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IATA airport code

An IATA airport code known as an IATA location identifier, IATA station code or a location identifier, is a three-letter geocode designating many airports and metropolitan areas around the world, defined by the International Air Transport Association. The characters prominently displayed on baggage tags attached at airport check-in desks are an example of a way these codes are used; the assignment of these codes is governed by IATA Resolution 763, it is administered by the IATA's headquarters in Montreal. The codes are published semi-annually in the IATA Airline Coding Directory. IATA provides codes for railway stations and for airport handling entities. A list of airports sorted by IATA code is available. A list of railway station codes, shared in agreements between airlines and rail lines such as Amtrak, SNCF French Railways, Deutsche Bahn, is available. Many railway administrations have their own list of codes for their stations, such as the list of Amtrak station codes. List of airports by IATA code: A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z See also: List of airports by IATA and ICAO codeHistory and conventions Airport codes arose out of the convenience that it brought pilots for location identification in the 1930s.

Pilots in the United States used the two-letter code from the National Weather Service for identifying cities. This system became unmanageable for cities and towns without an NWS identifier, thus, a three-letter system of airport codes was implemented; this system allowed for 17,576 permutations, assuming all letters can be used in conjunction with each other. Predominantly, airport codes are named after the first three letters of the city in which it is located—ATL for Atlanta, SIN for Singapore, ASU for Asunción, MEX for Mexico City, DEN for Denver; some airports in the United States retained their NWS codes and appended an X at the end, such as LAX for Los Angeles, PDX for Portland, PHX for Phoenix. Sometimes the airport code reflects pronunciation, rather than spelling, such as NAN, which reflects the pronunciation of "Nadi" as in Fijian, where "d" is realized as the prenasalized stop. For many reasons, some airport codes do not fit the normal scheme described above; some airports, for example, cross several municipalities or regions, therefore, use codes derived from some of their letters, resulting in DFW for Dallas/Fort Worth, DTW for Detroit–Wayne County, LBA for Leeds–Bradford, MSP for Minneapolis–Saint Paul, RDU for Raleigh–DUrham.

Canada has codes such as YUL in YEG in Edmonton. It used two letters for identification of a weather reporting station in the 1930s. Additionally, preceding the two-letter code was a Y where the reporting station was co-located with an airport, or a W where the reporting station was not con located with an airport, a U where the reporting station was co-located with a non-directional beacon. An X was chosen if the last two letters of the code had been taken by another Canadian airport, a Z was chosen if the locator could result in confusion with a U. S. three-letter identifier. In large metropolitan areas, airport codes are named after the airport itself instead of the city it serves, while another code is reserved which refers to the city itself. For instance: Beijing – Capital and Daxing. BerlinTegel and Schönefeld, the under construction Berlin Brandenburg Airport; the city previously had another airport, now closed. BucharestOtopeni is named after the town of Otopeni where the airport is located, while the city has a business airport inside the city limits named Băneasa.

Buenos AiresEzeiza is named after the suburb in Ezeiza Partido where the airport is located, while Aeroparque Jorge Newbery is in the city proper. Chicago – O'Hare, named after Orchard Field, the airport's former name and Rockford Jakarta – Soekarno–Hatta is named after Cengkareng, the district in which the airport is located, while the city has another airport, Halim Perdanakusuma. JKT used to refer to the city's former airport, Kemayoran Airport, which closed down in the mid-1980s. London – Heathrow, City, Stansted and Southend Milan – Malpensa and Orio al Serio Montreal – Trudeau and Saint-Hubert Moscow – Sheremetyevo, Vnukovo, Ostafyevo New York CityJohn F. Kennedy, LaGuardia, Newark OsakaKansai and Itami Paris – Orly, Charles de Gaulle, Le Bourget and Beauvais Rio de Janeiro – Galeão and Santos Dumont RomeFiumicino and Ciampino São PauloCongonhas and Campinas Sapporo – Chitose and Okadama SeoulIncheon and Gimpo Stockholm – Arlanda, Nyköping–Skavsta and Västerås Tenerife – Tenerife North and Tenerife South Tokyo – Haneda and Narita Toronto – Pearson, Bishop and Waterloo Washington, D.

C. – Dulles and Baltimore–Washington Or using a code for the city in


Lechmere was a New England retail store that closed in 1997. It had 24 stores located throughout New England, New York as well as a location in Metro- Atlanta, Georgia offering electronics and appliances; the chain began in June 1913 when Abraham "Pop" Cohen opened a harness shop in Cambridge, Massachusetts. When his three sons Maurice and Norman and daughter Nan entered the business in the 1940s, it evolved into a tire and automotive store and into a consumer appliance store. Household goods and other goods were added to the merchandising mix in the 1950s, as were luggage, sporting goods and lawn and garden accessories; the first store moved to a former bus garage on 88 First Street in 1956, furthering the expansion of merchandise mix. Lechmere began advertising on television in the 1950s, ended all of its prices in 88 to represent the store's address; the First Street building was expanded in 1962 to a 100,000 square feet store, to which office equipment, jewelry and further goods were added.

