Dublin Bay is a C-shaped inlet of the Irish Sea on the east coast of Ireland. The bay is about 10 kilometres wide along its north-south base, 7 km in length to its apex at the centre of the city of Dublin. North Bull Island is situated in the northwest part of the bay, where one of two major inshore sand banks lay, features a 5 km long sandy beach, Dollymount Strand, fronting an internationally recognised wildfowl reserve. Many of the rivers of Dublin reach the Irish Sea at Dublin Bay: the River Liffey, with the River Dodder flow received less than 1 km inland, River Tolka, various smaller rivers and streams; the metropolitan area of the city of Dublin surrounds three sides of the bay, while the Irish Sea lies to the east. Dublin was founded by the Vikings at the point where they were able to ford the River Liffey with the first wattle bridge up from the estuary; the city spread from its birthplace, around what is now the James's Gate area, out along the coastline, northeast towards Howth and southeast towards Dalkey.
UNESCO has designated Dublin Bay a'biosphere reserve' in recognition of its unique ecological habitat and biological diversity. The bay is rather shallow with many sandbanks and rocky outcrops, was notorious in the past for shipwrecks when the wind was from the east; until modern times, many ships and their passengers were lost along the treacherous coastline from Howth to Dun Laoghaire, less than a kilometre from shore. Early maps of the bay show narrow shipping channels and mooring areas; the bay had the North Bull and the South Bull. With the building of the Bull Wall, the North Bull began to build up forming North Bull Island. A southern wall had earlier been built - the Great South Wall - but did not result in island formation, the South Bull remaining today an area of mud flats and strand. In addition there are several offshore sandbanks, notably Kish Bank. From north to south, Dublin Bay features beaches at Sutton Strand, Dollymount Strand on North Bull Island, Sandymount and south of Dun Laoghaire.
The remaining coast is either mud coming up to sea walls. In most parts, the land slopes down to the sea, but aside from Howth Head, there are bluffs along much of the Raheny coastline, the sharper slopes just inland at Monkstown and Old Dunleary. Over 500 crew and passengers were lost when the steamship RMS Leinster was torpedoed and sunk by German U-Boat UB-123 on 10 October 1918, she lies in 33 metres of water at 53°18.88′N 5°47.71′W. In 1972, the Dublin Port and Docks Board proposed building an oil refinery in Dublin Bay; the plan was vigorously opposed by environmentalists, including Dublin City Councillor Seán D. Loftus, on the grounds that it posed a serious risk of pollution. Loftus, a lifelong campaigner for Dublin Bay, changed his name by deed poll to "Seán Dublin Bay Loftus" when standing for election to the Dáil. Although he was not elected, he succeeded in publicising the issue and the proposal was turned down by the Minister for Local Government, James Tully.. Loftus led opposition to the 2002 and subsequent applications by the Dublin Port Company to fill in 52 acres of Dublin Bay.
Other suggestions for the bay have included a proposal to build giant underwater gas storage tanks, to infill the near-lagoon behind North Bull Island to form a leisure park. In the summer of 2010, An Bord Pleanála refused permission to the Dublin Port Company to proceed with its plans to infill a further 52 acres of Dublin Bay; the proposed infill, vehemently opposed by residents, environmentalists and others around the bay for over 20 years, was refused on one point. An Bord Pleanála rejected nine out of ten of its own inspector's recommendations for refusal, but refused permission on the basis that it was not satisfied that the proposed development would not adversely affect the integrity of the South Dublin Bay and River Tolka Estuary proposed Special Protection Area and adversely affect the natural heritage of Dublin Bay. Within a few months of the decision, the Dublin Port Company applied for and received a pre-application meeting with An Bord Pleanála; the Dublin Port Company has redrafted their proposal in relation to the SPA boundary and may resubmit an application for the project.
