India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Kesavan Venugopal Nair, known popularly by his stage name Nedumudi Venu, is an Indian film actor from Kerala. Regarded as one of the greatest actors in Indian cinema, he has acted in more than 500 films, he has written screenplays and has directed one film. He has won two National Film Awards and six Kerala State Film Awards for his various performances. Venu was born as Venugopal to P. K. Kesavan Nair, a school master and P. Kunjikkuttiyamma in Nedumudi, Alappuzha as the youngest of their five children, he has four elder brothers. He had his primary education from N S S Higher Secondary School, St. Mary's Higher Secondary School, Champakulam, he was involved in music since his academic period. After graduating from Sanatana Dharma College, Alappuzha, he worked as a journalist in Kalakaumudi and as a teacher in a tutorial institute. Venu was living in Thiruvananthapuram when he made friends with the likes of Aravindan and Bharath Gopi; this paved the way for his film career. He is a talented Mridangam player.
He is married to T. R. Susheela; the couple has two sons and Kannan. Venu went on to act in films, he was a member of Kavalam Narayana Panicker's dramas. He debuted by director G Aravindan, his acting skills were showcased in the Bharathan film Aaravam. Padmarajan's Oridathoru Phayalwan and Kallan Pavithran set a milestone for him, it marked his start in Karanavar roles. Venu wrote scripts for movies, he wrote the stories for the films Kattathe Kilikkoodu, Sruthi, Ambada Njaane!, Oru Katha Oru Nunnakkatha and Angane Oru Avadhikkalathu. He tried his hand in direction with Pooram, he has acted in a few Tamil films with director Shankar, such as Kamal Hasan's Indian and Vikram's Anniyan. Venu has acted in some television serials, he acted in NFDC film Parinamam, directed by P Venu that won the best screenplay award at the Ashdod International Film Festival held in Israel. He won the Best Actor award for his role in Saira at the Zimbabwe International Film Festival which concluded in September 2007; the committee mentioned that he acted compellingly and convincingly in his portrayal of a man caught between secularism and fundamentalism.
National Film Awards: 1990 – Best Supporting Actor – His Highness Abdullah 2003 – Special Jury Award – Margam 2006 – National Film Award for Best Non-Feature Film Narration / Voice Over – MinukkuKerala State Film Awards: 1980 – Second Best Actor – Chamaram 1981 – Best Actor – Vidaparayum Munpe 1987 – Best Actor – Oru Minnaminunginte Nurunguvettam 1990 – Special Jury Award – Bharatham, Santhwanam 1994 – Second Best Actor – Thenmavin Kombath 2003 – Best Actor – Margamkerala state television awards2001 - Best Actor: AvasthatarangalAsianet Film Awards 2005 – Best Supporting Actor Award – Thanmatra 2007 – Best Script Writer Award – Thaniye 2011 – Best Supporting Actor – Best Actor, Elsamma Enna Aankutty 2013 – Best Character Actor – North 24 Kaatham 2015 – Best Villain – Oru Second Class Yathra, Rudra Simhasanam 2017 - Asianet Film Award for Lifetime AchievementFilmfare Awards 1981 – Filmfare Award for Best Actor – Malayalam – Vida Parayum Munpe 1987 – Filmfare Award for Best Actor – Malayalam -Oru Minnaminunginte Nurunguvettam 1997 – Lifetime Achievement AwardKerala Film Critics Association Awards 2007 – Second Best Actor – Thaniye 2007 – Lifetime Achievement Award/Prathibha PuraskaramOther Awards 2003 – Best Actor Award won in Television Gallup Poll conducted by University of Kerala union for Ragardram 2006 – Sathyan Award 2006 – Kalavedi International Prathibha Award was presented at Tagore Theatre, Trivandrum in 2006.
