James Joyce Bridge
James Joyce Bridge is a road bridge spanning the River Liffey in Dublin, joining the south quays to Blackhall Place on the north side. Designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava, it is a structural steel design,40 m long. The bridge was built by Irishenco Construction, using pre-fabricated steel sections from Harland, the bridge is named for the famous Dublin author James Joyce, and was opened on 16 June 2003. Joyces short story The Dead is set in Number 15 Ushers Island, the house facing the bridge on the south side
St Stephen's Green
St Stephens Green is a city centre public park in Dublin, Ireland. The current landscape of the park was designed by William Sheppard and it is often informally called Stephens Green. At 22 acres, it is the largest of the parks in Dublins main Georgian garden squares, others include nearby Merrion Square and Fitzwilliam Square. These four bordering streets are called, respectively, St Stephens Green North, St Stephens Green South, St Stephens Green East, until 1663 St Stephens Green was a marshy common on the edge of Dublin, used for grazing. In that year Dublin Corporation, seeing an opportunity to raise much needed revenue, decided to enclose the centre of the common, the park was enclosed with a wall in 1664. The houses built around the Green were rapidly replaced by new buildings in the Georgian style, much of the present-day landscape of the square comprises modern buildings, some in a replica Georgian style, and relatively little survives from the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1814 control of St Stephens Green passed to Commissioners for the local householders and he paid for the laying out of the Green in approximately its current form, which took place in 1880, and gave it to the Corporation, as representatives of the people.
By way of thanks the city commissioned a statue of him and his brother Edward lived at Iveagh House, which his descendants gave in 1939 to the Department of External Affairs. They numbered between 200 and 250 and they confiscated motor vehicles to establish road blocks on the streets that surround the park, and dug defensive positions in the park itself. This approach differed from that of taking up positions in buildings, finding themselves in a weak position, the Volunteers withdrew to the Royal College of Surgeons on the west side of the Green. During the Rising, fire was halted to allow the parks groundsman to feed the local ducks. The park is now operated by the Office of Public Works on behalf of the Irish state, the landscaping of the park has undergone three major changes since its inception. Its first major change occurred in 1670, two rows of trees were planted around the perimeter, functioning as its first enclosure. At this time, the park was accessible to the wealthy residents who owned plots around the park.
In 1815 the park was redesigned by the Dublin city surveyor Arthur Neville, in his redesign, he added winding pathways and iron fences. At this time, the park was closed to the public. This included creating four gates at each corner of the park that would be linked by the extant pathways designed by Neville and this plan was eventually abandoned, most likely due to the fact that Hemans was employed by Dublin Corporation. L. Ardilaun played a significant role in the planning and importing of the exotic trees, while the central park of St Stephens Green is one of three ancient commons in the city, its current layout owes much to the restorations of the 1800s
Liam OFlaherty was an Irish novelist and short story writer and a major figure in the Irish literary renaissance. He was involved for a time in left-wing politics, as was his brother Tom Maidhc OFlaherty, OFlaherty was born in the remote village of Gort na gCapall, on Inis Mór, County Galway. His family, descendants of the Ó Flaithbertaigh family of Connemara, were not well off, the Irish language was widely spoken in the area, and in the OFlaherty household both English and Irish were used. OFlaherty was an uncle of Gaelic Athletic Association commentator and writer, OFlaherty was born, a son of Maidhc Ó Flaithearta and Maggie Ganley, at Gort na gCapall, Inishmore. At the age of twelve, he went to Rockwell College and University College Dublin, according to The Sunday Times, he attended Belvedere College and Blackrock College. It was intended he enter the priesthood, but in 1917 he joined the British Army as a member of the Irish Guards in 1917 under the name Bill Ganly and he found trench life devastatingly monotonous but was badly injured in September 1917 during the Battle of Langemarck.
