Nymphaeaceae is a family of flowering plants called water lilies. They live as rhizomatous aquatic herbs in tropical climates around the world; the family contains five genera with about 70 known species. Water lilies are rooted in soil in bodies of water, with leaves and flowers floating on or emergent from the surface; the leaves are round, with a radial notch in Nymphaea and Nuphar, but circular in Victoria and Euryale. Water lilies are a well studied clade of plants because their large flowers with multiple unspecialized parts were considered to represent the floral pattern of the earliest flowering plants, genetic studies confirmed their evolutionary position as basal angiosperms. Analyses of floral morphology and molecular characteristics and comparisons with a sister taxon, the family Cabombaceae, however, that the flowers of extant water lilies with the most floral parts are more derived than the genera with fewer floral parts. Genera with more floral parts, Nymphaea, have a beetle pollination syndrome, while genera with fewer parts are pollinated by flies or bees, or are self- or wind-pollinated.
Thus, the large number of unspecialized floral organs in the Nymphaeaceae is not an ancestral condition for the clade. Water lilies do not have surface leaves during winter, therefore the gases in the rhizome lacunae access equilibrium with the gases of the sediment water; the leftover of internal pressure is embodied by the constant streams of bubbles that outbreak when rising leaves are ruptured in the spring. The Nymphaeaceae are aquatic, rhizomatous herbs; the family is further characterized by scattered vascular bundles in the stems, frequent presence of latex with distinct, stellate-branched sclereids projecting into the air canals. Hairs are simple producing mucilage. Leaves are alternate and spiral, opposite or whorled, peltate or nearly so, entire to toothed or dissected, short to long petiolate), with blade submerged, floating or emergent, with palmate to pinnate venation. Stipules are either absent. Flowers are solitary, radial, with a long pedicel and floating or raised above the surface of the water, with girdling vascular bundles in receptacle.
Female and male parts of the flower are active at different times to facilitate cross-pollination. Sepals are 4-12, distinct to connate and petal-like. Petals lacking or 8 to numerous, inconspicuous to showy intergrading with stamens. Stamens are 3 to numerous, the innermost sometimes represented by staminodes. Filaments are distinct, free or adnate to petaloid staminodes and well differentiated from anthers to laminar and poorly differentiated from anthers. Carpels are 3 to numerous, connate. Fruit is an aggregate of a berry, or an irregularly dehiscent fleshy spongy capsule. Seeds are arillate, more or less lacking sperm. Nymphaeaceae has been investigated systematically for decades because botanists considered their floral morphology to represent one of the earliest groups of angiosperms. Modern genetic analyses by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group researchers has confirmed its basal position among flowering plants. In addition, the Nymphaeaceae are more genetically diverse and geographically dispersed than other basal angiosperms.
Nymphaeaceae is placed in the order Nymphaeales, the second diverging group of angiosperms after Amborella in the most accepted flowering plant classification system, APG IV system. Nymphaeaceae is a small family of three to six genera: Barclaya, Nuphar, Nymphaea and Victoria; the genus Barclaya is sometimes given rank as its own family, Barclayaceae, on the basis of an extended perianth tube arising from the top of the ovary and by stamens that are joined in the base. However, molecular phylogenetic work includes it in Nymphaeaceae; the genus Ondinea has been shown to be a morphologically aberrant species of Nymphaea, is now included in this genus. The genera Euryale, of far east Asia, Victoria, from South America, are related despite their geographic distance, but their relationship toward Nymphaea need further studies; the sacred lotus was once thought to be a water lily, but is now recognized to be a modified eudicot in its own family Nelumbonaceae of the order Proteales. The beautiful nature of water lilies has led to their widespread use as ornamental plants.