2007 – Bahadoor Award 2008 – Kala Ratnam Award of KALA Abu Dhabi 2011 – Serve India Media Award 2015 – Vanitha Film Award for Best Villain for Oru Second Class Yathra and Rudra Simhasanam 2003 – Arimpara at the Cannes Film Festival & other film festivals 2005 – Margam at the Havana International Film Festival 2007 – Saira – Best Actor award at the Zimbabwe International Film Festival 2020 – Indian 2 2019 – Sarvam Thaala Mayam 2008 – Silambaattam 2008 – Poi Solla Porom 2005 – Anniyan 1996 – Indian 1995 – Mogamul 2007 Chaurahen Kairali Vilasam Lodge Verukal Jwalayayi Poovanpazham Swapnam Avasthantarangal Oomakkuyil Raagardram Sree Guruvayorappan Prayanam Peythozhiyathe Kunjalimarakkar Sreekrishnan Nedumudi Venu to play lead role in Sathyan Anthikkad film Nedumudi Venu on IMDb Nedumudi Venu at MSI Official Website of Information and Public Relation Department of Kerala
M. P. Michael, better known by his stage name Lal, is an Indian film director, screenwriter and film distributor who works in Malayalam cinema, he started his career as a mimicry artist in Kalabhavan, along with his childhood friend Siddique, who would team up as Siddique-Lal to make many films. Lal and Siddique joined as assistant directors to Fazil in 1984. After that, both decided to part ways as a director pair and Lal turned producer with the Siddique-directed Mammootty-starrer Hitler. Lal debuted in acting with a villain role as Paniyan in Suresh Gopi-starrer Kaliyattam, directed by Jayaraj. Kaliyattam was a new take on Othello, where Lal played the character standing for Iago, he runs a film post-production company named as Kochi. National Film Awards – Special Mention – Ozhimuri Filmfare Award for Best Actor – Malayalam - Thalappavu Kerala State Film Award for Best Film with Popular Appeal and Aesthetic Value - Godfather Kerala State Film Award for Best Actor for Thalappavu in 2008 Kerala State Film Award for Best Actor for Ayaal, Zachariayude Garbhinikal in 2013 Asianet Film Awards for Best Director: In Ghost House Inn in 2010 MalayalamTamilSeemaraja Antony Chandi Veeran Kutti Puli Porkkalam Azhagar Malai Anthony Yaar?
Kaalai Deepavali Aalwar Rameswaram Oram Po Marudhamalai Sandakozhi Engal Anna TeluguSaaho Annavaram Khatarnak Honey Bee2 Tournament In Ghost House Inn 2 Harihar Nagar Panthaya Kozhi Pothan Vava Chanthupottu Thommanum Makkalum Black Chathikkatha Chanthu Pulival Kalyanam Kalyanaraman Thenkasippattanam Friends Superman Hitler Violin Elsamma Enna Aankutty Thalappavu Cycle Thommanum Makkalum Banglavil Outha Swapnakkoodu One Man Show Cobra: Kottayam Brothers Tournament In Ghost House Inn 2 Harihar Nagar Hera Pheri Mannar Mathai Speaking Kabuliwala Vietnam Colony Makkal Maahathmiam Godfather In Harihar Nagar Ramji Rao Speaking Manivathoorile Aayiram Sivarathrikal Nadodikkattu Pappan Priyappetta Pappan Pappachan King Liar Cobra: Kottayam Brothers Tournament - Play & Replay In Ghost House Inn 2 Harihar Nagar Mannar Mathai Speaking Kabooliwala Vietnam Colony Godfather In Harihar Nagar Ramji Rao Speaking Manichithrathazhu Manivathoorile Aayiram Sivarathrikal Lal on IMDb Lal Actor/ Director SNP Database
M. G. Soman
M. G. Soman was an Indian actor who appeared in Malayalam films. Soman's last film was Lelam in 1997, he has done roles in Tamil films Aval Oru Thodar Kathai, Naalai Namadhe, Kumaara Vijayam and Airport. He was born as Somashekharan Nair to, K. N. Govinda Panicker and P. K. Bhavaniyamma, in Tiruvalla, Travancore on 28 October 1941, he had his primary education from St Thomas HSS Thirumoolapuram. While studying at seventh grade he started a drama troupe with his friend and performed drama Manaltharikal Garjikkunnu, he did his preuniversity degree at Changanassery. He joined Indian Air Force. Soon after retiring from the Indian Air Force, Soman joined Kottarakkara Sreedharan Nair's drama troupe Jayasree and to moved to the film industry, he worked at Kerala Arts Theaters and KPAC. Ramarajyam of Kerala Arts theaters opened him a way to movie industry, his first film was Gayatri directed by P. N. Menon in 1973, he acted in the role of a hero from 1976 to 1983 and played the roles of villains and supporting roles.
