essential for biodiversity conservation providing habitat and protection from hunting for threatened and endangered species. Protection helps maintain ecological processes that cannot survive in most intensely managed landscapes and seascapes.
Protected areas are understood to be those in which human occupation or at least the exploitation of resources is limited. The definition, accepted across regional and global frameworks has been provided by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in its categorisation guidelines for protected areas; the definition is as follows: A defined geographical space, recognized and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. The objective of protected areas is to conserve biodiversity and to provide a way for measuring the progress of such conservation. Protected areas will encompass several other zones that have been deemed important for particular conservation uses, such as Important Bird Areas and Endemic Bird Areas, Centres of Plant Diversity and Community Conserved Areas, Alliance for Zero Extinction Sites and Key Biodiversity Areas among others. A protected area or an entire network of protected areas may lie within a larger geographic zone, recognised as a terrestrial or marine ecoregions, or a crisis ecoregions for example.
As a result, Protected Areas can encompass a broad range of governance types. Indeed, governance of protected areas has emerged a critical factor in their success. Subsequently, the range of natural resources that any one protected area may guard is vast. Many will be allocated for species conservation whether it be flora or fauna or the relationship between them, but protected areas are important for conserving sites of cultural importance and considerable reserves of natural resources such as. Of all global terrestrial carbon stock, 15.2% is contained within protected areas. Protected areas in South America hold 27% of the world's carbon stock, the highest percentage of any country in both absolute terms and as a proportion of the total stock. Rainforests: 18.8% of the world's forest is covered by protected areas and sixteen of the twenty forest types have 10% or more protected area coverage. Of the 670 ecoregions with forest cover, 54% have 10% or more of their forest cover protected under IUCN Categories I – VI.
Mountains: Nationally designated protected areas cover 14.3% of the world's mountain areas, these mountainous protected areas made up 32.5% of the world's total terrestrial protected area coverage in 2009. Mountain protected area coverage has increased globally by 21% since 1990 and out of the 198 countries with mountain areas, 43.9% still have less than 10% of their mountain areas protected. Annual updates on each of these analyses are made in order to make comparisons to the Millennium Development Goals and several other fields of analysis are expected to be introduced in the monitoring of protected areas management effectiveness, such as freshwater and marine or coastal studies which are underway, islands and drylands which are in planning. Through its World Commission on Protected Areas, the IUCN has developed six Protected Area Management Categories that define protected areas according to their management objectives, which are internationally recognised by various national governments and the United Nations.
The categories provide international standards for defining protected areas and encourage conservation planning according to their management aims. IUCN Protected Area Management Categories: Category Ia — Strict Nature Reserve Category Ib — Wilderness Area Category II — National Park Category III — Natural Monument or Feature Category IV — Habitat/Species Management Area Category V — Protected Landscape/Seascape Category VI – Protected Area with sustainable use of natural resources Protected areas are cultural artifacts, their story is entwined with that of human civilization. Protecting places and resources is by no means a modern concept, whether it be indigenous communities guarding sacred sites or the convention of European hunting reserves. Over 2000 years ago, royal decrees in India protected certain areas. In Europe and powerful people protected hunting grounds for a thousand years. Moreover, the idea of protection of special places is universal: for example, it occurs among the communities in the Pacific and in parts of Africa.
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John Hart (South Australian colonist)
Captain John Hart was a South Australian politician and a Premier of South Australia. His son John Hart, Jr. was inaugural president of the Port Adelaide Football Club and had a brief political career. The son of journalist/newspaper publisher John Harriott Hart and Mary Hart née Glanville, John was born on 25 February 1809 at 23 Warwick Lane off Newgate Street, London. At Christ Church Greyfriars, John was baptised. At 12 years of age he first went to sea, visiting Hobart, Van Diemen's Land in September 1828 in the Magnet. In 1832 Hart was in command of the schooner Elizabeth, a sealer operating from Tasmania and visiting Kangaroo Island and Gulf St Vincent. In 1833 he took Edward Henty to and from Portland Bay. In 1836 he was sent to London to purchase another vessel, returning in the Isabella took the first livestock from Tasmania to South Australia in 1837. On the return voyage the Isabella was wrecked off Cape Nelson and Hart lost everything he had. Early January 1838 he was "on the River Murray near Mount Hope" and foresaw the great thoroughfare it would become in the second half of that century.
He went to Adelaide and John B. Hack sent him to Sydney to buy a vessel; some of this stock he brought overland to South Australia. Hack gave Hart two acres of land in Adelaide. In 1839 he managed a whaling station at Encounter Bay. In January 1843 Hart sailed to England in command of the South Australian Company's ageing barque Sarah and Elizabeth, delivering it to London for sale. Aboard as a passenger was the explorer John Hill, from whom Hart had just purchased Section 2112 at Port Adelaide, in partnership with Jacob Hagen. In December 1843 Hart returned to Adelaide in command of the barque Augustus of which he was part owner with Jacob Hagen and Hagen's brother. Among the passengers was the artist George French Angas. After another voyage to England he gave up the sea in 1846, settled near Port Adelaide, where he joined with H. Kent Hughes as merchants Hughes and Hart as Hart & Company, established large and successful flour mills, his flour mill at the Port was regarded as one of the best, "Hart's Flour" commanded the highest prices in Australia.
John Hart & Co. merged with the Adelaide Milling Company in 1882. He was a member of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society and its president from 1858 to 1859, he became interested in copper mining, some imputations having been made of underhand dealings in connection with leases, challenged inquiry. A select committee exonerated Hart stating that his conduct in every particular had been that of a honourable and upright man. Hart took an interest in public affairs, in 1851. Hart resigned in 1853 to visit England and was re-elected the next year, serving until the Council expired in 1857. In 1857 Hart became a member for Port Adelaide in the first House of Assembly, he was Treasurer of South Australia in the Baker ministry which lasted only a few days in August 1857, held the same position in the Hanson cabinet from 30 September 1857 to 12 June 1858 when he resigned. Hart was chief secretary in the short-lived first Dutton ministry in July 1863, was Treasurer in the first and second Ayers ministries, the first Blyth ministry from July 1863 to March 1865.
Hart became premier and chief secretary from 23 October 1865 to 28 March 1866 at which date he resigned from parliament. Hart was member for Light from May 1868 to April 1870. Including a second short stint as premier from 24 September 1868 to 13 October 1868. At the 1870 election, Hart changed seats to represent The Burra, the seat he retained until his death, he was premier and Treasurer again from 30 May 1870 to 10 November 1871. One newspaper obituary gave the opinion that Hart had been unfairly criticised in several of his decisions and should have been given credit for the Overland Telegraph Line rather than Sir Henry Ayers. Hart died on 28 January 1873 while presiding at a meeting of the Mercantile Marine Insurance Company, leaving a widow and a large family. Hart was created C. M. G. in 1870. John Hart married Mary Gillmor Kathrine Todd fourth daughter of Charles Hawkes Todd on 12 May 1845,. John Hart, Jr. married Emily Lavinia Finch on 8 August 1877. He died at Wooton Lea, Glen Osmond Mary Hart married Henry Huth Walters on 14 October 1868 Charles Hawkes Todd Hart was manager Port Adelaide flour mill 1873, may have returned to England.
Annie Hart married Rowland James Egerton-Warburton on 14 May 1872. Rowland was a son of Colonel Peter Egerton-Warburton. Katherine Hart married Algernon Arbuthnott Godwin on 9 January 1879 Other South Australian flour millers of the period were: Dr. Benjamin Archer Kent, for whom Kent Town, the site of his mill, was named. John Darling and Son John Dunn James Magarey and his son William James Magarey William Randell John Ridley Sally O'Neill,'Hart, John', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 4, Melbourne University Press, 1972, pp 355–356. Retrieved 22 January 2009 Serle, Percival (1