It is speculated that the shock suffered was responsible for the mental illness which became apparent in 1933. He returned from the front a socialist, having become interested in Marxism as a schoolboy and communistic beliefs evolved in his 20s and he was a founder member of the Communist Party of Ireland. Free State troops forced their surrender, after these events, OFlaherty left Ireland and moved first to England where and jobless, he took to writing. Four years his short novel Return of the Brute, set in the World War I trenches. He travelled to the United States, where he lived in Hollywood for a short time, the film director John Ford, a cousin, made a film of OFlahertys first novel. The novel was the source of a 1929 film of same name directed by Arthur Robison, many of his works have the common theme of nature and Ireland. He was a short story writer, and some of his best work in that genre was in Irish. The collection Dúil, published towards the end of his life and it is likely, for example, that the story The Pedlars Revenge was first written in Irish under the title Díoltas.
This collection, now widely admired, had a reception at the time. This gave rise to some controversy and his First Flight, a short story which symbolizes the nervousness one experiences before doing something new, is regarded as one of his best known works. In 1923, OFlaherty published his first novel, Thy Neighbours Wife, over the next couple of years he published other novels and short stories. In 1933 he suffered from the first of two mental breakdowns and he travelled in the United States and Europe, and the letters he wrote while travelling have now been published
Anna Livia Bridge
The Anna Livia Bridge, formerly Chapelizod Bridge, is a road bridge spanning the River Liffey in Chapelizod, Dublin and joining the Lucan Road to Chapelizod Road. As the Liffey flows into the town of Chapelizod, a weir divides the course to form a mill race. Split by the two bodies of water, the island at Chapelizod has been a base for industry since at least the 18th century, the main flow is crossed by a four-span stone arch bridge, having two large central spans and two much smaller end spans. This bridge was built in the 1660s, and originally named Chapelizod Bridge, the bridge was renamed in 1982 to mark the centenary of James Joyces birth. Dublin City Council planned changes to bridge, as part of a general Traffic Management Plan for the Chapelizod area, the changes include the construction of separate footbridge sections outside the parapets of the bridge, and the creation of cycle lanes on the bridge. Preparatory works for this initiative commenced in 2010 and the opening was held in December 2011
Father Mathew Bridge
Father Mathew Bridge is a road bridge spanning the River Liffey in Dublin and joining Merchants Quay to Church Street and the north quays. It is approximately on the site of the original, and for years only, Bridge of Dublin. The site of the bridge is understood to be close to the ancient Ford of the Hurdles, at the turn of the first millennium, the first recorded Dublin Liffey bridge was built at this point. Possibly known as the Bridge of Dubhghall, this wooden structure was maintained. These rebuilds included a Norman bridge in the early 13th century and this collapsed however in the late 14th century and in 1428, the Dominicans of Ostmantown Friary built the first masonry bridge in Dublin on the same spot. Known as Dublin Bridge, Old Bridge, or simply The Bridge, this four arch structure had towers at either end, and shops, housing, an inn and a chapel were built on its supports. In 1312 Geoffrey de Morton, Lord Mayor of Dublin 1302-3 was reprimanded for building a house without permission on the bridge.
On the other hand it was he who began the towers, completed by his son-in-law John de Grauntsete, for much of its 390-year life span, The Bridge carried all pedestrian and horse-drawn traffic across the river, and its tolls and chapel were still in use. At the beginning of the 19th century, Dublin Bridge was replaced by a three-span, designed by George Knowles, the bridge was opened in 1818 as Whitworth Bridge, for Charles, Earl of Whitworth, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. As with many other Dublin bridges, the bridge was renamed following independence by the Free State as Dublin Bridge in the 1920s
Mellows Bridge is a road bridge spanning the River Liffey, in Dublin and joining Queen Street and Arran Quay to the south quays. In 1683, a bridge called Arran Bridge or Arons Bridge was built in a location between the upstream Bloody Bridge and the downstream Bridge of Dublin. Construction was funded by landowner William Ellis, and Dublin Corporation and it was named after Richard, Earl of Arran, second son of the Duke of Ormonde. From a drawing made by Francis Place in 1699, it appears to have been a stone arched bridge. It was known as Bridewell Bridge due to its proximity to the Smithfield Bridewell and this structure stood for 80 years, but was swept away by a flood in 1763. The collapse was described by George Semple as being an accident when a raft of timber was swiftly carried downstream in a flood where it got lodged across the middle arch. The bridge was renamed for the legendary Queen Maeve at a meeting of the Municipal Council on 2 January 1922, however, it was renamed again in 1942 to its current name, after Lieutenant General Liam Mellows Irish Republican army who was executed during the Irish Civil War.
