SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

O'Hare International Airport

O'Hare International Airport referred to as O'Hare Airport, Chicago O'Hare, or O'Hare, is an international airport located on the Northwest Side of Chicago, Illinois, 14 miles northwest of the Loop business district. Operated by the Chicago Department of Aviation and covering some 7,627 acres, O'Hare has non-stop flights to 228 destinations in North America, South America, Africa and Oceania. Designed to be the successor to Chicago's "busiest square mile in the world", O'Hare began as an airfield serving a Douglas manufacturing plant for C-54 military transports during World War II, it was named for Edward "Butch" O'Hare, the U. S. Navy's first Medal of Honor recipient during that war. At the height of the Cold War, O'Hare served as an active fighter base for the Air Force; as the first major airport planned after World War II, O'Hare's innovative design pioneered concepts such as concourses, direct highway access to the terminal, jet bridges, underground refueling systems. It became famous as the first World's Busiest Airport of the jet age, holding that distinction from 1963 to 1998.

In the year ending December 31, 2019, O'Hare had 919,704 aircraft operations, averaging 2,520 per day, the most of any airport in the world. O'Hare is unusual in that it serves as a major hub for more than one of the three U. S. mainline carriers. It is a focus city for Frontier Airlines and Spirit Airlines. While Terminals 2 and 3 remain of the original design, the airfield has seen radical modernization, an expansion of passenger facilities in the terminal complex began in 2020, which will remake it as North America's first airport built around airline alliances. Not long after the opening of Midway Airport in 1926, the City of Chicago realized that additional airport capacity would be needed in the future; the city government investigated various potential airport sites during the 1930s, but made little progress prior to America's entry into World War II. O'Hare's place in aviation began with a manufacturing plant for Douglas C-54 Skymasters during World War II; the site was known as Orchard Place, had been a small German-American farming community.

The 2 million square feet plant, located in the northeast corner of what is now the airport property, needed easy access to the workforce of the nation's second-largest city, as well as its extensive railroad infrastructure and location far from enemy threat. Some 655 C-54s were built at more than half of all produced; the attached airfield, from which the completed planes were flown out, was known as Douglas Airport. Less known is the fact that it was the location of the Army Air Force's 803rd Specialized Depot, a unit charged with storing many captured enemy aircraft. Douglas Company's contract ended with the war's conclusion and, though consideration was given to building commercial aircraft at Orchard, the company chose to concentrate commercial production at its original headquarters in Santa Monica, California. With the departure of Douglas, the complex took the name of Orchard Field Airport, was assigned the IATA code ORD; the United States Air Force used the field extensively during the Korean War, at which time there was still no scheduled commercial service at the airport.

Although not its primary base in the area, the Air Force used O'Hare as an active fighter base. By 1960, the need for O'Hare as an active duty fighter base was diminishing, just as commercial business was picking up at the airport; the Air Force removed active-duty units from O'Hare and turned the station over to Continental Air Command, enabling them to base reserve and Air National Guard units there. As a result of a 1993 agreement between the City and the Department of Defense, the reserve based was closed on April 1, 1997, ending its career as the home of the 928th Airlift Wing. At that time, the remaining 357-acre site came under the ownership of the Chicago Department of Aviation. In 1945, Chicago mayor Edward Kelly established a formal board to choose the site of a new facility to meet future aviation demands. After considering various proposals, the board decided upon the Orchard Field site, acquired most of the federal government property in March 1946; the military retained a small parcel of property on the site, the rights to use 25% of the airfield's operating capacity for free.

Ralph H. Burke devised an airport master plan based on the pioneering idea of what he called "split finger terminals", allowing a terminal building to be attached to "airline wings", each providing space for gates and planes. Burke's design included underground refueling, direct highway access to the front of terminals, direct rail access from downtown, all of which are utilized at airports worldwide today. O'Hare was the site of the world's first jet bridge in 1958, adapted slip form paving, developed for the nation's new Interstate highway system, for seamless concrete runways. In 1949, the City renamed the facility O'Hare Field to honor Edward "Butch" O'Hare, the U. S. Navy's first flying ace and Medal of Honor recipient in World War II, its IATA code remained unchanged, however

New Lots Avenue station (IRT New Lots Line)

New Lots Avenue is the eastern terminal of the IRT New Lots Line of the New York City Subway. It is the terminal for the 3 train at all times except late nights, when the 4 train takes over service. During weekday rush hours, occasional 2, 4, 5 trains stop here; the New Lots Line was built as a part of Contract 3 of the Dual Contracts between New York City and the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, including the New Lots Avenue station. It was built as an elevated line because the ground in this area is right above the water table, as a result the construction of a subway would have been prohibitively expensive; the first portion of the line between Utica Avenue and Junius Street opened on November 22, 1920, with shuttle trains operating over this route. The line opened one more stop farther to the east to Pennsylvania Avenue on December 24, 1920. While work at this station and at Van Siclen Avenue was completed in 1921, they could not open yet because trains could not run to the terminal until track work, the signal tower, the compressor room were in service.

Work began on June 19, 1922, shuttles started operating between Pennsylvania Avenue and New Lots Avenue on October 16, 1922. A two-car train operated on a single track on the northbound track. On October 31, 1924, through service to New Lots Avenue was begun; as part of an 18-month capital budget that took effect on January 1, 1963, this station was reconstructed. In 1968, as part of the proposed Program for Action, the IRT New Lots Line would have been extended southerly through the Livonia Yard to Flatlands Avenue to a modern terminal at Flatlands Avenue and Linwood Street, replacing the New Lots Avenue terminal; this line would have run at ground level and it would have provided better access to the then-growing community of Spring Creek. This extension would have been completed at the cost of $12 million. In 2019, the MTA announced that this station would become ADA-accessible as part of the agency's 2020–2024 Capital Program; this elevated station has one island platform. The station has an active crew quarters at platform level.

The platform has a canopy for most of its length. To the east of the station, the tracks curve into Livonia Yard. Northeast of the station, there is a never-used trackway structure which continues for about 75 feet; this extension was a provision for the line to continue east on New Lots Avenue. The station's sole exit is two staircases to either western corner of Livonia Avenue and Ashford Street via an elevated, wooden mezzanine/station house under the far eastern end of the platform. Nycsubway.org – Brooklyn IRT: New Lots Avenue Station Reporter — 3 Train The Subway Nut — New Lots Avenue Pictures Ashford Street entrance from Google Maps Street View Platform from Google Maps Street View

Thomas M. Gunter

Thomas Montague Gunter was a U. S. Representative from Arkansas. Born near McMinnville, Warren County, Gunter pursued classical studies and was graduated from Irving College in 1850, he studied law. He was admitted to the bar in 1853 and commenced practice in Fayetteville, Washington County, Arkansas, in 1853. During the Civil War served in the Confederate States Army as colonel of the Thirteenth Regiment, Arkansas Volunteers, he served as prosecuting attorney for the fourth judicial circuit 1866-1868. He contested as a Democrat the election of William W. Wilshire to the Forty-third Congress, he was reelected to the Forty-fourth and to the three succeeding Congresses and served from June 16, 1874, to March 3, 1883. He served as chairman of the Committee on Private Land Claims, he was not a candidate for renomination in 1882. He resumed the practice of law in Fayetteville and died there January 12, 1904, he was interred in Evergreen Cemetery. United States Congress. "Thomas M. Gunter". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.

This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov. Template:U. S. Congressman