Treaty of Stolbovo
The Treaty of Stolbovo is a peace treaty of 1617 that ended the Ingrian War, fought between Sweden and Russia between 1610 and 1617. After nearly two months of negotiations, representatives from Sweden and Russia met at the village of Stolbovo, south of Lake Ladoga, on 27 February 1617. From the outset, Sweden had gone into the negotiations with high ambitions, with the hopes of fulfilling the old dream of making all Russian trade pass through Swedish territory; as a consequence of this ambition, the Swedes demanded far-reaching territorial gains into western Russia, including the important northern port of Arkhangelsk. At this point, King James I of England sent a delegation to mediate, so did the Netherlands to make sure Arkhangelsk did not fall into Swedish hands, which would have made the extensive trade between Western Europe and Russia far more difficult. Arkhangelsk did not change hands in the resulting treaty because of the Dutch and English efforts, but because Russia managed to unite under Tsar Michael I of Russia.
As word reached Russia that the Swedish war against Poland might soon be over, the Russians were quick to get negotiations going for real — knowing that they could not afford Sweden's renewal of the war effort on just one front. King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden is known to have said about this treaty, which granted Sweden natural borders to Russia in the form of Lake Ladoga and Lake Peipus: "jag hoppas att det skall bliva svårt för ryssen att hoppa över den bäcken" — "I hope it will be hard for the Russians to jump across that creek". England is credited with brokering this peace, through their mediator John Mericke though the Dutch efforts were of great importance. After the war, the leader of the Dutch delegation, Reinoud van Brederode, was granted the title Baron and given the barony of Wesenberg in Estonia by Gustavus Adolphus. In the resulting peace treaty, the Russian Tsar and Swedish King agreed to the following terms: Sweden gained the province and fortress of Kexholm, south-west Karelia and the province of Ingria — including the fortress of Nöteborg, known as "the key to Finland" Members of the upper classes in these conquered areas were allowed to migrate within 14 days, if they wished to, a right not granted to regular priests and farmers Russia renounced all claims to Estonia and Livonia Russia would pay Sweden war indemnities of 20,000 rubles Novgorod and other Swedish territorial gains during the war would be returned to Russia Sweden had the right to keep all spoils of war collected before 20 November 1616 The Russian city of Gdov was to remain in Swedish hands until the peace had been confirmed and the borders established Sweden recognized Michael Romanov as the rightful tsar of Russia, putting an end to further Swedish claims in the Russian throne Russia was allowed free trade at normal trade tariffs, making sure Sweden could not cripple Russia Russia was allowed to establish merchant houses in Stockholm and Viborg in exchange for Sweden being allowed to establish merchant houses in Novgorod and Moscow.
The De la Gardie Campaign Dymitriads List of treaties Rise of Sweden as a Great Power Time of Troubles
Jacob De la Gardie
Field Marshal and Count Jacob Pontusson De la Gardie was a statesman and a soldier of the Swedish Empire. He was appointed Privy Councilor in 1613, Governor of Swedish Estonia between 1619 and 1622, Governor General of Livonia in 1622, Lord High Constable in 1620, he introduced reforms based on the novel Dutch military doctrine into the Swedish army. He commanded the Swedish forces against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, he served as one of the five regents jointly ruling Sweden during the minority of Queen Christina. Antoine Marie Jacob De la Gardie was born in Reval, Estonia, as a son of Pontus De la Gardie and Sofia Johansdotter Gyllenhielm, the illegitimate daughter of king John III of Sweden, his mother died giving birth, his father perished two years in Narva. Jacob was raised in the Vääksy manor, Finland by his grandmother Karin Hansdotter, the mistress of king John III; as a young adult, De la Gardie was held prisoner in Poland for four years, together with Carl Gyllenhielm. After being released, De la Gardie took part of the Dutch Revolt as a volunteer.
Between 1606 and 1608, De la Gardie served under the Dutch general Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange. Impressed with the Dutch way of waging war, De la Gardie began introducing Dutch methods into the Swedish army upon his return to the service of Sweden. During the Polish-Russian War, Sweden signed an alliance with tsar Vasili IV of Russia in 1609. Sweden gained, in return, the County of Kexholm. De la Gardie was put in command of the Swedish force, which consisted of mercenaries, but Swedish and Finnish soldiers as well; this campaign, which took De la Gardie and his troops all the way to Moscow, is known as the De la Gardie Campaign. It ended with a devastating defeat at the Battle of Klushino in the summer of 1610, from which De la Gardie had to retreat. Not long thereafter, the Ingrian War between Sweden and Russia was initiated, during which De la Gardie played a significant part militarily, he claimed that Sweden should take advantage of the ongoing turmoil in Russia known as the Times of Trouble, try to place Charles Philip, younger brother of the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus, on the Russian throne.
After some negotiating, these plans were abandoned due to lack of engagement from Gustavus Adolphus and uncertainty on the Russian side. In 1617, De la Gardie became the chief Swedish negotiator at the Treaty of Stolbovo that ended the Ingrian War, whereby Sweden was able to secure important territorial concessions from Russia closing off Russia from access to the Baltic Sea. Between July 1619 and 1622 was Governor of the Swedish Estonia and in 1626 De la Gardie purchased an estate with a medieval castle in Haapsalu, in modern-day Estonia, his time as governor of Estonia was followed by a time as Governor-General of Swedish Livonia 1622-1628. After 1621, De la Gardie took part in the Polish-Swedish War against his mother's half-brother King Sigismund III of Poland in Livonia, but he was recalled after serving as commander in chief between 1626 and 1628. De la Gardie was an advocate of peace with Poland and acted as one of the Swedish negotiators at the Truce of Stuhmsdorf in 1635. De la Gardie became a member of the Swedish Privy Council in 1613.
In 1620 he became Lord High Constable and, as such, he was one of the five regents ruling Sweden during Queen Christina's minority. His pacifist and pro-French and pro-Polish attitudes put him at odds with chancellor Axel Oxenstierna, who led Sweden's war effort in the Thirty Years' War after the death of Gustavus Adolphus in 1632; as De la Gardie supported many of Oxenstierna's other policies the two leaders reconciled after Oxenstierna's return to Sweden in 1636. Although the marshal's office came under criticism that year, De la Gardie continued to operate making large profits from leasing royal revenues and from loans to the crown. in 1618, De la Gardie married Ebba Brahe, the love of young Gustavus Adolphus. The couple had 14 children, the most famous among them being Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie, Maria Sofia De la Gardie, Axel Julius De la Gardie and countess Christina Catharine De la Gardie, who married Gustaf Otto Stenbock and was mother of Magnus Stenbock. Count Jacob De la Gardie died in Stockholm in 1652 and is buried in Veckholm church in Uppsala County.
The city of Jakobstad in Finland is named after him. A shopping mall in Old Tallinn is named De la Gardie in honour of Jacob De la Gardie. During the De la Gardie Campaign, the Finnish soldiers nicknamed their commander Laiska-Jaakko due to the unusually lengthy six-year occupation of Novgorod; this name is still remembered in Finland. The siege was thus recorded in folk verse: Lähti suvi, lähti talvi, vaan ei lähde Laiska-Jaakko. Läckö Castle at Statens fastighetsverk Jacob De la Gardie Image at heninen.net Jaakkima - Lahdenpohja at heninen.net
Vyborg is a town in, the administrative center of, Vyborgsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It lies on the Karelian Isthmus near the head of the Vyborg Bay, 130 km to the northwest of St. Petersburg and 38 km south of Russia's border with Finland, where the Saimaa Canal enters the Gulf of Finland; the population of Vyborg has developed as follows: 79,962 . Located in the boundary zone between the East Slavic/Russian and Finnish worlds, the town has changed hands several times in history, most in 1944 when the Soviet Union captured it from Finland during World War II; the city hosts the Russian end of the 1,222 km Nord Stream gas pipeline, laid in 2011 and operated by a consortium led by Russia's Gazprom state hydrocarbons enterprise to pump 55 billion cubic meters of natural gas a year under the Baltic to Greifswald, Germany. According to archeological research, the area of what is now Vyborg used to be a trading center on the Vuoksi River's western branch, which has since dried up; the region was inhabited by the Karelians, a Balto-Finnic tribe which came under the domination of Novgorod and Sweden.
It's been claimed that Vyborg appeared in the 11th–12th centuries as a mixed Karelian-Russian settlement, although there isn't archeological proof of any East Slavic settlement of that time in the area and it isn't mentioned in any earliest historical documents, such as the Novgorod First Chronicle or the Primary Chronicle. Wider settlement in the area of Vyborg is regarded to date from 13th century onwards when Hanseatic traders began traveling to Novgorod; the Vyborg Castle was founded during the Third Swedish Crusade in 1293 by marsk Torkel Knutsson on the site of an older Karelian fort, burned. The castle, the first center for the spread of Christianity in Karelia, was fought over for decades between Sweden and the Novgorod Republic; as a result of the Treaty of Nöteborg in 1323 between the Republic of Novgorod and Sweden, Vyborg was recognized as a part of Sweden. The town's trade privileges were chartered by the Pan-Scandinavian King Eric of Pomerania in 1403, it withstood a prolonged siege by Daniil Shchenya during the Russo–Swedish War of 1496–1497.
Under Swedish rule, Vyborg was associated with the noble family of Bååt from Småland. The late-medieval commanders and fief holders of Vyborg were descended from or married to the Bååt family. In practice, though not having this as their formal title, they functioned as Margraves, had feudal privileges, kept all the crown's incomes from the fief to use for the defense of the realm's eastern border. Vyborg remained in Swedish hands until its capture in 1710 after the Siege of Vyborg by Tsar Peter the Great in the Great Northern War. In the course of Peter's second administrative reform, Vyborg became the seat of the Vyborg Province of St. Petersburg Governorate; the 1721 Treaty of Nystad, which concluded the war with Sweden, finalized the transfer of the town and a part of Old Finland to Russia. The loss of Vyborg led Sweden to develop Fredrikshamn as a substitute port town. Another result of the loss of Vyborg was that its diocese was moved to Borgå, transforming the town into an important learning centre.
In 1744, Vyborg became the seat of the Vyborg Governorate. In 1783, the governorate was transformed into the Vyborg Viceroyalty in 1801 back into Vyborg Governorate. In 1802, the Vyborg Governorate was renamed the Finland Governorate. One of the largest naval battles in history, the Battle of Vyborg Bay, was fought off the shore of the Vyborg Bay on July 4, 1790. After the rest of Finland was ceded to Russia in 1809, Emperor Alexander I incorporated the town and the governorate into the newly created Grand Duchy of Finland in 1811. In the course of the 19th century, the town developed as the center of administration and trade for the eastern part of Finland; the inauguration of the Saimaa Canal in 1856 benefited the local economy as it opened the vast waterways of Eastern Finland to the sea. Vyborg was never a major industrial center and lacked large production facilities, but due to its location it served as a focal point of transports of all industries on the Karelian Isthmus, Ladoga Karelia, southeastern Finland.
Bolshevik revolutionary Vladimir Lenin lived in the town for a period between the February Revolution and October Revolution of 1917. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the fall of the Russian Empire, Finland declared itself independent. During the Finnish Civil War, Vyborg was in the hands of the Finnish Red Guards until it was captured by the White Guard on the Battle of Vyborg, April 29, 1918. In April–May 1918, 360–420 civilians were murdered by White Guards during the Vyborg massacre. In the inter-war decades, the town was the second biggest town in Finland and the seat of the Viipuri Province. In 1939, Vyborg had 80,000 inhabitants, including sizable minorities of Swedes, Russians, Gypsies and Jews. During this time, Alvar Aalto built the Vyborg Library—an icon of functionalist architecture. During the Winter War between the Soviet Union and Finland in 1939–1940, over seventy thousand people were evacuated from Vyborg to Finland; the Winter War was concluded by the Moscow Peace Treaty, which stipulated the transfer of Vyborg and the whole Karelian Isthmus—emptied of their residents—to Soviet control, where it was incorporated into the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic on March 31, 1940.
As the town was still held by the Finns, the remaining Finnish population, some ten thousand people, had to be
Pyotr Ivanovich Potyomkin was a Russian courtier and namestnik of Borovsk during the reigns of Tsars Alexis I and Feodor III. He was a voivode during the Russo-Polish War and took Lublin in 1655 as well as Nyenschantz and Noteborg in 1656, he became a stolnik working as a Tsar's ambassador. Potemkin led the embassy to Spain and France between 1667 and 1668; this embassy established regular diplomatic relations between Spain. A colorful portrait of Pyotr Potemkin by Spanish painter Juan Carreño de Miranda is on display in Museo del Prado in Madrid. During his envoy to France he introduced a new term, into the Russian diplomatic vocabulary; the term meant "distilled spirits" Cognacs and Armagnacs. Potemkin advocated a complete ban on their import to Russia, he travelled to Vienna in 1674 to discuss common actions against Polish king John III Sobieski. He was the envoy of Feodor III to France and England in 1681, he died in 1700 in the rank of an okolnichy. According to legend, Pyotr Potemkin, as a diplomat, had an eccentric sense of national pride.
During his negotiations in Madrid he insisted that the King of Spain take off his hat every time Potemkin mentioned the title of Tsar of All Russias. During his embassy to Copenhagen, the Danish king was ill and could receive Potemkin only lying in bed. Potemkin insisted that the Danes bring a second bed into the chamber and conducted all the talks lying down, thus showing the equality between the countries. Famous Russian statesman Prince Grigory Potemkin was a distant relative. Media related to Pyotr Potemkin at Wikimedia Commons History of diplomatic relations between Spain and Russia This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary. 1906
Tsardom of Russia
The Tsardom of Russia, or the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the centralized Russian state from the assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721. From 1551 to 1700, Russia grew 35,000 km2 per year; the period includes the upheavals of the transition from the Rurik to the Romanov dynasties, many wars with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire as well as the Russian conquest of Siberia, leading up to the ground-changing reign of Peter the Great, who took power in 1689 and transformed the Tsardom into a major European power. During the Great Northern War, he implemented substantial reforms and proclaimed the Russian Empire after victory over Sweden in 1721. While the oldest endonyms of the Grand Duchy of Moscow used in its documents were Rus' and the Russian land, a new form of its name, Rusia or Russia and became common in the 15th century. In the 1480s Russian state scribes Ivan Cherny and Mikhail Medovartsev mention Russia under the name Росиа, Medovartsev mentions "the sceptre of Russian lordship".
In the following century Russia co-existed with the old name Rus' and appeared in an inscription on the western portal of the Transfiguration Cathedral of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery in Yaroslavl, on the icon case of the Theotokos of Vladimir, in the work by Maximus the Greek, the Russian Chronograph written by Dosifei Toporkov in 1516–22 and in other sources. In 1547, Ivan IV assumed the title of “Tsar and Grand Duke of all Rus'” and was crowned on 16 January, thereby turning the Grand Duchy of Moscow into Tsardom of Russia, or "the Great Russian Tsardom", as it was called in the coronation document, by Constantinople Patriarch Jeremiah II and in numerous official texts, but the state remained referred to as Moscovia throughout Europe, predominantly in its Catholic part, though this Latin term was never used in Russia; the two names "Russia" and "Moscovia" appear to have co-existed as interchangeable during the 16th and throughout the 17th century with different Western maps and sources using different names, so that the country was called "Russia, or Moscovia" or "Russia, popularly known as Moscovia".
In England of the 16th century, it was known both as Muscovy. Such notable Englishmen as Giles Fletcher, author of the book Of the Russe Common Wealth, Samuel Collins, author of The Present State of Russia, both of whom visited Russia, were familiar with the term Russia and used it in their works. So did numerous other authors, including John Milton, who wrote A brief history of Moscovia and of other less-known countries lying eastward of Russia, published posthumously, starting it with the words: "The Empire of Moscovia, or as others call it, Russia..."In the Russian Tsardom, the word Russia replaced the old name Rus' in official documents, though the names Rus' and Russian land were still common and synonymous to it, appeared in the form Great Russia, more typical of the 17th century, whereas the state was known as Great-Russian Tsardom. According to prominent historians like Alexander Zimin and Anna Khoroshkevich, the continuous use of the term Moscovia was a result of traditional habit and the need to distinguish between the Muscovite and the Lithuanian part of the Rus', as well as of the political interests of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which competed with Moscow for the western regions of the Rus'.
Due to the propaganda of the Commonwealth, as well as of the Jesuits, the term Moscovia was used instead of Russia in many parts of Europe where prior to the reign of Peter the Great there was a lack of direct knowledge of the country. In Northern Europe and at the court of the Holy Roman Empire, the country was known under its own name, Russia or Rossia. Sigismund von Herberstein, ambassador of the Holy Roman Emperor in Russia, used both Russia and Moscovia in his work on the Russian tsardom and noted: "The majority believes that Russia is a changed name of Roxolania. Muscovites refute this, saying that their country was called Russia". Pointing to the difference between Latin and Russian names, French captain Jacques Margeret, who served in Russia and left a detailed description of L’Empire de Russie of the early 17th century, presented to King Henry IV, stated that foreigners make "a mistake when they call them Muscovites and not Russians; when they are asked what nation they are, they respond'Russac', which means'Russians', when they are asked what place they are from, the answer is Moscow, Vologda and other cities".