Being 250 years old, Mellows Bridge remains the oldest of all Dublin city bridges still in use, although the parapets were replaced with cast iron balustrades and stone copings between 1816 and 1818
Multiplied in this way, they form a balustrade. Individually, a baluster shaft may describe the form taken by a brass or silver candlestick. According to OED, baluster is derived through the French, from Italian, from balaustra, pomegranate flower, from Latin balaustium, from Greek βαλαύστιον. The earliest examples are shown in the bas-reliefs representing the Assyrian palaces. The application to architecture was a feature of the early Renaissance, late fifteenth-century examples are found in the balconies of palaces at Venice and these quattrocento balustrades are likely to be following yet-unidentified Gothic precedents. They form balustrades of colonnettes as an alternative to miniature arcading, sangallo passed the motif to Bramante and Michelangelo, through whom balustrades gained wide currency in the 16th century. Because of its low center of gravity, this vase-baluster may be given the modern term dropped baluster. The baluster, being a structure, tends to follow design precedents that were set in woodworking and ceramic practices, where the turners lathe.
The profile a baluster takes is often diagnostic of a style of architecture or furniture. Some complicated Mannerist baluster forms can be read as a vase set upon another vase, modern baluster design is in use for example in designs influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement in a 1905 row of houses in Etchingham Park Road Finchley London England. The modern term baluster shaft is applied to the shaft dividing a window in Saxon architecture, in the south transept of the Abbey in St Albans, are some of these shafts, supposed to have been taken from the old Saxon church. Norman bases and capitals have been added, together with plain cylindrical Norman shafts, balusters are normally separated by at least the same measurement as the size of the square bottom section. Placing balusters too far apart diminishes their aesthetic appeal, balustrades normally terminate in columns, building walls or more properly in heavy newel posts because otherwise they will not be structurally strong enough. Balusters may be formed in several ways and stone can be shaped on the lathe, wood can be cut from square or rectangular section boards, while concrete, plaster and plastics are usually formed by molding and casting.
Turned patterns or old examples are used for the molds, Cast iron Cast stone Hardwoods and softwoods Plaster Polymer stone Polyurethane/polystyrene Wrought iron The word banister refers to the balusters of a stairway. According to many dictionaries - a, a handrail, especially on a staircase. Such a handrail together with its supporting structures, the Renaissance baluster and Palladio in Palladio and English Palladianism
Westmoreland Street is a street in the southern city-centre of Dublin, Ireland. It is currently a street and part a north-bound section of the R138 road. It is one of the two broad avenues - along with DOlier Street - that converge at their ends at OConnell Bridge over the River Liffey. Westmoreland Street links the bridge to Trinity College at College Green at its southern end, westmoreland Street constitutes the eastern border of Temple Bar. The street is named after John Fane, 10th Earl of Westmorland, westmoreland street will have a stop on the Luas Cross City line. This line will link the Red and Green lines and go from Broombridge in North Dublin, construction started in June 2013 with services expected to begin in 2017. Dublin, The City Within the Grand and Royal Canals and the Circular Road, with the Phoenix Park
Spire of Dublin
The spire was designed by Ian Ritchie Architects, who sought an Elegant and dynamic simplicity bridging art and technology. The contract was awarded to SIAC-Radley JV and it was manufactured by Radley Engineering of Dungarvan, County Waterford, the first section was installed on 18 December 2002. Construction of the sculpture was delayed because of difficulty in obtaining planning permission, the Spire consists of eight hollow stainless steel cone sections, the longest being 20 m, which were installed on 21 January 2003. It is a cone of diameter 3 m at the base. It features two tuned mass dampers, designed by engineers Arup, to counteract sway, the steel underwent shot peening to alter the quality of light reflected from it. The pattern around the base of the Spire is based on a sample of rock formation taken from the ground where the spire stands. The pattern was applied by bead blasting the steel through rubber stencil masks whose patterns were created by water jet cutting based on core sample drawings supplied by the contractor.