Coastal flooding can occur at high tide at several points, notably the city side of Clontarf and Sandymount. James Joyce set much of the action in his novel Ulysses around the bay, from the Forty Foot bathing place—in which the character Buck Mulligan washed on Bloomsday morning—to Howth, where Leopold Bloom made love to his wife Molly under the rhododendrons. Dublin Port Dublin Bay - Proposed 52 acre infill Satellite photo of County Dublin Dublin Bay dive sites @ Trinity College Dublin List of shipwrecks: Dublin Bay to Gormonstown
The Wicklow Mountains form the largest continuous upland area in the Republic of Ireland. They occupy the whole centre of County Wicklow and stretch outside its borders into the counties of Dublin and Carlow. Where the mountains extend into County Dublin, they are known locally as the Dublin Mountains; the highest peak is Lugnaquilla at 925 metres. The mountains are composed of granite surrounded by an envelope of mica-schist and much older rocks such as quartzite, they were pushed up during the Caledonian orogeny at the start of the Devonian period and form part of the Leinster Chain, the largest continuous area of granite in Ireland and Britain. The mountains owe much of their present topography to the effects of the last ice age, which deepened the valleys and created corrie and ribbon lakes. Copper and lead have been the main metals mined in the mountains and a brief gold rush occurred in the 18th century. Several major river systems have their source in the mountains, such as the Liffey, Dargle and Avoca rivers.
Powerscourt Waterfall is the tallest in Ireland at 121 metres. A number of these rivers have been harnessed to create reservoirs for drinking water for Dublin and its surroundings; the Wicklow Mountains experience a temperate oceanic climate with mild, damp summers and cool, wet winters. The dominant habitat of the uplands consists of blanket bog and upland grassland; the uplands support a number of bird species, including peregrine falcon. The valleys are a mixture of deciduous woodland; the mountains have been inhabited since Neolithic times and a number of typical monuments, in particular a series of passage tombs, survive to the present day. The monastery at Glendalough, founded in the late 6th century by Saint Kevin, was an important centre of the Early Church in Ireland. Following the Norman invasion in the 12th century, the Wicklow Mountains became a stronghold and hiding place for Irish clans opposed to English rule; the O'Byrne and O'Toole families carried out a campaign of harassment against the settlers for five centuries.
The mountains harboured rebels during the 1798 Rising. Rebel activity died out after the construction of the Wicklow Military Road at the start of the 19th century and the mountains began to attract tourists to the ruins at Glendalough and to admire the mountain scenery; the Wicklow Mountains continue to be a major attraction for recreation. The entire upland area is designated as a Special Area of Conservation and as a Special Protection Area under European Union law; the Wicklow Mountains National Park was established in 1991 to conserve the local biodiversity and landscape. The Wicklow Mountains take their name from County Wicklow which in turn takes its name from Wicklow town; the origin of the name is from Wykinlo. The Irish name for Wicklow, Cill Mhantáin, means "Church of Mantan", named after an apostle of Saint Patrick. Wicklow was not established as a county until 1606. During the medieval period, prior to the establishment of County Wicklow, the English administration in Dublin referred to the region as the Leinster Mountains.
An early name for the whole area of the Wicklow Mountains was Cualu Cuala. The Irish name for Great Sugar Loaf mountain is Ó Cualann. There are historic names for various territories in the mountains held by local clans: the north part of Wicklow and south Dublin was known as Cualann or Fir Chualann, anglicized'Fercullen', while the Glen of Imaal takes its name from the territory of Uí Máil. A sept of the O'Byrne family called the Gaval Rannall possessed the area around Glenmalure, known as Gaval-Rannall or Ranelagh; the mountains were formerly known as Sliabh Ruadh or the Red Mountains. The Wicklow Mountains are the largest area of continuous high ground in Ireland, having an unbroken area of over 500 km2 above 300 metres, they occupy the centre of County Wicklow and extend into Counties Dublin and Wexford. The general direction of the mountain ranges is from north-east to south-west, they are formed into several distinct groups: that of Kippure in the north, on the boundary of Dublin and Wicklow.
To the east, separated from the rest of the range by the Vartry Plateau, is the group comprising the Great Sugar Loaf, Little Sugar Loaf and Bray Head. Lugnaquilla is the highest peak in the Wicklow Mountains at 925 metres and the 13th highest in Ireland, it is the highest peak in Leinster and is the only Irish Munro to be found outside of Munster. Kippure stands at 757 metres. There are a total of 39 peaks over 600 metres in the Wicklow Mountains. There are only three passes through the mountains under 600 metres with the Sally Gap and the Wicklow Gap being the highest road passes in the country; the Wicklow Mountains are composed of granite surrounded by an envelope of mica-schist and much older rocks such as quartzite. The oldest rocks are the quartzites of the Bray Group that include Bray Head and the Little Sugar Loaf and Great Sugar Loaf mountains; these metamorphosed from sandstone deposited in the deep waters of the primeval Iapetus Ocean during the Cambrian period. Layers of sediment continued to form slates and shales along the ocean floor mixed with volcanic rock pushed up as Iapetus began to shrink by the process of subduction during the Ordovician period.