The closest analogue of the Latin term Moscovia in Russia was “Tsardom of Moscow”, or “Moscow Tsardom”, used along with the name "Russia", sometimes in one sentence, as in the name of the 17th century Russian work On the Great and Glorious Russian Moscow State. By the 16th century, the Russian ruler had emerged as a Tsar. By assuming that title, the sovereign of Moscow tried to emphasize that he was a major ruler or emperor on par with the Byzantine emperor or the Mongol khan. Indeed, after Ivan III's marriage to Sophia Palaiologina, the niece of Constantine XI Palaiologos, the Moscow court adopted Byzantine terms, rituals and emblems such as the double-
The Karelian Isthmus is the 45–110 km wide stretch of land, situated between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia, to the north of the River Neva. Its northwestern boundary is the narrow area between the Bay of Vyborg and Lake Ladoga. If the Karelian Isthmus is defined as the entire territory of present-day Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast to the north of the Neva, the isthmus' area covers about 15,000 km2; the smaller part of the isthmus to the southeast of the old Russia-Finland border is considered as Northern Ingria, rather than part of the Karelian Isthmus itself. The rest of the isthmus was a part of Finnish Karelia; this was conquered by the Russian Empire during the Great Northern War in 1712 and included within the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland of the Russian Empire. When Finland became independent in 1917, the isthmus remained Finnish. Finnish Karelia was ceded to the Soviet Union by Finland following the Winter War and Continuation War. In 1940–1941, during the Interim Peace, most of the ceded territories in the isthmus were included within the Karelo-Finnish SSR.
However, since World War II the entire isthmus has been divided between the city of Saint Petersburg, as well as Priozersky District, Vsevolozhsky District and Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast. According to the 2002 census, the population of the Kurortny District of Saint Petersburg and the parts of Leningrad Oblast situated on the Karelian Isthmus amounts to 539,000. Many Saint Petersburg residents decamp to the Isthmus during their vacations; the isthmus' terrain has been influenced by the Weichselian glaciation. Its highest point lies on the Lembolovo Heights moraine at about 205 m. There are no mountains on the isthmus; the Vuoksi, largest river, runs southeastwards from Lake Saimaa of Finland to Lake Ladoga, dividing the isthmus into two uneven parts. Saimaa Canal opened in 1856 links Lake Saimaa to the Bay of Vyborg; the Karelian Isthmus lies within the ecoregion of Russian taiga. Geobotanically, it lies at the juncture of the Central European, Eastern European and Northern European floristic provinces of the Circumboreal Region of the Holarctic Kingdom.
The isthmus is covered by coniferous forests formed by Scots pine and Norway spruce, with numerous lakes as well as small grass and Sphagnum raised bogs. Forests cover 11.700 km of the isthmus, more than three-fourths of its total square. Swampy areas occupy on average 5.5 percent of the territory. In the large contiguous area along the shore of Lake Ladoga in Vsevolozhsky District, in the southeastern part of the isthmus, bogs occur much more than in other parts; the same was once true of the lowland along the Neva River, drained. The soil is predominantly podsol, which contains massive boulders in the north and northwest, where large granite rocky outcrops occur. Pine forests are the most widespread and occupy 51% of the forested area of the Karelian Isthmus, followed by spruce forests and birch forests. Stands on more fertile soils and in more favorable locations are dominated by Norway maple, black alder, grey alder, common aspen, English oak, grey willow, dark-leaved willow, tea-leaved willow, small-leaved lime or European white elm.
Common vegetation of various types of pine forests includes heather, common juniper, eared willow, water horsetail, graminoids Avenella flexuosa and Carex globularis, mosses Pleurozium schreberi, Sphagnum angustifolium and S. russowii, lichens Cladonia spp. Prominent in various spruce forests are wood horsetail, common wood sorrel, lingonberry, graminoids Avenella flexuosa, Calamagrostis arundinacea, Carex globularis, mosses Polytrichum commune and Sphagnum girgensohnii. Prominent vegetation of various birch forests include meadowsweet, common wood sorrel and graminoids Calamagrostis arundinacea and C. canescens.1184 species of wild vascular plants are recorded in the isthmus. See the List of the vascular plants of the Karelian Isthmus. Red squirrel, red fox, mountain hare and boar are typical inhabitants of the forests; the climate of the isthmus is moderately continental, with 650–800 mm average precipitation per year, long snowy winters lasting from November through mid-April and reaching about -40 °C, moderately cool summers and short frost-free period.
Compared to other parts of the Leningrad Oblast, the winter here is milder due to the moderating influence of the Gulf of Finland, but longer. The city of Vyborg and the town of Priozersk are situated on the northwestern part of the isthmus; the Karelian Isthmus is a popular place for hiking, skiing, canoeing, fishing for consumption, mushroom hunting, berry picking (of bilberry, woodl