A second store opened in 1965 in Dedham. In order to capitalize further growth, the Cohens sold the chain to Dayton's, a department store based in Minneapolis, that became Dayton Hudson Corporation soon after the purchase and is now Target Corporation. Dayton maintained Lechmere as a separate subsidiary and left its operations in the Cohens' hands. With Dayton Hudson's resources now behind it, Lechmere opened stores in Springfield; the Cohens retained day-to-day control of the chain until the mid-1970s. With the Cohens' retirement, Lechmere's merchandise mix changed to a discount department store line. Due to declining sales, the chain began cutting prices as well. Stores in Framingham and Manchester, New Hampshire followed in 1977. Lechmere introduced many retailing innovations, including discount pricing and a central pick-up counter to make shopping easier for customers. Merchandising strategy included offering items at many different price points to offer something for every customer and prices on major appliances listed in code so that customers would have to talk to a sales person to find out the cost.

Every year on Washington's Birthday they had a big sale, which featured 22-cent cherry pies to draw customers. Despite the opening of new stores, Lechmere's sales continued to decline, until when C. George Scala was named CEO in 1980, he changed the merchandise mix again to housewares, sporting goods and music. It began expanding outside its New England base, including locations such as Charlotte, North Carolina and Atlanta. Berkshire Partners and Boston-based mall developers Steve Karp and Steve Wiener, bought the chain from Dayton Hudson in 1989; as a condition of this sale, stores in the Southeastern United States were closed. In 1992, the company went to the Supreme Court to block union organizers from being on their property in Lechmere, Inc. v. National Labor Relations Board. Berkshire Partners sold Lechmere to Montgomery Ward Holdings in 1994, in a more than $200 million deal. On August 1, 1997, Montgomery Ward announced that all Lechmere stores were to be closed as part of their bankruptcy reorganization.

At the time of the chain's closing, 27 stores remained open, including 20 in New England, 12 of which were in Massachusetts. All six HomeImage by Lechmere were closed at that time. November 7, 1997 was the last day of business for all locations, all remaining items, discounted, were offered at 90% off; the original store and the nearby Green Line transit station got their names from their locations in Lechmere Square

Common Turkic Alphabet

The term Common Turkic Alphabet refers to two different systems using the Latin alphabet to write various Turkic languages. The old system was used in the 1930s, its letters are as follows: Long forms of vowels are shown with a Circumflex: Â, Ê, Î, Ô, Û. The orthographies of Turkic languages are phonetic, meaning that the pronunciation of a word can be determined from its spelling. For example, unlike English, Turkic orthography is regular and a word's pronunciation can always be determined by its spelling; this rule excludes recent loanwords such as proper names. The letters representing vowel sounds in Turkic dialects are, in alphabetical order, ⟨a⟩, ⟨ä⟩ and ⟨e⟩, ⟨ı⟩, ⟨i⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨ö⟩, ⟨u⟩, ⟨ü⟩. Semi-vowels are shown with a breve: Ă, Ĕ, Ĭ, Ŏ, Ŭ; the /θ/ phoneme is only present in the Bashkir language. The /ð/ phoneme is only present in the Bashkir language. Ä is sometimes written as Əə or Ǝǝ. The phonemes /t͡s/ and /d͡z/ are represented in the Lipka Tatars Belarusian Arabic alphabet; some handwritten letters have variant forms.

For example: Čč=Jj, Ķķ=Ⱪⱪ, Ḩḩ=Ⱨⱨ. The Cyrillic Ѕ, Љ, Њ may be written as Ӡ, Ԡ, Ԣ respectively. ٯ = ق or ڨ. Ṡ, Ż, Ṫ are used to represent the front and back variants of the letters S, Z, T/D respectively. They are found at the beginning of words to indicate all following vowels will be back vowels. If the sounds S, Z, T, or D occur in the middle of a word with back vowels, they may appear in their "soft" or neutral forms of S, Z, T or D.. Unlike Turkish, Arabic does not have vowel-dependent placement rules for these letters; some examples include etc.. Ţ is a letter originating as part of the Romanian alphabet, used to represent the Romanian and Moldovan phoneme /t͡s/, the voiceless alveolar affricate. It is written as the letter T with a small comma below, it has both lower-case and the upper-case variants, it is a part of the Gagauz alphabet and the Livonian alphabet. The letter corresponds to Cyrillic Tse in the romanisation of Cyrillic Turkic alphabets. Ḑ is a letter originating as part of the old Romanian alphabet, used to represent the old Romanian and Moldovan sound /d͡z/, the voiced alveolar affricate.