Rapids are sections of a river where the river bed has a steep gradient, causing an increase in water velocity and turbulence. Rapids are hydrological features between a cascade. Rapids are characterised by the river becoming shallower with some rocks exposed above the flow surface; as flowing water splashes over and around the rocks, air bubbles become mixed in with it and portions of the surface acquire a white colour, forming what is called "whitewater". Rapids occur where the bed material is resistant to the erosive power of the stream in comparison with the bed downstream of the rapids. Young streams flowing across solid rock may be rapids for much of their length. Rapids cause water aeration of the river resulting in better water quality. Rapids are categorized in classes running from I to VI. A Class 5 rapid may be categorized as Class 5.1-5.9. While class I rapids are easy to navigate and require little maneuvering, class VI rapids pose threat to life with little or no chance for rescue.
River rafting sports are carried out. Fluid dynamics International Scale of River Difficulty - for classification of rapids Reach Rheophile - organisms that live in fast flowing water Riffle - A fast moving portion of a stream without the vigour of a rapid Mason, Bill. Path of the Paddle. Northword Press. ISBN 9781559710046. Rapids entry in National Geographic's encyclopedia
The Ha'penny Bridge, known for a time as the Penny Ha'penny Bridge, the Liffey Bridge, is a pedestrian bridge built in May 1816 over the River Liffey in Dublin, Ireland. Made of cast iron, the bridge was cast in England. Called the Wellington Bridge, the name of the bridge changed to Liffey Bridge; the Liffey Bridge remains the bridge's official name to this day, although it is most referred to as the Ha'penny Bridge. Before the Ha'penny Bridge was built there were seven ferries, operated by a William Walsh, across the Liffey; the ferries were in a bad condition and Walsh was informed that he had to either fix them or build a bridge. Walsh chose the latter option and was granted the right to extract a ha'penny toll from anyone crossing it for 100 years; the toll charge was based not on the cost of construction, but to match the charges levied by the ferries it replaced. A further condition of construction was that, if the citizens of Dublin found the bridge and toll to be "objectionable" within its first year of operation, it was to be removed at no cost to the city.
The toll was increased for a time to a penny-ha'penny, but was dropped in 1919. While the toll was in operation, there were turnstiles at either end of the bridge; the manufacture of the bridge was commissioned by the Lord Mayor of Dublin, John Claudius Beresford with the Coalbrookdale Company of England. Using ore mined in County Leitrim's Sliabh an Iarainn, the bridge's cast iron ribs were made in 18 sections and shipped to Dublin; the design and erection was supervised by John Windsor, one of the company's foremen and a pattern-maker. In 2001 the number of pedestrians using the bridge on a daily basis was 27,000 and, given these traffic levels, a structural survey indicated that renovation was required; the bridge was closed for repair and renovations during 2001 and was reopened in December 2001, sporting its original white colour. The structure was rebuilt to retain many of its old components, controversially, some features were removed; the repair work was carried out by Wolff. In 2012, citing a maintenance and damage risk, Dublin City Council removed a number of love locks from the Ha'penny Bridge and nearby Millennium Bridge, asked people not to add any more.
In 2013 the council removed over 300 kg of locks from the bridge, signage was added asking people not to put padlocks on the bridge. On 19 May 2016, the bicentenary of the bridge was celebrated with a symbolic procession over the bridge involving the current Lord Mayor, Críona Ní Dhálaigh, descendants of J. C. Beresford and of John Windsor from England. Ha'penny Bridge entry on Dublin City Council's Bridges of Dublin web site
County Dublin is one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland. Prior to 1994 it was an administrative county covering the whole county outside of Dublin City Council. In 1994, as part of a reorganisation of local government within Dublin the boundaries of Dublin City were redrawn, Dublin County Council was abolished and three new administrative county councils were established: Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown and South Dublin. While it is no longer used as an administrative division for local government but retains a strong identity in popular culture, it is in the province of Leinster, is named after the city of Dublin, the capital city of Ireland. County Dublin was one of the first parts of Ireland to be shired by John, King of England following the Norman invasion of Ireland. According to the 2016 census, the total population of County Dublin was 1,345,402; the county is a NUTS 3 region, is part of the NUTS 2 region of Eastern and Midland. There are four local authorities whose remit collectively encompasses the geographic area of the county and city of Dublin.
