Nyasaland was a British protectorate located in Africa, established in 1907 when the former British Central Africa Protectorate changed its name. Between 1953 and 1963, Nyasaland was part of the Federation of Nyasaland. After the Federation was dissolved, Nyasaland became independent from Britain on 6 July 1964 and was renamed Malawi. Nyasaland's history was marked by the massive loss of African communal lands in the early colonial period. In January 1915, the Reverend John Chilembwe staged an attempt at rebellion in protest at discrimination against Africans. Colonial authorities reassessed some of their policies. From the 1930s, a growing class of educated African elite, many educated in the United Kingdom, became politically active and vocal about gaining independence, they established associations and, after 1944, the Nyasaland African Congress. When Nyasaland was forced in 1953 into a Federation with Southern and Northern Rhodesia, there was a rise in civic unrest, as this was unpopular among the people of the territory.
The failure of the NAC to prevent this caused its collapse. Not long afterwards, a younger and more militant generation revived the NAC, they invited Hastings Banda to return to the country and lead it to independence as Malawi in 1964. The 1911 census was the first; the population according to this census was: Africans, classed as "natives": 969,183, Europeans 766, Asians 481. In March 1920 Europeans numbered 1,015 and Asians 515; the number of Africans was estimated at 561,600 males and 664,400 females, a total of 1,226,000. Blantyre, the chief town, had some 300 European residents; the number of resident Europeans was always small, only 1,948 in 1945. By 1960 their numbers rose to about 9,500, but they declined afterward following the struggle for independence; the number of ethnic Asian residents, many of whom were traders and merchants, was small. The category of ` native' was large. In a Nyasaland court case of 1929, the judge opined that, "A native means a native of Africa, not of European or Asiatic race or origin.
A person's race or origin does not depend on where she is born. Race depends on the blood in one's veins...". Unlike Europeans of British origin, Nyasaland natives did not hold British citizenship under British nationality law, but had the lesser status of British protected person; the term'native' was used in all colonial censuses up to and including 1945. By the 1950s, the indigenous people of Nyasaland regarded the term as offensive. Census data from colonial censuses and the first census after independence in the table below show a population that increased quite rapidly; the de facto populations count those. @derived from the de jure population by subtraction of those known to be abroad. +derived from the de facto population by addition of those known to be abroad. Source: Final Report of the 1966 Census of Malawi, Zomba, 1968; the colonial censuses were imprecise: those of 1901 and 1911 estimated the African population based on hut tax records, adult male tax defaulters went unrecorded. The censuses of 1921, 1926 and 1931 did not make individual counts of the African population under-estimated absentees, under-counted in remote areas.
The census of 1945 was still not a true record of the African population. The censuses of 1921, 1931 and 1945 all recorded the numbers of Mozambique immigrants; those conducted before 1945 may have under-recorded the number of Africans and the full extent of labour emigration out of Nyasaland. Throughout the colonial period and up to the present, the rural population density of Nyasaland/Malawi has been among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the population increased quite doubling between 1901 and 1931, high infant mortality and deaths from tropical diseases restricted the natural increase to no more than 1 to 2 percent a year; the rest of the increase seems to have resulted from immigration from Mozambique. From 1931 to 1945, natural increase doubled through improved medical services, infant mortality decreased. Although immigration continued throughout the colonial period, it was a less significant factor; the 1921 census listed 108,204 "Anguru". It is that a large number of those listed under other tribal names had crossed the border from Mozambique as well.
It is likely that the numbers of immigrants from tribal groups believed to belong to surrounding territories Mozambique and Northern Rhodesia, had doubled between 1921 and 1931. Most of this large migratory movement took place after 1926; the Anguru population further increased by more than 60 percent between 1931 and 1945. The 1966 census recorded 283,854 foreign-born Africans, of whom about 70 percent were born in Mozambique; this inward immigration of families was somewhat balanced by outward labour emigration by men, to Southern Rhodesia and South Africa. The development of Nyasaland was adversely affected by the drain of workers to other countries; the Nyasaland government estimated that 58,000 adult males were working outside Nyasaland in 1935. The Southern Rhodesian census of 1931 alone recorded 54,000 male Nyasaland Africans there, so the former estimate was undercounting the total number of workers in other countries. In 1937, it was estimated that over 90,000 adult males were migrant workers: of these a quarter was thought not to have been in touch with their families for more than five years.