The Mexican water lily, native to the Gulf Coast of North America, is planted throughout the continent. It has escaped from cultivation and become invasive in some areas, such as California's San Joaquin Valley, it is difficult to eradicate. Populations can be controlled by cutting top growth. Herbicides can be used to control populations using glyphosate and fluridone; the white water lily is the national flower of Bangladesh and state flower for Andhra Pradesh, India. The seal of Bangladesh contains a lily floating on water; the blue waterlily is the national flower of Sri Lanka. It is the birth flower for Pisces. Lily pads known as Seeblätter, are a charge in Northern European heraldry coloured red, appear on the flag of Friesland and the coat of arms of Denmark; the water lily has a special place in Sangam literature and Tamil poetics, where it is considered symbolic of the grief of separation. Water lilies were depicted by the French artist Claude Monet in a series of paintings. Nelumbo Pamplemousses Botanical Garden, famous for its giant
This is an index of lists of molecules. Millions of molecules have existed in the universe before the formation of Earth, elements have being mixed and formed molecules for millions of years, three of them, carbon dioxide and oxygen were necessary for the growth of life thought, we were able to see these substances we did not know what was their components. Amedeo Avogadro created the word "molecule", his 1811 paper "Essay on Determining the Relative Masses of the Elementary Molecules of Bodies", he states, i.e. according to Partington's A Short History of Chemistry, that: The smallest particles of gases are not simple atoms, but are made up of a certain number of these atoms united by attraction to form a single molecule. The following is an index of list of molecules organized by time of discovery of their molecular formula or their specific molecule in case of isomers: List of compounds with carbon number 1 List of compounds with carbon number 2 List of compounds with carbon number 3 List of compounds with carbon number 4 List of compounds with carbon number 5 List of compounds with carbon number 6 List of compounds with carbon number 7 List of compounds with carbon number 8 List of compounds with carbon number 9 List of compounds with carbon number 10 List of compounds with carbon number 11 List of compounds with carbon number 12 List of compounds with carbon number 13 List of compounds with carbon number 14 List of compounds with carbon number 15 List of compounds with carbon number 16 List of compounds with carbon number 17 List of compounds with carbon number 18 List of compounds with carbon number 19 List of compounds with carbon number 20 List of compounds with carbon number 21 List of compounds with carbon number 22 List of compounds with carbon number 23 List of compounds with carbon number 24 List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules List of gases Molecule Empirical formula Chemical formula Chemical structure Chemical compound Chemical bond Coordination complex List of drugs by year of discovery List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules Timeline of chemical element discoveries Diatomic molecule Atomic model History of molecular theory
Moi Avenue is a primary thoroughfare in Mombasa, Kenya. The road runs from west to east from Kilindini to a roundabout with Digo Road. Called the Kilindini Road, its name was changed in recognition of Kenya's second President, Daniel arap Moi; the road consists of two two-lane carriageways, like Jomo Kenyatta Avenue, a central median of 3 feet in width, along which flowers and shrubs are planted. Moi Avenue is known for two pairs of giant aluminium elephant tusks crossing the dual carriageway; the tusks were commissioned in commemoration of a visit to Mombasa by Queen Elizabeth in 1952 and have remained since that time. The lower part of the tusks were illegally used for advertisement but after the city council enforced strict laws, the landmark has remained in its original form since
Psycroptic is an Australian technical death metal band formed in Hobart in 1999. Mainstay members are his brother Joe Haley on guitar, their lead vocalist, Jason Peppiatt, joined in 2004. In 2008 they signed to Nuclear Blast; as of February 2019, the band have released seven studio albums. They have undertaken Australian national tours supporting international acts, Decapitated and Misery Index. Psycroptic have toured Europe with Nile and with Deicide. In February 2019, the band started a co-headlining tour alongside Aversions Crown and support bands Within Destruction, Hadal Maw and Hollow World across Europe, they will headline an upcoming 2019 tour in the United States in support of their most recent album As the Kingdom Drowns. Psycroptic were formed in Hobart in early 1999 by Joe Haley. Both were members of Disseminate; the Haleys were joined by Cameron Grant on bass and and Matthew Chalk on vocals, who soon after became a drummer with established local death metal act M. S. I; the band's name, was randomly devised by Chalk's friend and has no particular meaning.
With assistance from the Tasmanian Council of the Arts, the band recorded The Isle of Disenchantment in October 2000 as a demo, but they issued it as a studio album. Shortly after it was released in January 2001 the band was invited to play shows in Melbourne. In late 2001 they featured at the annual Metal for the Brain festival in Canberra for the first time appearing in 2003 and 2005; the band recorded its second album The Scepter of the Ancients in 2003 for release through United States label Unique Leader. They played their first full Australian tour in support of American death metal band Incantation; the Haley brothers joined Sydney-based industrial death metal band The Amenta during this period and recorded the album Ocassus with that group. Dave Haley recorded an EP called Atom and Time with Ruins, a Hobart black metal band formed by Alex Pope in 2000, he has been a member of this band since. However, Chalk was reluctant to tour. On returning to Australia, Psycroptic played two legs of the Metal for the Brain in Canberra and Brisbane, a final show in their hometown of Hobart.
Following this, disharmony within the band saw Chalk leave Psycroptic, Peppiatt replace him permanently. Since his departure from Psycroptic, Chalk has continued to play drums with M. S. I. as well as a doom band called Space Raven and act in the vocal role in a number of other groups that includes Mephistopheles, playing bass in Born Headless and several other projects including the brief vocal position with Swedish band Spawn of Possession in 2009. Psycroptic undertook a handful of Australian dates with Hate Eternal before working on their third album, Symbols of Failure, their first for Neurotic; the release was followed by another European excursion with Nile and another Australian tour, this time with Cannibal Corpse. Work began on the follow-up to Symbols of Failure in early 2007 before some European shows with Deicide. Joe Haley suffered a seizure, he recovered but the last few dates for the tour were cancelled. On 10 June Psycroptic featured at the Come Together Music Festival in Sydney.
The Haley brothers seem to have since put their membership with The Amenta aside to concentrate on Psycroptic. In May 2008 Psycroptic played their first shows in New Zealand alongside Ruins; the following month it was announced. Shortly after, the band released their fourth studio album, entitled Ob in October 2008; the live DVD Initiation was filmed in Melbourne and released in 2010. The band toured Australia with Decapitated and Misery Index in March 2010, they issued their fifth album, The Inherited Repression in February 2012. In November 2012, Psycroptic guitarist Joe Haley released a guitar tablature book for the album "The Inherited Repression." Joe followed this up a year with the release of a guitar tablature book for the album "Ob" in October 2013. In November 2014 Psycroptic announced via Facebook; the subsequent self-titled album was released in March 2015. They launched a charity outreach linked to purchasing their new single "Echoes to Come" with the proceeds distributed to saving Tasmanian devils from extinction.
Jason Peppiatt – vocals Joe Haley – guitar Todd Stern – bass guitar Dave Haley – drums Matthew "Chalky" Chalk – vocals Cameron Grant – bass guitar Zdeněk "GTboy" Šimeček – vocals Samuel Guy – bass guitar Joe Haley. "The Inherited Repression: Guitar Tablature Book". Joe Haley. "Ob: Guitar Tablature Book". Joe Haley. "Psycroptic: Guitar Tablature Book". Official website
Ischyrochampsa is an extinct genus of Late Cretaceous mesoeucrocodylian belonging to the eusuchian clade Allodaposuchidae. Fossils of the type species I. meridionalis are late Campanian in age and were found in the commune of Saint-Estève-Janson in Bouches-du-Rhône, France. Material is known from Spain. At an estimated length of over 4 metres, Ischyrochampsa was a large mesoeucrocodylian, it was named and described in 1995. Ischyrochampsa was first classified as a trematochampsid, but was removed from the group by subsequent studies. In their description of Allodaposuchus remains from southern France and his colleagues treated the genus as a possible junior synonym of Allodaposuchus
The Hood River Glacier was a newspaper serving Hood River in the U. S. state of Oregon from 1889 to 1933. Its founders claimed that profit was not a motive, stating that they would be satisfied if the paper covered its own expenses. George T. Prather, who came to Oregon from Kansas in 1857, became the first groom in Hood River when he married in 1883, was appointed postmaster of the city in 1886, founded the paper in 1889. Samuel F. Blythe bought the paper in 1894. After enlarging the paper, Blythe sold to Arthur D. Moe in 1904. In 1921, the Glacier was named the best newspaper in Oregon, with its rival Hood River News taking second place, in a contest conducted by the Oregon Agricultural College. Walter H. Walton, an editor of the Glacier edited the rival Hood River News and the Better Fruit publication. A. D. Moe, who by coincidence was married on the same day the Glacier was launched served as its publisher for 27 years; the Moe brothers purchased the Dufur Dispatch, founded 1894, in 1933. Joe D. Thompson was editor in 1933, may have served as publisher.
Pioneers of Hood River formally requested in 1934 that the archives of the Glacier, which had ceased publication a year prior, be placed in the county library as a public reference. In 1936 the Dam Chronicle moved into the offices in the First National Bank building occupied by the Glacier. Author Doris J. Smith incorporated clippings from the Glacier, along with the Dalles Optimist and the Mosier Bulletin, into a publication of the journal of Mary Evans, Wasco County pioneer; the book was titled I Am All Alone. The Dalles Chronicle reported plans to digitize early issues of the Glacier, along with selections from its own archives and that of the Maupin Times, in 2013. Funding came from the National Endowment for Humanities' National Digital Newspaper Program, the Glacier's coverage of Japanese immigration to the Columbia River Gorge and the birth of Hood River County's fruit industry influenced its selection as a top priority Oregon paper