At dusk, the base of the monument is lit and the top 10 m is illuminated through 11,884 holes through which light-emitting diodes shine, the monument was commissioned as part of a street layout redesign in 1999. The Anna Livia monument was installed on the site for the 1988 Dublin Millennium celebrations, in the 1990s, plans were launched to improve the streetscape. The number of trees in the reservation, which had overgrown and obscured views. This was controversial, as the trees had been growing for a century, statues were cleaned and in some cases relocated. Shop-owners were required to replace plastic signage and frontage with more attractive designs, traffic was re-directed where possible away from the street and the number of traffic lanes was reduced to make it more appealing to pedestrians. The Anna Livia monument was moved to make way for the Spire in 2001
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be white, pink, or gray in color. The word granite comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the structure of such a holocrystalline rock. By definition, granite is a rock with at least 20% quartz. The term granitic means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition. Occasionally some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in case the texture is known as porphyritic. A granitic rock with a texture is known as a granite porphyry. Granitoid is a general, descriptive field term for lighter-colored, coarse-grained igneous rocks, petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids. The extrusive igneous rock equivalent of granite is rhyolite, Granite is nearly always massive and tough, and therefore it has gained widespread use throughout human history, and more recently as a construction stone.
The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3, its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa, and its viscosity near STP is 3–6 •1019 Pa·s. The melting temperature of dry granite at ambient pressure is 1215–1260 °C, it is reduced in the presence of water. Granite has poor primary permeability, but strong secondary permeability, true granite according to modern petrologic convention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali feldspar granite, when a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite and amphibole are common in tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite, two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase, and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites. A worldwide average of the composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses. Much of it was intruded during the Precambrian age, it is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin veneer of the continents.
Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs, granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite often occurs as small, less than 100 km² stock masses
Rivers of Ireland
Shown here are all the major rivers and tributaries of Ireland with their lengths. Table 1 shows the longest rivers in Ireland with their lengths, the counties they flow through, table 2 shows the largest rivers in Ireland in cubic metres per second. The longest river in Ireland is the River Shannon, at 360.5 kilometres, the river develops into three lakes along its course, Lough Allen, Lough Ree and Lough Derg. Of these, Lough Derg is the largest, the Shannon enters the Atlantic Ocean at the Shannon Estuary. The River Shannons overall length, using the Owenmore River as source, is 372 kilometres,11 km longer than the Shannon Pot source, the River Shannon is a traditional freshwater river for just about 45% of its total length. B The total basin area of the Three Sisters is 9,207 km2, C The traditional length given for the River Bann is 80 miles which is the combined total length of Upper and Lower Bann rivers and doesnt include Lough Neagh. The total length of the Ulster Blackwater from its source to the sea via L.
Neagh and this is the longest stream flow in Ulster. D The total basin area of the 6 km River Corrib is 3,138 km2 The total length of the River Robes journey from its source near Ballyhaunis to Galway Bay is 72 miles and this is the longest stream flow within the Corrib Basin. The 102.5 m3/s is based on the basin area of 5808 km2. C The Three Sisters total flow into Waterford Harbour is 154 m3/s, List of rivers in Ireland List of canals in Ireland List of loughs in Ireland List of rivers in County Dublin Geography of Ireland Transport in Ireland Irish whitewater River Guides