By 1945 124,000
Joseph G. Galway, was an American meteorologist pioneering in the fields of severe convective storm forecasting and research, he was one of the first forecasters for the Severe Local Storms Unit and the National Severe Storms Forecast Center, developed used synoptic predictors associated with severe thunderstorms and tornadoes, such as the jet streak and lifted index. Joseph G. Galway was born on December 1922 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, his parents encouraged him to get a college education and he attended Boston College. Galway majored in economics, he enrolled in the Army in the fall of 1940, with war imminent, received a compressed formation in just 28 months in December 1942, preceding duty in the US Army Air Service. There, Galway was sent to Brown University for a 26-week premeteorology program entered the 9-month cadet meteorology program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on October 4, 1943. Galway graduated from June 5, 1944 and was sent as an air traffic controller in the Pacific theater where he kept notes with which he wrote Across the Pacific in 1947 but did not published.
After discharge from the air force in 1946, Galway returned to Boston College and completed his bachelor degree in economics in 1947 before enrolling at Babson Institute of Business Administration in Wellesley, Massachusetts. Galway went back to MIT afterward to take a refresher courses in meteorology in 1949 while applying for work as a Weather Bureau forecaster. In 1950, he worked at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution but by December 1950, he was offered a job at Jacksonville, Florida by the Bureau and reported there on February 1, 1951. In the spring of 1952, U. S. Weather Bureau Chief Francis Reichelderfer formed a special unit on severe storms forecasting following the sucecss of the first successful forecast of a tornado at Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahoma City on 25 March 1948. Joseph Galway was the first bureau forecaster to accept assignment to this unit that became known as severe local storms unit; the group of five forecasters was trained by members of the Weather Bureau and Army Navy Analysis Unit on forecasting rules.
The SELS forecasters worked on shift to issue bulletins and warnings but were encouraged to spend time on research projects during low convection seasons. Galway’s research began in the mid-1950s and continued until his retirement in 1984, he was a forecaster from 1952 to 1965 and from 1972 to 1984 with a break to be the Deputy Director of the center, by named National Severe Storms Forecast Center. Some of his early contributions were: the lifted index, the relationship between the upper-level jet and tornadoes. Besides his contributions to meteorology, Galway has written on the history of severe weather forecasting in the United States. Joseph G. Galway passed away in Kansas City, Missouri on June 29, 1998. Galway, J. G.. "The lifted index as a predictor of latent instability". Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 37: 528–529. Doi:10.1175/1520-0477-37.10.528. Galway, J. G.. "The Topeka tornado of 8 June 1966". Weatherwise. 19: 144–149. Doi:10.1080/00431672.1966.9930516. Galway, J. G.. "Some climatological aspects of tornado outbreaks".
Mon. Wea. Rev. 105: 477–484. Doi:10.1175/1520-0493105<0477:SCAOTO>2.0. CO. Galway, J. G.. "J. P. Finley: The first severe storms forecaster". Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 66: 1389–1395. Doi:10.1175/1520-0477066<1389:JFTFSS>2.0. CO. Galway, J. G.. "The evolution of severe thunderstorm criteria with the weather service". Wea. Forecasting. 4: 585–592. Doi:10.1175/1520-0434004<0585:TEOSTC>2.0. CO. Galway, J. G.. "Early severe thunderstorm forecasting and research by the United States Weather Bureau". Wea. Forecasting. 7: 564–587. Doi:10.1175/1520-0434007<0564:ESTFAR>2.0. CO. Galway, J. G.. "Winter tornado outbreaks". Mon. Wea. Rev. 109: 1072–1080. Doi:10.1175/1520-0493109<1072:WTO>2.0. CO; some thoughts honoring the memory of Joseph G. Galway by Chuck Doswell
A numeric character reference is a common markup construct used in SGML and SGML-derived markup languages such as HTML and XML. It consists of a short sequence of characters. Since WebSgml, XML and HTML 4, the code points of the Universal Character Set of Unicode are used. NCRs are used in order to represent characters that are not directly encodable in a particular document; when the document is interpreted by a markup-aware reader, each NCR is treated as if it were the character it represents. In SGML, HTML, XML, the following are all valid numeric character references for the Greek capital letter Sigma In SGML, HTML, XML, the following are all valid numeric character references for the Latin capital letter AE In SGML, HTML, XML, the following are all valid numeric character references for the Latin small letter sharp s ß List of numeric character references for the printable ASCII characters: Markup languages are defined in terms of UCS or Unicode characters; that is, a document consists, at its most fundamental level of abstraction, of a sequence of characters, which are abstract units that exist independently of any encoding.