These are Dublin City Council, South Dublin County Council, Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County Council and Fingal County Council. Prior to the enactment of the Local Government Act 1993, the county was a unified whole though it was administered by two local authorities – Dublin County Council and Dublin Corporation. Since the enactment of the Local Government Act 2001 in particular, the geographic area of the county has been divided between three entities at the level of "county" and a further entity at the level of "city", they rank as first level local administrative units of the NUTS 3 Dublin Region for Eurostat purposes. There are 34 LAU 1 entities in the Republic of Ireland; each local authority is responsible for certain local services such as sanitation and development, the collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing. Dublin County Council was abolished in 1994 and the area divided among the administrative counties of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown and South Dublin each with its county seat.
To these areas may be added the area of Dublin city which collectively comprise the Dublin Region and come under the remit of the Dublin Regional Authority. The area lost its administrative county status in 1994, with Section 9 Part 1 of the Local Government Act, 1993 stating that "the county shall cease to exist." In discussing the legislation to dissolve Dublin County Council, Avril Doyle TD said, "The Bill before us today abolishes County Dublin, as one born and bred in these parts of Ireland I find it rather strange that we in this House are abolishing County Dublin. I am not sure whether Dubliners realise that, what we are about today, but in effect, the case."The county is part of the Dublin constituency for the purposes of European elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the area of the county is divided into eleven constituencies: Dublin Bay North, Dublin Bay South, Dublin Central, Dublin Fingal, Dublin Mid-West, Dublin North-West, Dublin Rathdown, Dublin South-Central, Dublin South-West, Dublin West, Dún Laoghaire.
Together they return 44 deputies to the Dáil. Despite the legal status of the Dublin Region, the term "County Dublin" is still in common usage. Many organisations and sporting teams continue to organise on a "County Dublin" or "Dublin Region" basis; the area known as "County Dublin" is now defined in legislation as the "Dublin Region" under the Local Government Act, 1991 Order, 1993, this is the terminology used by the four Dublin administrative councils in press releases concerning the former county area. The term Greater Dublin Area, which might consist of some or all of the Dublin Region along with counties of Kildare and Wicklow, has no legal standing; the Dublin Region is a NUTS Level III region of Ireland. The region is one of eight regions of the Republic of Ireland for the purposes of Eurostat statistics, its NUTS code is IE061. It is co-extensive with the old county; the regional capital is Dublin City, the national capital. The latest Ordnance Survey Ireland "Discovery Series" 1:50,000 map of the Dublin Region, Sheet 50, shows the boundaries of the city and three surrounding counties of the region.
Extremities of the Dublin Region, in the north and south of the region, appear in other sheets of the series, 43 and 56 respectively. Local radio stations include 98FM, FM104, 103.2 Dublin City FM, Q102, SPIN 1038, Sunshine 106.8, TXFM, Raidió Na Life and Radio Nova. Local newspapers include Northside People, Southside People and the Liffey Champion. Most of the area can receive the five main UK television channels as well as the main Irish channels, along with Sky TV and Virgin Media Ireland cable television. Road: The major roads are the N2, N3, N4 and N7 national primary roads, the M1, M11 and M50 motorways. Heavy rail: The InterCity and Commuter rail services. Light rail: The Luas tram system serving Dublin City and its southern and western suburbs. Rapid transit: The DART and the proposed Dublin Metro line. Port: Dublin Port and Dún Laoghaire Harbour. Air: Dublin International Airport; the economy of County Dublin was identified as being the powerhouse behind the Celtic Tiger, a period of strong economic growth of the state.
