Johannes Rach was a Danish painter and draughtsman whose works from Copenhagen and Indonesia are a valuable source of architectural and cultural historic knowledge. He began his career painting topographical views for the royal court in Copenhagen. Later he traveled to the Dutch East Indies, by way of Saint Petersburg and the Netherlands, where he settled in Batavia, at the same time he continued to pursue his artistic work with considerable commercial success. He set up a studio with local employees who worked in his style. Johannes Rach was born in 1721 in Copenhagen to Christoffer Rach, an innkeeper and alcohol distiller, and Anne Kirstine Christensdotter. After training with Danish court painter P. Wickman from 1736 to 1742, Rach worked for the Danish court for a few years, Rach has signed some of his Danish works but many of them are signed by him and Eegberg jointly. The character and extent of their collaboration remains uncertain, in 1745 Rach travelled to Russia, from 1747 to 1750 working as a painter and draughtsman at Empress Elizabeth of Russias court in Saint Petersburg.
Apart from topographical drawings and perspectives he painted still life, in 1750, or shortly thereafter, Rach moved to the Netherlands where he settled as a painter in Harlem. In April 1756 he married Maria Wilhelmina Valenzijn and the year his daughter. The first leg of the voyage took him to Cape Town by way of Madeira and he made some topographical drawings, among others, along the way. In 1764, he continued to Batavia, where he was promoted through the hierarchy, becoming a major in 1779. Among his customers were members of the elite, who ordered drawing of their country houses outside the city. Other customers ordered street scenes and depictions of the local countryside, Rach was a man of considerable commercial skill and he used his position in society to sell large quantities of his drawings. To cope with demand, Rach recruited assistants, most often unknown, besides Batavia and its surroundings, his drawings depict Buitenzorg, the north Javanese coastal cities, some cities on Sri Lanka and other settlements of the Dutch East Asia Company in Asia.
Rach lived in a house at the Roea Malakka, still called Roa Malacca today, there he maintained a large household suitable for a man of his prominence, including a large staff of domestic slaves. There he died in 1783, leaving an inheritance to his wife. Rach was buried at the graveyard of the Dutch Church at present-day Taman Fatahillah, though a member of the Reformed Church, he asked for the Lutheran minister and fellow draughtsman Jan Brandes at his death bed. Judging from the copies of the same views, he had organised some sort of standard production
A security is a tradable financial asset. The term commonly refers to any form of instrument. In some jurisdictions the term specifically excludes financial instruments other than equities, in some jurisdictions it includes some instruments that are close to equities and fixed income, e. g. equity warrants. In the United States, a security is a financial asset of any kind. Securities are broadly categorized into, debt securities equity securities derivatives, the company or other entity issuing the security is called the issuer. A countrys regulatory structure determines what qualifies as a security, for example, private investment pools may have some features of securities, but they may not be registered or regulated as such if they meet various restrictions. Securities may be represented by a certificate or, more typically, non-certificated, region or country Market capitalization State Securities are the traditional way that commercial enterprises raise new capital. These may be an alternative to bank loans depending on their pricing.
Another disadvantage of bank loans as a source of financing is that the bank may seek a measure of protection against default by the borrower via extensive financial covenants, through securities, capital is provided by investors who purchase the securities upon their initial issuance. In a similar way, a government may issue securities too when it needs to increase government debt, investors in securities may be retail, i. e. members of the public investing other than by way of business. The greatest part of investment, in terms of volume, is wholesale, i. e. by financial institutions acting on their own account, important institutional investors include investment banks, insurance companies, pension funds and other managed funds. The traditional economic function of the purchase of securities is investment, debt securities generally offer a higher rate of interest than bank deposits, and equities may offer the prospect of capital growth. Equity investment may control of the business of the issuer.
Debt holdings may offer some measure of control to the if the company is a fledgling start-up or an old giant undergoing restructuring. In these cases, if interest payments are missed, the creditors may take control of the company, the last decade has seen an enormous growth in the use of securities as collateral. Purchasing securities with borrowed money secured by other securities or cash itself is called buying on margin, where A is owed a debt or other obligation by B, A may require B to deliver property rights in securities to A, either at inception or only in default. Collateral arrangements are divided into two categories, namely security interests and outright collateral transfers. Commonly, commercial banks, investment banks, government agencies and other investors such as mutual funds are significant collateral takers as well as providers
A town square is an open public space commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. Other names for town square are civic center, city square, urban square, market square, public square, plaza, most town squares are hardscapes suitable for open markets, music concerts, political rallies, and other events that require firm ground. Being centrally located, town squares are surrounded by small shops such as bakeries, meat markets, cheese stores. At their center is often a fountain, monument, many of those with fountains are actually called fountain square. In urban planning, a city square or urban square is an open area in a city. Red Square in Moscow was originally used as a marketplace and became the stage for Soviet military parades. Similarly, Beijings Tiananmen Square was the scene of both communist parades and anti-government protests, john-F. -Kennedy-Platz was the site of the West Berlin town hall and John F. Kennedys famous Ich bin ein Berliner speech. New York Citys Times Square as well as Bryant Park, Washington, D. C.
s National Mall, trafalgar Square in London does the same for the United Kingdom. Saint Peters Square in Vatican City, the enclave within Rome. Yonge-Dundas Square in Toronto is a renowned and famous square in Canada, nathan Phillips Square is a popular square in front of Torontos landmark City Hall. Hviezdoslavovo námestie is one of the squares in Bratislava and a centre of a social life. Dam Square in Amsterdam for the Netherlands, Main Market Square in Kraków, Market Place in Warsaw and Wrocław Main Square for Poland. The City Hall Square, Copenhagen for Denmark, praça do Comércio, in Lisbon, was formerly known as the Terreiro do Paço. It was destroyed after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake but was rebuilt, the symmetrical buildings around the square hold government bureaus and ministries. Wenceslas Square is one of the city squares in the New Town of Prague. In Mainland China, Peoples Square is a designation for the central town square of modern Chinese cities. These squares are the site of government buildings and other public buildings, the probably best-known and largest such square in China is Tienanmen Square.
The German word for square is Platz, which means Place and these have been focal points of public life in towns and cities from the Middle Ages to today
An epigram is a brief, interesting and sometimes surprising or satirical statement. Derived from the Greek, ἐπίγραμμα epigramma inscription from ἐπιγράφειν epigraphein to write on, to inscribe, the presence of wit or sarcasm tends to distinguish non-poetic epigrams from aphorisms and adages, which may lack them. These original epigrams did the job as a short prose text might have done. Epigram became a genre in the Hellenistic period, probably developing out of scholarly collections of inscriptional epigrams. Many of the types of literary epigram look back to inscriptional contexts, particularly funerary epigram. Many sympotic epigrams combine sympotic and funerary elements – they tell their readers to drink, epigrams are thought of as having a point – that is, the poem ends in a punchline or satirical twist. By no means do all Greek epigrams behave this way, many are simply descriptive, Greek epigram was actually much more diverse, as the Milan Papyrus now indicates. A major source for Greek literary epigram is the Greek Anthology, the Anthology includes one book of Christian epigrams as well as one book of erotic and amorous epigrams called the Μουσα Παιδικη.
Roman epigrams owe much to their Greek predecessors and contemporaries, Roman epigrams, were often more satirical than Greek ones, and at times used obscene language for effect. Its content, of course, makes it clear how popular such poems were, Admiror, O paries, Im astonished, that you havent collapsed into ruins, since youre holding up the weary verse of so many poets. However, in the world, epigrams were most often gifts to patrons or entertaining verse to be published. Authors whose epigrams survive include Catullus, who wrote both invectives and love epigrams – his poem 85 is one of the latter, sed fieri sentio, et excrucior. Maybe youd like to know why I do, I dont know, but I feel it happening, and Im crucified. Martial, however, is considered to be the master of the Latin epigram and his technique relies heavily on the satirical poem with a joke in the last line, thus drawing him closer to the modern idea of epigram as a genre. Here he defines his genre against a critic, Disce quod ignoras, non sunt longa quibus nihil est quod demere possis, sed tu, disticha longa facis.
Learn what you dont know, one work of Marsus or learned Pedo often stretches out over a doublesided page, a work isnt long if you cant take anything out of it, but you, write even a couplet too long. Poets known for their epigrams whose work has been lost include Cornificia, in early English literature the short couplet poem was dominated by the poetic epigram and proverb, especially in the translations of the Bible and the Greek and Roman poets. Since 1600, two lines of verse that rhyme with each other, known as a couplet featured as a part of the longer sonnet form
Gedde's maps of Copenhagen
The original title of the work was Charta over den kongelige Residencestad Kiöbenhavn med dens omkringliggende Egne. It is an important source of information about mid 18th-century Copenhagen, a printed version was first published in 2002 and Copenhagen City Archives launched a website with a digitalized version in 2011. One third of Copenhagen was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1728, in the 1740s, Sibrandt led the work with production of new local maps which registered land use and ownership. They were used for purposes and organization of local militias. In the 1750s, Frederick V decided to publish a map of Copenhagen. The citys Magistrate was put in charge of the project and called on the services of Samuel Christoph Gedde, gSamuel Christoph Gedde assigned the task to his son, Christian Gedde, who was an officer in the engineering troops. Christian Gedde completed the map in 1761. From 1771, it hung in City Hall on Gammeltorv and it was rescued from the flames during the Copenhagen Fire of 1795 and moved to the new city hall on Nytorv.
It is now kept in the Copenhagen City Archives, the map general map measures 2.5 times 2.5 metres and at a scale of approximately 1,2,600 covers an area of approximately 50 square kilometres. It shows Copenhagen from the south-southeast, the map was originally in red, green and yellow. The colours have disappeared over time but traces of them remain, the intention was to publish an edited version, cleansed of military sensitive details, but this version was never produced. The Bergia Foundation published the first printed version of the map in 2002, in 2011, Copenhagen City Archives launched a website with a digitalized version of Geddes maps to mark the 250 years anniversary of his elevated map of Copenhagen. The digital map had been produced in connection with the Bergia Foundations 2002 publication,1761 General Map Geddes 12 district maps
Copenhagen Court House
The Copenhagen Court House is a historic building located on Nytorv in Copenhagen, Denmark. Originally built as a city hall and courthouse, it now serves as the seat of the District Court of Copenhagen. Inaugurated in 1815, it was built to the design of Christian Frederik Hansen in Neoclassical style, a modern style court of justice, Hof- og Stadsretten, was introduced in Denmark, specifically for Copenhagen, by Johann Friedrich Struensee in 1771. Located in Viborg and Copenhagen, two High Courts were introduced as courts of appeal in 1805 and it was for this emerging legal system that a new courthouse was needed. In the Great Fire of 1795, Copenhagens city hall, located between Nytorv and Gammeltorv, was among the buildings lost to the flames. It was the second city hall at that spot to meet this fate. After the fire, it was decided to build a city hall and courthouse at Nytorv. The project included a jailhouse, Christian Frederik Hansen, the leading Danish architect of the time, was charged with the commission.
Construction started in 1803 and was completed in 1816, the project was delayed by scarcity of building materials as well as the British bombardment of the city in 1807 in the Battle of Copenhagen. Materials from the demolition of Hirschholm Palace were used for the building, the building served its dual purpose for almost 100 years, until the current Copenhagen City Hall was inaugurated in 1905. After that it has exclusively used for the District Court of Copenhagen. The facade is dominated by six large Ionic Columns, flanked by masonry with a number of windows. Behind the columns a staircase leads up to the vestibule with four more Ionic columns, from here a complex network of corridors and stairs connects to the rest of the building. Although the courthouse has been renovated several times, the layout of rooms with columns, reliefs. On each side of the building, it is flanked by a large arch, on the left the arch provides a walkway above the street, connecting the courthouse to the jail on the other side.
The jail building has an expression with small windows. Both the facades of the courthouse and the jail features inscriptions
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles. In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro, Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism. Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée, the many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are links between Boullées ideas and Edmund Burkes conception of the sublime, the baroque style had never truly been to the English taste. The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell, the book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings that had been inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio.
At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain, at the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic architect earl, Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, in 1729, he and William Kent, designed Chiswick House. This House was a reinterpretation of Palladios Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and this severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of Englands finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk, the main block of this house followed Palladios dictates quite closely, but Palladios low, often detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance. This classicising vein was detectable, to a degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris. This shift was even visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S, by the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece.
The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, in France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, and was influenced by the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann. The style was adopted by progressive circles in other countries such as Sweden. A second neoclassic wave, more severe, more studied and more consciously archaeological, is associated with the height of the Napoleonic Empire, in France, the first phase of neoclassicism was expressed in the Louis XVI style, and the second in the styles called Directoire or Empire. The Scottish architect Charles Cameron created palatial Italianate interiors for the German-born Catherine II the Great in St. Petersburg, neoclassicism made a discovery of the genuine classic interior, inspired by the rediscoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum. These had begun in the late 1740s, but only achieved an audience in the 1760s
Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture. Developed first in Florence, with Filippo Brunelleschi as one of its innovators, the style was carried to France, England and other parts of Europe at different dates and with varying degrees of impact. Italy of the 15th century, and the city of Florence in particular, was home to the Renaissance, the scholarly approach to the architecture of the ancient coincided with the general revival of learning. A number of factors were influential in bringing this about, Italian architects had always preferred forms that were clearly defined and structural members that expressed their purpose. Many Tuscan Romanesque buildings demonstrate these characteristics, as seen in the Florence Baptistery, Italy had never fully adopted the Gothic style of architecture. In the 15th century, Florence and Naples extended their power through much of the area that surrounded them and this enabled Florence to have significant artistic influence in Milan, and through Milan, France.
Successive Popes, especially Julius II, 1503–13, sought to extend the Pope’s temporal power throughout Italy, in the early Renaissance, Venice controlled sea trade over goods from the East. Trade brought wool from England to Florence, ideally located on the river for the production of fine cloth, by dominating Pisa, Florence gained a seaport, and maintained dominance of Genoa. In this commercial climate, one family in particular turned their attention from trade to the business of money-lending. The Medici became the chief bankers to the princes of Europe, becoming virtually princes themselves as they did so, along the trade routes, and thus offered some protection by commercial interest, moved not only goods but artists and philosophers. This commenced in the mid 15th century and gained momentum in the 16th century, the construction of the Sistine Chapel with its uniquely important decorations and the entire rebuilding of St Peters, one of Christendoms most significant churches, were part of this process.
In wealthy republican Florence, the impetus for church-building was more civic than spiritual, the unfinished state of the enormous cathedral dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary did no honour to the city under her patronage. The dome inspired further religious works in Florence, through Humanism, civic pride and the promotion of civil peace and order were seen as the marks of citizenship. Some major ecclesiastical building works were commissioned, not by the church. During the Renaissance, architecture became not only a question of practice, printing played a large role in the dissemination of ideas. The first treatise on architecture was De re aedificatoria by Leon Battista Alberti in 1450 and it was to some degree dependent on Vitruviuss De architectura, a manuscript of which was discovered in 1414 in a library in Switzerland. De re aedificatoria in 1485 became the first printed book on architecture, Sebastiano Serlio produced the next important text, the first volume of which appeared in Venice in 1537, it was entitled Regole generali darchitettura.
It is known as Serlios Fourth Book since it was the fourth in Serlios original plan of a treatise in seven books, in all, five books were published
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Bispebjerg, more commonly referred to as Nordvest, is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. Located on the border of the municipality, it covers an area of 5.39 km². More specifically, Bispebjerg refers to a neighbourhood within the district. Bispebjerg covers an area of 5.39 km² and has a population of 40,033, the name Bispebjerg is known from 1681 as Biszebierg. A windmill was built in the area in 1808, Bispebjerg was together with the rest of Brønshøj merged with Copenhagen in 1901. Bispebjerg Cemetery opened in 1903 and Bispebjerg Hospital was built between 1908 and 1913, the district was generally built over with a combination of residential neighbourhoods and industry in the 1920s and 1930s. Bispebjerg station Bispebjerg Hospital City of Copenhagen’s statistical office Map of so-called ghetto areas in central Copenhagen
The Olsen Gang (film)
The Olsen Gang is a 1968 Danish comedy film directed by Erik Balling and starring Ove Sprogøe. This was the first film in the Olsen Gang-series, the plot involves the Olsen Gang as they plan to become millionaires. The film starts by Egon being arrested for trying to rob a store, after Egon is set free, the gang plan on stealing a golden statue which is worth 12 million. After some planning, the sets the plan in action. On their way to the airport, their car out of gas. Constantly chased by Mortensen, they manage to get the statue back, Kjelds wife Yvonne is mad at Kjeld for leaving the pram outside on the sidewalk and takes it away and plans on going back to her mother. The gang now chases after Yvonne and finally succeed on getting the pram back, after almost getting caught, Egon makes a little speech, just before he realizes that the statue is not in the pram. Egon goes mad and leaves Benny and Kjeld behind while he chases after Yvonne and Benny however walk back home with the pram. Turns out that Yvonne didnt go to her mother and came back to Kjeld while Benny is driven home by Ulla, Egon is caught by the police on the boat where Yvonne was supposed to be.
Two years Egon is released and the continues to break the law. The Olsen Gang at the Internet Movie Database The Olsen Gang in the Danish Film Database
Copenhagen Jazz Festival
Copenhagen Jazz Festival is an annual Jazz event, taking place in Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, each July. According to reports, the attendance was 240,000 people during Copenhagen Jazz Festival in 2004. The 2011 edition of Copenhagen Jazz Festival took place from July 1 to July 10, artists included Keith Jarrett, Sonny Rollins and Bobby McFerrin. The 2012 edition of Copenhagen Jazz Festival is scheduled July 6–15,2012, an inspired music scene attracted even more American musicians and educated and inspired the whole Danish scene as well. That makes Copenhagen Jazz Festival one of Copenhagens most important public festivals, attracting a broad international audience