In 1977, his greatest film was released under the direction of I. V. Sasi – Itha Ivide Vare, he soon rose to become the busiest actor in the industry. In 1978, Soman had acted in 42 films as hero, till today kept as a record. After 1984, he had shifted from heroic roles to character roles. In 1997, directed by Joshiy, was his last film and his performance as Aanakkattil Eappachan was appreciated and received critical acclaim, he died on 12 December 1997 due to jaundice. He was 56, he produced a Malayalam movie titled as BHOOMIKA in 1991, directed by I. V. Sasi and enacted by Jayaram, Suresh Gopi, Urvashi etc, he is married to Sujatha. They have a daughter Sindhu, his son Saji acted in a few movies. Saji have a son Shekhar Soman and a daughter Shivanghe Soman. Sindhu Soman is have two daughters Lekshmi Girish and Gayathri Girish. Kerala State Film Awards: Best Actor – 1976 – Thanal, Pallavi Second Best Actor – 1975 – Swapnadanam, Chuvanna Sandhyakal Kuthirakal Sahanam Soman's first film was Gayathri. M. G. Soman on IMDb
Kerala State Film Award for Best Actor
The Kerala State Film Award for Best Actor is an honour, begun in 1969, presented annually at the Kerala State Film Awards of India to an actor for best performance in a Malayalam film. Until 1997, the awards were managed directly by the Department of Cultural Affairs of the Government of Kerala. Since 1998, the awards have been controlled by the Kerala State Chalachitra Academy, an autonomous, non-profit institution functioning under the Department of Cultural Affairs; the awardees are decided by an independent jury constituted every year by the Academy. They are presented by the Chief Minister. Throughout the years, accounting for ties and repeat winners, the Government of Kerala has presented a total of 54 Best Actor awards to 32 different actors; the recipients receive a figurine, a certificate, a cash prize of ₹100,000. Several actors have won the honour for more than one film in a given year; as of 2018, the only actor to have won the prize in consecutive years is Bharat Gopy. The first Kerala State film Awards ceremony was held in 1970 with Sathyan receiving the award for Kadalpalam.
In 1981, Nedumudi Venu received the honour for his performance in various films released that year. As of 2018, Mohanlal is the most honoured actor with six awards, followed by Mammootty with five. Two actors—Bharat Gopy and Murali—have won the award four times. Prithviraj Sukumaran is the youngest recipient at age 24 for Vaasthavam. There were four years when there was a tie for the winner—Rajit Kapur and Murali shared the honour in 1998, Fahadh Faasil and Lal in 2013, Nivin Pauly and Sudev Nair in 2014, the most recent winners Jayasurya and Soubin Shahir in 2018. Official website Department of Cultural Affairs Department of Information and Public Relations: Awardees list
Kerala, locally known as Keralam, is a state on the southwestern, Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2, Kerala is the twenty-second largest Indian state by area, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, the Lakshadweep Sea and Arabian Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population, it is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era; the region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE.
In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin, they united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State, the state of Thiru-Kochi, the taluk of Kasaragod in South Canara, a part of Madras State; the economy of Kerala is the 12th-largest state economy in India with ₹7.73 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹163,000. Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%. The state has witnessed significant emigration to Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, its economy depends on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community.
Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian and European cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad; the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, tea, coffee and spices are important; the state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres, around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions; the name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. One popular theory derives Kerala from alam; the word Kerala is first recorded as Keralaputra in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, one of his edicts pertaining to welfare.
The inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from "coconut tree". At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word; the word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for "lake". The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. Kerala is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics; the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal, referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil chera alam; the Greco-Roman trade map. According to Tamil classic Purananuru, Chera king Senkuttuvan conquered the lands between Kanyakumari and the Himalayas. Lacking worthy enemies, he besieged the sea by throwing his spear into it. According to the 17th century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu.
Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari; the land which rose from sea was filled with unsuitable for habitation. Out of respect and all snakes were appo
Surendranatha Thilakan was an Indian film and stage actor who appeared in over 200 Malayalam films. Acclaimed as one of the finest actors, he has won 3 National Film Awards and 11 Kerala State Film Awards; the Government of India honored him with the Padma Shri in 2009 for his contributions towards the arts. He died on 24 September 2012 at the age of 77, he holds the record of receiving Kerala State Film Award for Second Best Actor the highest number of times, till date. Thilakan started his full-time career in acting after leaving college in the year 1956. During this period he and several friends formed a drama troupe called the Mundakayam Nataka Samithy in Mundakayam, where his father was working as an estate supervisor, he worked with the Kerala People's Arts Club till 1966, followed by stints in Kalidasa Kala Kendra, Changanacherry Geetha, P. J. Antony's troupe, he performed in several radio plays presented by All India Radio. Thilakan began his career in cinema with a role in the P. J. Antony-directed Malayalam movie Periyar.
