Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion to express the triumph of the Catholic Church. It was characterized by new explorations of form and shadow, dramatic intensity. Common features of Baroque architecture included gigantism of proportions. Whereas the Renaissance drew on the wealth and power of the Italian courts and was a blend of secular and religious forces, the Baroque was at least, directly linked to the Counter-Reformation, a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself in response to the Protestant Reformation. Baroque architecture and its embellishments were on the one hand more accessible to the emotions and on the other hand, a visible statement of the wealth and power of the Catholic Church; the new style manifested itself in particular in the context of the new religious orders, like the Theatines and the Jesuits who aimed to improve popular piety.
Lutheran Baroque art, such as the example of Dresden Frauenkirche, developed as a confessional marker of identity, in response to the Great Iconoclasm of Calvinists. The architecture of the High Roman Baroque can be assigned to the papal reigns of Urban VIII, Innocent X and Alexander VII, spanning from 1623 to 1667; the three principal architects of this period were the sculptor Gianlorenzo Bernini, Francesco Borromini and the painter Pietro da Cortona and each evolved his own distinctively individual architectural expression. Dissemination of Baroque architecture to the south of Italy resulted in regional variations such as Sicilian Baroque architecture or that of Naples and Lecce. To the north, the Theatine architect Camillo-Guarino Guarini, Bernardo Vittone and Sicilian born Filippo Juvarra contributed Baroque buildings to the city of Turin and the Piedmont region. A synthesis of Bernini and Cortona's architecture can be seen in the late Baroque architecture of northern Europe, which paved the way for the more decorative Rococo style.
By the middle of the 17th century, the Baroque style had found its secular expression in the form of grand palaces, first in France—with the Château de Maisons near Paris by François Mansart—and throughout Europe. During the 17th century, Baroque architecture spread through Europe and Latin America, where it was promoted by the Jesuits. Michelangelo's late Roman buildings St. Peter's Basilica, may be considered precursors to Baroque architecture, his pupil Giacomo della Porta continued this work in Rome in the façade of the Jesuit church Il Gesù, which leads directly to the most important church façade of the early Baroque, Santa Susanna, by Carlo Maderno. Distinctive features of Baroque architecture can include: in churches, broader naves and sometimes given oval forms fragmentary or deliberately incomplete architectural elements dramatic use of light. Colonialism required the development of centralized and powerful governments with Spain and France, the first to move in this direction. Colonialism brought in huge amounts of wealth, not only in the silver, extracted from the mines in Bolivia and elsewhere, but in the resultant trade in commodities, such as sugar and tobacco.
The need to control trade routes and slavery, which lay in the hands of the French during the 17th century, created an endless cycle of wars between the colonial powers: the French religious wars, the Thirty Years' War, Franco–Spanish War, the Franco-Dutch War, so on. The initial mismanagement of colonial wealth by the Spaniards bankrupted them in the 16th century, recovering only in the following century; this explains why the Baroque style, though enthusiastically developed throughout the Spanish Empire, was to a large extent, in Spain, an architecture of surfaces and façades, unlike in France and Austria, where we see the construction of numerous huge palaces and monasteries. In contrast to Spain, the French, under Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the minister of finance, had begun to industrialize their economy, thus, were able to become at least, the benefactors of the flow of wealth. While this was good for the building in
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
Joseph II was Holy Roman Emperor from August 1765 and sole ruler of the Habsburg lands from November 1780 until his death. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Emperor Francis I, the brother of Marie Antoinette, he was thus the first ruler in the Austrian dominions of the House of Lorraine, styled Habsburg-Lorraine. Joseph was a proponent of enlightened absolutism, he has been ranked, with Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick the Great of Prussia, as one of the three great Enlightenment monarchs. His policies are now known as Josephinism, he died with no sons and was succeeded by his younger brother, Leopold II. Joseph was born in the midst of the early upheavals of the War of the Austrian Succession, his formal education was provided through the writings of Voltaire and the Encyclopédistes, by the example of his contemporary King Frederick II of Prussia. His practical training was conferred by government officials, who were directed to instruct him in the mechanical details of the administration of the numerous states composing the Austrian dominions and the Holy Roman Empire.
Joseph married Princess Isabella of Parma in October 1760, a union fashioned to bolster the 1756 defensive pact between France and Austria. Joseph loved his bride, finding her both stimulating and charming, she sought with special care to cultivate his favor and affection. Isabella found a best friend and confidant in her husband's sister, Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen; the marriage of Joseph and Isabella resulted in the birth of Maria Theresa. Isabella was fearful of pregnancy and early death a result of the early loss of her mother, her own pregnancy proved difficult as she suffered symptoms of pain and melancholy both during and afterward, though Joseph attended to her and tried to comfort her. She remained bedridden for six weeks after their daughter's birth. On the back of their newfound parenthood, the couple endured two consecutive miscarriages—an ordeal hard on Isabella—followed by another pregnancy. Pregnancy was again provoking melancholy and dread in Isabella. In November 1763, while six months pregnant, Isabella fell ill with smallpox and went into premature labor, resulting in the birth of their second child, Archduchess Maria Christina, who died shortly after being born.
Progressively ill with smallpox and strained by sudden childbirth and tragedy, Isabella died the following week. The loss of his beloved wife and their newborn child was devastating for Joseph, after which he felt keenly reluctant to remarry, though he dearly loved his daughter and remained a devoted father to Maria Theresa. For political reasons, under constant pressure, in 1765, he relented and married his second cousin, Princess Maria Josepha of Bavaria, the daughter of Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor, Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria; this marriage proved unhappy, albeit brief, as it lasted only two years. Though Maria Josepha loved her husband, she felt inferior in his company. Lacking common interests or pleasures, the relationship offered little for Joseph, who confessed he felt no love for her in return, he adapted by distancing himself from his wife to the point of near total avoidance, seeing her only at meals and upon retiring to bed. Maria Josepha, in turn, suffered considerable misery in finding herself locked in a cold, loveless union.
Four months after the second anniversary of their wedding, Maria Josepha grew ill and died from smallpox. Joseph neither visited her during her illness nor attended her funeral, though he expressed regret for not having shown her more kindness, respect, or warmth. One thing the union did provide him was the improved possibility of laying claim to a portion of Bavaria, though this would lead to the War of the Bavarian Succession. Joseph never remarried. In 1770, Joseph's only surviving child, the seven-year-old Maria Theresa, became ill with pleurisy and died; the loss of his daughter was traumatic for him and left him grief-stricken and scarred. Lacking children, Joseph II was succeeded by his younger brother, who became Leopold II. Joseph was made a member of the constituted council of state and began to draw up minutes for his mother to read; these papers contain the germs of his policy, of all the disasters that overtook him. He was a friend to religious toleration, anxious to reduce the power of the church, to relieve the peasantry of feudal burdens, to remove restrictions on trade and knowledge.
In these, he did not differ from Frederick, or his own brother and successor Leopold II, all enlightened rulers of the 18th century. He tried to liberate serfs. Where Joseph differed from great contemporary rulers, where he was akin to the Jacobins, was in the intensity of his belief in the power of the state when directed by reason; as an absolutist ruler, however, he was convinced of his right to speak for the state uncontrolled by laws, of the sensibility of his own rule. He had inherited from his mother the belief of the house of Austria in its "august" quality and its claim to acquire whatever it found desirable for its power or profit, he was unable to understand that his philosophical plans for the molding of humani
The Eastern Neisse known by its Polish name of Nysa Kłodzka, is a river in southwestern Poland, a left tributary of the Oder, with a length of 188 km and a basin area of 4,570 km². Prior to World War II it was part of Germany. During the Yalta Conference it was discussed by the Western Allies as one possible line of the western Polish border. Attempts were made to negotiate a compromise with the Soviets on the new Polish-German frontier; this would have meant that Germany could have retained half of Silesia, including most of Wrocław. However the Soviets rejected the suggestion at the Potsdam Conference and insisted that the southern boundary between Germany and Poland be drawn further west, at the Lusatian Neisse; the Eastern Neisse originates in the Śnieżnik mountain range of the Sudetes, near the border with the Czech Republic. It is regulated; the river has left its banks and flooded nearby towns, at times destroying them completely. Town chronicles from Kłodzko mention floods in the following years: 14th century: 1310 15th century: 1441, 1464, 1474 16th century: 1500, 1522, 1524, 1560, 1566, 1570, 1587, 1589, 1591, 1598, 17th century: 1602, 1603, 1605, 1610, 1611, 1612, 1625, 1646, 1652, 1655, 1689, 1693, 1696 18th century: 1702, 1703, 1713, 1724, 1735, 1736, 1740, 1755, 1763, 1767, 1775, 1785, 1787, 1789, 1799 19th century: 1804, 1806, 1827, 1828, 1829, 1831, 1850, 1854, 1879, 1881, 1883, 1891, 1897 20th century: 1900, 1903, 1907, 1938, 1952, 1997, 1998 Until 1945, these communities were situated on German territory and populated by Germans before they were driven out at the end of the Second World War.