It is written as the letter D with a small comma below, it has both lower-case and the upper-case variants. It is a part of the Livonian alphabet; the letter corresponds to Cyrillic Dze in the romanisation of Cyrillic Turkic alphabets. Ḋ is only used for Arabic transcriptions. For example: Ramaḋan, Kaḋı, Kaḋa, Ḋarb, Ḋarbe, Arḋ, etc; the Latin letter Ë has no relation to the Cyrillic letter Ё. The Latin letter Ë represents the sound sequence /je/ and thus corresponds to the Cyrillic letter Є in Ukrainian or Е in Russian; the Cyrillic Ѕ, Љ, Њ all originate Serbian and represent the same phonemes as in the CTA. The Uniform Turkic Alphabet was a Latin alphabet used by non-Slavic peoples of the USSR in the 1930s; the alphabet used letters from Jaꞑalif as it was a part of the uniform alphabet. The uniform alphabet utilised the basic Latin letters excluding "w", as well as some additional letters. Ꞑꞑ: Heinz F. Wendt: Fischer Lexikon Sprachen, 1961 Bilal N. Şimşir: Türk Yazi Devrimi, Ankara 1992, S. 119 Helmut Glück: Metzler Lexikon Sprache, 2005 Proceedings of the International Symposium of Contemporary Turkish Alphabet, 1991, İstanbul, M.Ü.

Türkiyat Araştırmaları Enstitüsü, 1992. Zentrum für Türkeistudien, Essen: Aktuelle Situation in den Turkrepubliken – Innenpolitik, Sicherheitspolitik, Umwelt, Bevölkerung FSP Entwicklungssoziologie, Bielefeld: Formen der Transvergesellschaftung als gegenläufige Prozesse zur Nationsbildung in Usbekistan Der Fischer Welt Almanach'94 – Zahlen, Fakten, 1993 Mehmet Tütüncü: Alphabets for the turkic languages Herbert W. Duda: Die neue türkische Lateinschrift. I. Historisches. In: Orientalistische Literaturzeitung 1929, Spalten 441–453. – II. Linguistisches. In: Orientalistische Literaturzeitung 1930, Spalten 399–413. F. H. Weißbach: Die türkische Lateinschrift. In: Archiv für Schreib- und Buchwesen 1930, S. 125–138. Yakovlev N. F. "Development and succeeding problems in Latinizing alphabets", No 2, 1936, pp. 25–38 Н.Ф. Революция и письменность Луначарский. Латинизация русской письменности Статья «Новый алфавит» в Литературной энциклопедии Nevzat Özkan, Gagavuz Türkçesi Grameri, Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları, 1996 Jaꞑalif/Яңалиф".

Tatar Encyclopedia.. Kazan: Tatarstan Republic Academy of Sciences Institution of the Tatar Encyclopaedia Закиев. Тюрко-татарское письмо. История, состояние, перспективы. Москва, "Инсан", 2005 G. A Gaydarci, E. K Koltsa, L. A. Pokrovskaya B. P. Tukan, Gagauz Türkçesinin Sözlüğü, TC Kültür Bakanlığı Yayınları Nevzat Özkan, Gagauz Destanları, Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları Prof. Dr. Mustafa Argunşah-Âdem Terzi-Abdullah Durkun, Gagauz Türkçesi Araştırmaları Bilgi Şöleni, Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları Gagauzum Bucaktır Yerim, Tatura Anamut Ocak Yayınl

Stow of Wedale

Stow of Wedale, or more Stow, is a village in the Scottish Borders area of Scotland, seven miles north of Galashiels. In the 2011 Census the population was 718, it is served by Stow railway station. The name Stow is an Old English word stōw meaning'holy place' or'meeting place', whilst Wedale is derived from the words wēoh meaning'shrine' and dæl meaning'valley'. There has been a church at Stow since the 7th century, but the earliest example still visible today was built in the late 15th century on the site of the Church of St Mary, consecrated on 3 November 1242; the church used today, St Mary of Wedale, was built in 1876 and features a 140 foot high clock tower. Our Lady's Well is situated a mile south of the village and was rebuilt in 2000. A rare example of a packhorse bridge, built in the 1650s, can be found in Stow. Stow was agricultural industries in the 19th century. In 1870, James Thin purchased a plot of land in the village and had a house built, completed in 1873 and was named Ashlea.