He worked in Gandharvakshetram and Ulkadal. His first role as a lead character was as a drunkard in Kolangal. Thilakan was awarded his first Kerala State Film Awards in 1982 for his role in Yavanika. In 1988, he received the National Film Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance in Rithubhedam, again in 1994. In 1998, he won State awards for Gamanam, he was favored to get another National Film Award for Best Actor for his performance in the movie Perumthachan, but the award was given to Amitabh Bachchan over Thilakan amidst suspicions of strong lobbying, as Amitabh had announced his retirement earlier that year. The film Kireedam was a milestone in Thilakan's career. In 1989 he performed in Mrugya, in which his role of a Reverend Father Panangodan was well appreciated by critics and won him many accolades. In the 90's Thilakan was part of many Mohanlal evergreen hit films. In 1987, he played the role of Ananthan Nambiar in the cult-classic comedy movie Nadodikkattu, from which several of Thilakan's lines became popular.
In 1993 he continued his role as the father of Sethu Madhavan in the movie Chenkol. Unlike its prequel Kireedam, this movie failed both critically, his role as a retired mathematics teacher, father of Aadu Thoma, in the 1995 blockbuster movie Sphadikam was well appreciated by critics and audiences alike. In 1998, he played the role of Dileep's father in the superhit Meenathil Thalikettu, in his subsequent release he donned the role of a villain in the Kunchako Boban starrer Mayilpeelikavu. In the same year, he was seen in Chinthavishtayaya Shyamala. Other notable films Thilakan has acted in include Moonnam Pakkam, Namukku Parkkan Munthiri Thoppukal, Mookkilla Rajyathu, Randam Bhavam, Kaattu Kuthira and Yavanika, he has acted in other South Indian languages, such as Tamil and Telugu. Thilakan has portrayed a range of characters. Movies where he donned this role include Kireedam, Narasimham, Evidam Swargamanu and Chenkol, he has played father roles to other popular actors, including with Mammootty in Sangham, The Truth, No. 1 Snehatheeram Bangalore North and Pallavur Devanarayanan, with Jayaram in Veendum Chila Veettu Karyangal and Sandesam, with Dileep in Meenathil Thaalikettu, with Kunchacko Boban in Aniyathi Pravu and with Prithviraj in Sathyam.
He has played a number of antagonists, such as in Randam Bhavam and Kaalal Pada. He has played comical roles in films like Nadodikkattu and Pattanapravesham, Mookkilla Rajyathu and Naaduvazhikal, played lead roles in Ekantham, Santhanagopalam, Kaattukuthira, My Dear Muthachan, etc. In 2006, he was seen in the Suresh Gopi-Shaji Kailas blockbuster, Chinthamani Kolacase, where he played the father of the title character Chinthamani enacted by Bhavana. In 2007, he acted in Ekantham. In 2009, he was seen in Pazhassi Raja, in the same year he played Mohanlal's father one last time in the actor's 300th movie Evidam Swargamanu. In 2011, he played a significant role in the Prithviraj blockbuster Indian Rupee directed by Renjith. In 2012, he played the role of Kareem Bhai in Ustad Hotel and as the grandfather of Faizy, acted by Dulquer Salmaan. Thilakan won the national award for best actor for Perumthachan, Ashok Kumar the jury chairman was keen on giving him the award. Rajiv Gandhi wanted the award given to Amitabh Bachchan to woo him to the Indian National Congress.
In February 2010, it was reported that the producer of the movie Christian Brothers excluded Thilakan from the film at the request of the FEFKA, the predominant film technicians association. Thilakan had been earlier signed for a role in the film; the exclusion was due to Thilakan acting in a film by director Vinayan, who till headed the rival association MACTA. On 3 February 2010, Thilakan publicly protested against the unofficial ban enforced on him by FEFKA and blamed FEFKA for engineering the ban; the Association of Malayalam Movie Artists issued a show cause notice to Thilakan for bringing the issue into the public domain. Thilakan accused AMMA. On 20 February 2010 the CPI's trade union wing, AITUC, came out in support