Ideally, when the characters of a document utilizing a markup language are encoded for storage or transmission over a network as a sequence of bits, the encoding, used will be one that supports representing each and every character in the document, if not in the whole of Unicode, directly as a particular bit sequence. Sometimes, for reasons of convenience or due to technical limitations, documents are encoded with an encoding that cannot represent some characters directly. For example, the used encodings based on ISO 8859 can only represent, at most, 256 unique characters as one 8-bit byte each. Documents are in practice allowed to use more than one encoding internally, so the onus is on the markup language to provide a means for document authors to express unencodable characters in terms of encodable ones; this is done through some kind of "escaping" mechanism. The SGML-based markup languages allow document authors to use special sequences of characters from the ASCII range to represent, or reference, any Unicode character, regardless of whether the character being represented is directly available in the document's encoding.
These special sequences are character references. Character references that are based on the referenced character's UCS or Unicode code point are called numeric character references. In HTML 4 and in all versions of XHTML and XML, the code point can be expressed either as a decimal number or as a hexadecimal number; the syntax is as follows: Character U+0026, followed by character U+0023, followed by one of the following choices: one or more decimal digits zero through nine. Older versions of HTML disallowed the hexadecimal syntax; the characters that comprise a numeric character reference can be represented in every character encoding used in computing and telecommunications today, so there is no risk of the reference itself being unencodable. There is another kind of character reference called a character entity reference, which allows a character to be referred to by a name instead of a number. HTML defines some character entities, but not many; the Universal Character Set defined by ISO 10646 is the "document character set" of SGML, HTML 4, so by default, any character in such a document, any character referenced in such a document, must be in the UCS.
While the syntax of SGML does not prohibit references to invalid or unassigned code points, such as . Restrictions may apply for other reasons. For example, in HTML 4,
, but in XML, the form feed character cannot be used, not by reference. As another example, € this character, "€", has to be represented as €. As a further example, prior to the publication of XML 1.0 Second Edition on October 6, 2000, XML 1.0 was based on an older version of ISO 10646 and prohibited using characters above U+FFFD, except in character data, thus making a reference like 𐀀. In XML 1.1 and newer editions of XML 1.0, such a reference is allowed, because the available character repertoire was explicitly extended. Markup languages place restrictions on where character references can occur. In the initial versions of SGML and HTML, numeric character references were interpreted in relationship to the document character encoding, rather than Unicode. For Latin-script documents, numeric character ref
Polk County is located in the U. S. state of Florida. The county population was 602,095, its county seat is Bartow, its largest city is Lakeland. Polk County comprises the Lakeland–Winter Haven Metropolitan Statistical Area; this MSA is the 87th-most populous metropolitan statistical area and the 89th-most populous primary statistical area of the United States as of July 1, 2012. The center of population of Florida is located near the city of Lake Wales. Polk County is home to one public university, one state college, four private universities. One Fortune 500 company, Publix Super Markets, has headquarters in the county; the first people to inhabit the area now called Polk County arrived close to 12,000 years ago during the last ice age as the first paleo-indians following big game southward reached the peninsula of Florida. By this time, the peninsula had gone through several expansions and contractions due to changing sea level; these first paleo-indians, nomadic hunter/gatherers who did not establish any permanent settlements gave way to the "archaic people".
These were ancestors of the historic Native Americans who came in contact with the Spaniards when they arrived on the peninsula. These Native Americans thrived on the peninsula, it is estimated. As was common elsewhere in the Americas, contact with Europeans had a devastating effect on the Native Americans. Smallpox and other diseases, to which the Native Americans had no immunity, caused widespread epidemic and death; those who had not succumbed to diseases such as these were either killed or enslaved as Spanish explorers and settlers arrived. Within a few hundred years, nearly the entire pre-Columbian population of Polk County had been wiped out. For around 250 years after Ponce De Leon arrived on the peninsula, the Spanish nominally ruled Florida but established few settlements. In the late 17th century, Florida went through an unstable period in which the French and British ruled the peninsula. By this time, the remnants of early Native Americans joined with refugee Creek Native Americans from Georgia and The Carolinas to form the Seminole Indian Tribe, through a process of ethnogenesis.
After the American Revolution, the peninsula reverted to Spanish rule. In 1819, Florida became a U. S. territory as a result of the Adams-Onis Treaty. From the 1830s until 1842, the US conducted the Seminole Wars in an effort to remove the Seminole from the territory; some were removed to Indian Territory. While Florida gained statehood in 1845, it was not until 1861 that Polk County was created from the eastern part of Hillsborough County, it was named in honor of former US President James K. Polk, whose 1845 inauguration was on the day after Florida became a state. Following the Civil War, the county commission established the county seat on 120 acres donated in the central part of the county. Bartow, the county seat, was named after Francis S. Bartow, a Confederate colonel from Georgia, the first Confederate brigade commander to die in battle. Colonel Bartow was buried in Savannah, Georgia with military honors, promoted posthumously to the rank of Brigadier General; the original name of the town was Fort Blount.