This house is not owned by the Thin family. Sir John Rose Cormack was raised in Stow. John Downie Falconer FRSE, was born in Stow Sir Walter Mercer FRSE orthopaedic surgeon Addinston, Carcant List of places in the Scottish Borders List of places in Scotland Stow railway station E-book on "Celtic Saints and Ancient churches of Strathearn RCAHMS record of Stow, Wedale View, General RCAHMS/Canmore record of Old Stow Kirk and Churchyard Scottish Churches Architectural Heritage Trust, grants awarded PDF: An excavation at the Bishop's House, Scottish Borders Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland. Killochyett: Stow of Wedale A History of Stow Church Pictures around Stow

Biathlon at the 2018 Winter Paralympics

Biathlon at the 2018 Winter Paralympics was held at the Alpensia Biathlon Centre. The eighteen events took place on 10, 13 and 16 March 2018; the program included 6 event types that were divided into three classifications each, for a total of 18 events. Standing biathletes are those that have a locomotive disability but are able to use the same equipment as able-bodied skiers, whereas sitting competitors use a sitski. Skiers with a visual impairement compete with the help of a sighted guide and an acoustic aiming system; the skier with the visual impairment and the guide are considered a team, dual medals are awarded. Men's events 7.5 km 12.5 km 15 kmWomen's events 6 km 10 km 12.5 km The following is the competition schedule for all events. All times are local. Biathlon at the 2018 Winter Olympics Multi-Medallists - biathlon IPC – Official website Official Results Book – Biathlon

The Woody Woodpecker and Friends Classic Cartoon Collection: Volume 2

The Woody Woodpecker and Friends Classic Cartoon Collection: Volume 2 is a three-disc DVD collection of theatrical cartoons starring Woody Woodpecker and the other Lantz characters, produced by Walter Lantz Productions for Universal Pictures between 1932 and 1958. The set was released by Universal Studios Home Entertainment on April 15, 2008. Included in the set are seventy-five cartoon shorts, including the next forty-five Woody Woodpecker cartoons, continuing the production order from Volume 1; the other thirty cartoons include five Andy Panda shorts, five Chilly Willy shorts, five Oswald the Lucky Rabbit shorts, five Musical Favorites, ten Cartune Classics. This is the most recent DVD collection to feature Woody Woodpecker, Chilly Willy, Andy Panda, other Walter Lantz cartoons. No other DVD sets have been released since for upcoming volumes and plans regarding future releases have been placed on hold. Woody Woodpecker 1952: Termites from Mars 1953: What's Sweepin' Buccaneer Woodpecker Operation Sawdust Wrestling Wrecks Belle Boys Hypnotic Hick Hot Noon 1954: Socko in Morocco Alley to Bali Under the Counter Spy Hot Rod Huckster Real Gone Woody A Fine Feathered Frenzy Convict Concerto Oswald the Lucky Rabbit Carnival Capers Five and Dime Wax Works Springtime Serenade Puppet Show Cartune Classics She Done Him Right Jolly Little Elves Candyland A Haunting We Will Go Fair Today Bonus Features: 6 “Behind the Scenes with Walter Lantz” segments from The Woody Woodpecker Show.

Woody Woodpecker 1955: Helter Shelter Witch Crafty Private Eye Pooch Bedtime Bedlam Square Shootin' Square Bunco Busters The Tree Medic 1956: After the Ball Get Lost Chief Charlie Horse Woodpecker from Mars Calling All Cuckoos Niagara Fools Arts and Flowers Woody Meets Davy Crewcut Andy Panda 100 Pygmies and Andy Panda The Painter and the Pointer The Poet and Peasant Mousie Come Home Dog Tax Dodgers Musical Favorites The Hams That Couldn't Be Cured Juke Box Jamboree Boogie Woogie Man The Overture to William Tell Pixie Picnic Bonus features: Six “Behind the Scenes with Walter Lantz” segments produced for The Woody Woodpecker Show Rare TV Pilot Episodes::The Secret Weapon” and “Jungle Medics” Woody Woodpecker 1957: Red Riding Hoodlum Box Car Bandit The Unbearable Salesman International Woodpecker To Catch a Woodpecker Round Trip to Mars Dopey Dick the Pink Whale Fodder and Son 1958: Misguided Missile Watch the Birdie Half Empty Saddles His Better Elf Everglade Raid Tree’s a Crowd Jittery Jester Chilly Willy Hold That Rock Operation Cold Feet Clash and Carry Deep Freeze Squeeze Half Baked Alaska Cartune Co-Stars Maw and Paw A Horse's Tale Dig That Dog The Ostrich Egg and I Salmon Yeggs Bonus feature: The Woody Woodpecker Show: Episode #47: contains Ballyhooey and Tumbleweed, Franken-Stymied, Mother's Little Helper Official DVD website Information on the shorts and the years they were released