German names are indicated in italics. Bardo Bystrzyca Kłodzka Kamieniec Ząbkowicki Kłodzko Lewin Brzeski Międzylesie - both names mean "Middle Wood" Nysa Otmuchów Paczków Lusatian Neisse Raging Neisse Rivers of Poland Geography of Poland
The Nuremberg Chronicle is an illustrated biblical paraphrase and world history that follows the story of human history related in the Bible. Written in Latin by Hartmann Schedel, with a version in German, translation by Georg Alt, it appeared in 1493, it is one of the best-documented early printed books—an incunabulum—and one of the first to integrate illustrations and text. Latin scholars refer to it as Liber Chronicarum as this phrase appears in the index introduction of the Latin edition. English-speakers have long referred to it as the Nuremberg Chronicle after the city in which it was published. German-speakers refer to it as Die Schedelsche Weltchronik in honour of its author. Two Nuremberg merchants, Sebald Schreyer and his son-in-law, Sebastian Kammermeister, commissioned the Latin version of the chronicle, they commissioned George Alt, a scribe at the Nuremberg treasury, to translate the work into German. Both Latin and German editions were printed in Nuremberg; the contracts were recorded by scribes, bound into volumes, deposited in the Nuremberg City Archives.
The first contract, from December, 1491, established the relationship between the illustrators and the patrons. Wolgemut and Pleydenwurff, the painters, were to provide the layout of the chronicle, to oversee the production of the woodcuts, to guard the designs against piracy; the patrons agreed to advance 1000 gulden for paper, printing costs, the distribution and sale of the book. A second contract, between the patrons and the printer, was executed in March 1492, it stipulated conditions for managing the printing. The blocks and the archetype were to be returned to the patrons; the author of the text, Hartmann Schedel, was a medical doctor and book collector. He earned a doctorate in medicine in Padua in 1466 settled in Nuremberg to practice medicine and collect books. According to an inventory done in 1498, Schedel's personal library contained 370 manuscripts and 670 printed books; the author used passages from the classical and medieval works in this collection to compose the text of Chronicle.
He borrowed most from another humanist chronicle, Supplementum Chronicarum, by Jacob Philip Foresti of Bergamo. It has been estimated that about 90% of the text is pieced together from works on humanities, science and theology, while about 10% of the chronicle is Schedel's original composition. Nuremberg was one of the largest cities in the Holy Roman Empire in the 1490s, with a population of between 45,000 and 50,000. Thirty-five patrician families comprised the City Council; the Council controlled all aspects of printing and craft activities, including the size of each profession and the quality and type of goods produced. Although dominated by a conservative aristocracy, Nuremberg was a centre of northern humanism. Anton Koberger, printer of the Nuremberg Chronicle, printed the first humanist book in Nuremberg in 1472. Sebald Shreyer, one of the patrons of the chronicle, commissioned paintings from classical mythology for the grand salon of his house. Hartmann Schedel, author of the chronicle, was an avid collector of both Italian Renaissance and German humanist works.
Hieronymus Münzer, who assisted Schedel in writing the chronicle's chapter on geography, was among this group, as were Albrecht Dürer and Johann and Willibald Pirckheimer. The Chronicle was first published in Latin on 12 July 1493 in the city of Nuremberg; this was followed by a German translation on 23 December 1493. An estimated 1400 to 1500 Latin and 700 to 1000 German copies were published. A document from 1509 records that 60 German versions had not been sold. 400 Latin and 300 German copies survived into the twenty-first century. The larger illustrations were sold separately as prints hand-coloured in watercolour. Many copies of the book are coloured, with varying degrees of skill; the colouring on some examples has been added much and some copies have been broken up for sale as decorative prints. The publisher and printer was Anton Koberger, the godfather of Albrecht Dürer, who in the year of Dürer's birth in 1471 ceased goldsmithing to become a printer and publisher, he became the most successful publisher in Germany owning 24 printing presses and having many offices in Germany and abroad, from Lyon to Buda.
The chronicle is an illustrated world history, in which the contents are divided into seven ages: First age: from creation to the Deluge Second age: up to the birth of Abraham Third age: up to King David Fourth age: up to the Babylonian captivity Fifth age: up to the birth of Jesus Christ Sixth age: up to the present time Seventh age: outlook on the end of the world and the Last Judgment The large workshop of Michael Wolgemut Nuremberg's leading artist in various media, provided the unprecedented 1,809 woodcut illustrations. Sebastian Kammermeister and Sebald Schreyer financed the printing in a contract dated March 16, 1492, although preparations had been well under way for several years. Wolgemut and his stepson Wilhelm Pleydenwurff were first commissioned to provide the illustrations in 1487-88, a further contract of December 29, 1491, commissioned manuscript layouts of the text and illustrations. Albrecht Dürer was an apprentice with Wolgemut from 1486 to 1489, so may well have participated in designing some of the illustrations for the specialist craftsmen who cut the blocks, onto which the design had been drawn, or a
Opole Voivodeship, or Opole Province, is the smallest and least populated voivodeship of Poland. The province's name derives from largest city, Opole, it is part of Upper Silesia. A large German minority, with representatives in the Sejm, lives in the voivodeship, the German language is co-official in 28 communes. Opole Voivodeship is bordered by Lower Silesian Voivodeship to the west, Greater Poland and Łódź Voivodeships to the north, Silesian Voivodeship to the east, the Czech Republic to the south. Opole Province's geographic location, economic potential, its population's level of education make it an attractive business partner for other Polish regions and for foreign investors. Formed in 1997, the Praděd/Pradziad Euroregion has facilitated economic and tourist exchanges between the border areas of Poland and the Czech Republic. Opole Voivodeship was created on January 1, 1999, out of the former Opole Voivodeship and parts of Częstochowa Voivodeship, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998.
The government, advised by prominent historians, had wanted to disestablish Opolskie and partition its territory between the more Polish regions of Lower Silesia and Silesian Voivodeship (eastern Upper Silesia and western Malopolska. The plan was that Brzeg and Namysłów, as the Western part of the region, were to be transferred to Lower Silesia, while the rest was to become, along with a part of the Częstochowa Voivodeship, an integral part of the new'Silesian' region. However, the plans resulted in an outcry from the German minority population of Opole Voivodeship, who feared that should their region be abolished, they would lose all hope of regional representation. To the surprise of many of the ethnic Germans in Opole however, the local Polish Silesian population and groups of ethnic Poles rose up to oppose the planned reforms; the solution came in late 1999, when Olesno was, after 24 years apart reunited with the Opole Voivodeship to form the new defined region. A historic moment came in 2006 when the town of Radłów changed its local laws to make German, alongside Polish, the district's second official language.
The voivodeship lies in the major part on the Silesian Lowland. To the east, the region touches upon the Silesian Upland with the famous Saint Anne Mountain; the Oder River cuts across the middle of the voivodeship. The northern part of the voivodeship, along the Mała Panew River, is densely forested, while the southern part consists of arable land; the region has the warmest climate in the country. Protected areas in Opole Voivodeship include the following three areas designated as Landscape Parks: Opawskie Mountains Landscape Park Góra Świętej Anny Landscape Park Stobrawa Landscape Park Opole Voivodeship is divided into 12 counties: 1 city county and 11 land counties; these are further divided into 71 gminas. The counties are listed in the following table; the voivodeship contains 35 towns. These are listed below in descending order of population: The Opole Voivodeship is the smallest region in the administrative makeup of the country in terms of both area and population. About 15% of the one million inhabitants of this voivodeship are ethnic Germans, which constitutes 90% of all ethnic Germans in Poland.
As a result, many areas are bilingual in Opolskie, the German language and culture play a significant role in education in the region. Ethnic Germans first came to this region during the Late Middle Ages; the area was once part of the Prussian province of Silesia. The Opole Voivodeship is an industrial as well as an agricultural region. With respect to mineral resources, of major importance are deposits of raw materials for building: limestone, marl and basalt; the favourable climate, fertile soils, high farming culture contribute to the development of agriculture, among the most productive in the country. A total of nineteen industries are represented in the voivodeship; the most important are cement and lime, food, car manufacturing, chemical industries. In 1997, the biggest production growth in the area was in companies producing wood and wood products, electrical equipment and appliances, as well as cellulose and paper products. In 1997, the top company in the region was Zakłady Azotowe S. A. in Kędzierzyn-Koźle, whose income was over PLN 860 million.
The voivodship's economy consists of more than 53,000 businesses small and medium-sized, employing over 332,000 people. Manufacturing companies employ over 89,000 people; the Opole Voivodeship is a green region with three large lakes: Turawskie and Otmuchów. The Opawskie Mountains are popular; the region includes the castle in Brzeg, built during the reign of the Piast dynasty—pearl of the Silesian Renaissance, the Franc
Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950)
During the stages of World War II and the post-war period, German citizens and people of German ancestry fled or were expelled from various Eastern and Central European countries and sent to the remaining territory of Germany and Austria. The post-war expulsion of the Germans formed a major part of the geopolitical and ethnic reconfiguration of Eastern Europe in the aftermath of World War II, that attempted to create ethnically homogeneous nations within redefined borders. Between 1944 and 1948 about 31 million people, including ethnic Germans as well as German citizens, were permanently or temporarily moved from Central and Eastern Europe. By 1950, a total of 12 million Germans had fled or were expelled from east-central Europe into Allied-occupied Germany and Austria; the West German government put the total at 14.6 million, including 1 million ethnic Germans settled in territories conquered by Nazi Germany during World War II, ethnic German migrants to Germany after 1950 and the children born to expelled parents.
The largest numbers came from preexisting German territories ceded to Poland, the Soviet Union and from Czechoslovakia. The areas affected included the former eastern territories of Germany, which were annexed by Poland and the Soviet Union after the war, as well as Germans who were living within the prewar borders of Poland, Hungary, Romania and the Baltic States; the Nazis had made plans—only completed before the Nazi defeat—to remove many Slavic and Jewish people from Eastern Europe and settle the area with Germans. The death toll attributable to the flight and expulsions is disputed, with estimates ranging from 500,000-600,000 and up to 2 to 2.5 million. The removals occurred in three overlapping phases, the first of, the organized evacuation of ethnic Germans by the Nazi government in the face of the advancing Red Army, from mid-1944 to early 1945; the second phase was the disorganised fleeing of ethnic Germans following the Wehrmacht's defeat. The third phase was a more organised expulsion following the Allied leaders' Potsdam Agreement, which redefined the Central European borders and approved expulsions of ethnic Germans from Poland and Hungary.
Many German civilians were sent to internment and labour camps where they were used as forced labour as part of German reparations to countries in eastern Europe. The major expulsions were complete in 1950. Estimates for the total number of people of German ancestry still living in Central and Eastern Europe in 1950 range from 700,000 to 2.7 million. Before World War II, East-Central Europe lacked shaped ethnic settlement areas. There were some ethnic-majority areas, but there were vast mixed areas and abundant smaller pockets settled by various ethnicities. Within these areas of diversity, including the major cities of Central and Eastern Europe, regular interaction among various ethnic groups had taken place on a daily basis for centuries, while not always harmoniously, on every civic and economic level. With the rise of nationalism in the 19th century, the ethnicity of citizens became an issue in territorial claims, the self-perception/identity of states, claims of ethnic superiority; the German Empire introduced the idea of ethnicity-based settlement in an attempt to ensure its territorial integrity.
It was the first modern European state to propose population transfers as a means of solving "nationality conflicts", intending the removal of Poles and Jews from the projected post–World War I "Polish Border Strip" and its resettlement with Christian ethnic Germans. Following the collapse of Austria-Hungary, the Russian Empire, the German empire at the end of World War I, the Treaty of Versailles pronounced the formation of several independent states in Central and Eastern Europe, in territories controlled by these imperial powers. None of the new states were ethnically homogeneous. After 1919, many ethnic Germans emigrated from the former imperial lands back to Germany and Austria after losing their privileged status in those foreign lands, where they had maintained majority communities. In 1919 ethnic Germans became national minorities in Poland, Hungary and Romania. In the following years, the Nazi ideology encouraged them to demand local autonomy. In Germany during the 1930s, Nazi propaganda claimed that Germans elsewhere were subject to persecution.
Nazi supporters throughout eastern Europe formed local Nazi political parties sponsored financially by the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs, e.g. by Hauptamt Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle. However, by 1939 more than half of Polish Germans lived outside of the German territories of Poland due to improving economic opportunities. Ethnic German population: 1958 West German estimates vs pre war national census figures Notes: According to the national census figures the percentage of ethnic Germans in the total population was: Poland 2.3%. The West German figures are the base used to estimate losses in the expulsions; the West German figure for Poland is broken out as 939,000 monolingual German and 432,000 bi-lingual Polish/German. The West German figure for Poland includes 60,000 in Zaolzie, annexed by Poland in 1938. In the 1930 census this region was included in the Czechoslovak population. A West German analysis of the wartime Deutsche Volksliste by Alfred Bohmann put the number of Polish nationals in the Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany who identified themselves as German at 709,500 plus 1,846,000 Pol