Several other towns and counties in the South changed their name to Bartow. The first courthouse built in Bartow was constructed in 1867, it was replaced twice, in 1884 and in 1908. As the third courthouse to stand on the site, the present structure houses the Polk County Historical Museum and Genealogical Library. After the Civil War, some 400 Confederate veterans settled here with families before the end of the century. In the post-Reconstruction period, black railway workers were among the first African Americans to settle in Polk County, in 1883 south of Lake Wire; the following year they founded St. John's Baptist Church, which served as the first school for freedmen's children. Other workers arrived for jobs in the phosphate industry; this area became the center of a predominately African-American community known as Moorehead, after Rev. H. K. Moorehead, called to St. John's in 1906; the community developed its own businesses, professional class, cultural institutions. Its students had to go to other cities for high school until 1928, when the first upper school to serve blacks was established here.
White violence rose against blacks in the late 19th century in a regionwide effort to establish and maintain white supremacy as Southern states disenfranchised most blacks and imposed Jim Crow. Whites lynched 20 African Americans in Polk County from 1895-1921. While others were killed for alleged crimes, one black man was lynched for insulting a white woman; the man, Henry Scott was a porter on a train from Lakeland to Bartow. While he was preparing a berth for one woman on May 20, 1920, another white woman became angry that he made her wait, she sent a telegram to the next station where he was met by a sherriff and turned over to a mob that shot him 40-t0 times. Columbia County had 20 such lynching murders. In the first few decades of the 1900s, thousands of acres of land around Bartow were purchased by the phosphate industry; the county seat became the hub of the largest phosphate industry in the United States, attracting both immigrants and African-American an
Chris Morris is a British broadcast journalist who contributes to BBC News, Today, BBC Reality Check and From Our Own Correspondent, is the author of the 2005 Granta publication The New Turkey. Morris joined the BBC World Service in 1988 and was BBC Sri Lanka Correspondent from 1990–92 based in Colombo covering the Sri Lankan civil war and other South Asian stories including the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi and the rise of Hindu nationalism, he was BBC State Department Correspondent from 1994–97 based in Washington, D. C. covering crises in Haiti and North Korea, travelling around the world with the US Secretary of State. He reported on the Dayton Agreement and the 1996 United States presidential election, he was BBC Turkey Correspondent from 1997–2001 based first in Ankara and opening the BBC's new bureau in Istanbul covering the 1999 İzmit earthquake and the arrest and trial of the Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan. He was BBC Europe Correspondent from 2001–2005 based in Brussels covering Enlargement of the European Union, the proposed European constitution, other European stories including the murder of the Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs Anna Lindh and the 2004 Madrid train bombings.
During this period he drew on his experience in Turkey to author The New Turkey which examines the potential and the problems of the far-reaching political and economic reforms being undertaken in what the author describes as a second revolution in Turkey and was published by Granta in 2005. He was a BBC World Affairs Correspondent based in London from 2005 to 2007, reporting from conflict zones in Iraq and the Palestinian territories, the Balkans. In 2007 he became the BBC's South Asia Correspondent based in Delhi, covering India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, before returning to Brussels in 2011. After returning to the UK, Morris began presenting Brexit: A Guide for the Perplexed on BBC Radio 4 in February 2017, its third series was broadcast in February 2018. Since November 2016 he writes and broadcasts on Brexit, fake news and other issues for BBC Reality Check
Cancer In Common is a social network connecting cancer survivors and their friends. It enables users to search communicate with other members, based on their type of cancer and location. In an interview, Chris Geiger stated; when first diagnosed he wanted to read stories from other cancer patients who had fought the same cancer as him. This was his thinking behind The Cancer Survivors Club book. A common request he got from readers was about various treatments, side effects or wanting to be put in contact with others who had the same type of cancer. Cancer In Common features social network services such as cancer specific discussion groups, geographically specific events, social interaction, photo sharing; the network does not allow pseudonymous interactions. Members can invite others to join their circle of friends. On August 1, 2015, it was announced CancerInCommon would be closed on September 1, 2015; the Cancer Survivors Club Cancer In Common The Cancer Survivors Club Cancer Buzz - News