This resulted in the economy of the county expanding by 100% between the early 1990s and 2007. This growth resulted from incoming high-value industries, such as financial services and software manufacturing, as well as low-skilled retail and domestic services, w
Celbridge is a town and townland on the River Liffey in County Kildare, Ireland. It is 23 km west of Dublin. Both a local centre and a commuter town within the Greater Dublin Area, it is located at the intersection of the R403 and R405 regional roads; as of the 2016 census, Celbridge was the third largest town in County Kildare by population, with over 20,000 residents. The name Celbridge is derived from the Irish Cill Droichid meaning "Church of bridge" or "Church by the bridge"; the Irish name was anglicised as Kildroicht, Kildroght, Kildrout. Celbridge was for a period the third largest town in County Kildare; the population increased by 7.8% between 2002 and 2006. This was the town's most rapid growth rate in absolute terms. In percentage terms it was a slowdown on previous growth rates which were at one stage the highest in Ireland; as of the census of 2011, there were 19,537 people living in Celbridge. Of the 2006 population of 17,262. 8,732 were male and 8,530 female, 4,307 were aged 0–14, 2,678 were aged 15–24, 6,219 were aged 35–44, 3,400 were aged 45–64 and 658 were aged 65 years and over.
Of these 9,586 were single, 6,602 were married, 715 were widowed and 359 were separated. Only 4,146 of the 16,980 who were recorded by the census as "usually resident in Celbridge" had been born in County Kildare. 10,071 had been born elsewhere in Ireland and 2,763 were born outside Ireland. Celbridges's two main active parish churches are those of Christ Church. St Patrick's forms part of the Catholic Parish of Celbridge and Straffan within the Archdiocese of Dublin. Christ Church is the Anglican Parish Church for Celbridge and forms part of the grouped Parish of Celbridge and Newcastle-Lyons in the Archdiocese of Dublin and Diocese of Glendalough. Celbridge Christian Church is a non-denominational independent church formed in 2005; the congregation is drawn from many nations and numbers over 85 adults and 70+ children. Its current pastor is Paul R Carley. Pastor Carley has ministered in the United States, United Kingdom, France and Kenya. Celbridge has six primary schools: Primrose Hill, St Brigids, Aghards known as Scoil Mochua, Scoil na Mainistreach, North Kildare Educate Together National School, St Patrick's located in the GAA grounds on the Newcastle road.
There is a residential special school, Saint Raphael's, for children with a learning disability. Celbridge has one of the few Primary Montessori Schools in Ireland, Weston Primary Montessori School, established in 2016 by the parents and teachers of the former Glebe School; this school provides a Montessori education to children from 3–12 years and is located on the grounds of Barnhall Rugby Club. Celbridge's growth has created some traffic congestion, including at peak times. A 2008 report by Kildare County Council attributed some of the issues to the single bridge over the Liffey in the town, issues with illegal parking and parking enforcement; the Celbridge Interchange which connects the town to the motorway as well as the Intel and Hewlett Packard plants in Leixlip, was opened in 2003 to help address related traffic issues, with some success. Pay parking applies along Main St. and other roads in the town centre, with some free parking available at weekends. There are car parks behind The Mucky Duck Pub and Walsh's Pharmacy.
The town is served by Dublin Bus along the 67 and 67X routes with a nitelink service running on a Friday and Saturday nights. These routes link the town to the city centre as well as the nearby towns of Maynooth; the Town is served by Bus Éireann route 115 and 120. Iarnród Éireann runs commuter rail services to a station in Hazelhatch, about 3 km from Celbridge village. There is a limited feeder bus service to/from the town. Commuter suburban rail services from Kildare to Dublin city centre serve Hazelhatch, although these are quite limited on Sundays; the service brings passengers to Grand Canal Dock. The station is located on one of the most important InterCity lines in the country, with services to Cork and Galway, however these do not stop at Hazelhatch station. Under the Transport21 plan, Hazelhatch-City is to be electrified to provide a new DART service to Balbriggan, using the DART Underground in the city centre; however this has been indefinitely postponed due to lack of funding for the project.
Celbridge GAA park and centre on the Hazelhatch Road was opened in 1996, ending 52 years without a home, the club having lost its field in Ballymakeally after a court case in 1944. Celbridge GAA club is the third oldest club in County Kildare being formed on 15 August 1885, eight months after the GAA was founded in Thurles. In 1890 there were two clubs in the parish, one based in Kilwogan, Celbridge Shamrocks with 64 members, the other at Hazelhatch where Irish Harpers had 70 members. Celbridge play at senior level in both codes, they won their first Kildare Senior Football Championship in 2008. Celbridge GAA had won it
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary