OCaml is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm programming language which extends the Caml dialect of ML with object-oriented features. OCaml was created in 1996 by Xavier Leroy, Jérôme Vouillon, Damien Doligez, Didier Rémy, Ascánder Suárez, others; the OCaml toolchain includes an interactive top-level interpreter, a bytecode compiler, an optimizing native code compiler, a reversible debugger, a package manager. OCaml was developed in the context of automated theorem proving, has an outsize presence in static analysis and formal methods software, but it has found serious use beyond these areas, with major applications in systems programming, web development, financial engineering, among other application domains. The acronym CAML stood for Categorical Abstract Machine Language, but OCaml omits this abstract machine. OCaml is a free and open-source software project managed and principally maintained by the French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation. In the early 2000s, elements from OCaml were adopted by many languages, notably Scala.
ML-derived languages are best known for their static type systems and type-inferring compilers. OCaml unifies functional and object-oriented programming under an ML-like type system. Thus, programmers need not be familiar with the pure functional language paradigm to use OCaml. By requiring the programmer to work within the constraints of its static type system, OCaml eliminates many of the type-related runtime problems associated with dynamically typed languages. OCaml's type-inferring compiler reduces the need for the manual type annotations that are required in most statically typed languages. For example, the data type of variables and the signature of functions need not be declared explicitly, as they do in languages like Java and C#, because they can be inferred from the operators and other functions that are applied to the variables and other values in the code. Effective use of OCaml's type system can require some sophistication on the part of a programmer, but this discipline is rewarded with reliable, high-performance software.
OCaml is most distinguished from other languages with origins in academia by its emphasis on performance. Its static type system prevents runtime type mismatches and thus obviates runtime type and safety checks that burden the performance of dynamically typed languages, while still guaranteeing runtime safety, except when array bounds checking is turned off or when some type-unsafe features like serialization are used; these are rare enough. Aside from type-checking overhead, functional programming languages are, in general, challenging to compile to efficient machine language code, due to issues such as the funarg problem. Along with standard loop and instruction optimizations, OCaml's optimizing compiler employs static program analysis methods to optimize value boxing and closure allocation, helping to maximize the performance of the resulting code if it makes extensive use of functional programming constructs. Xavier Leroy has stated that "OCaml delivers at least 50% of the performance of a decent C compiler", although a direct comparison is impossible.
Some functions in the OCaml standard library are implemented with faster algorithms than equivalent functions in the standard libraries of other languages. For example, the implementation of set union in the OCaml standard library in theory is asymptotically faster than the equivalent function in the standard libraries of imperative languages because the OCaml implementation exploits the immutability of sets to reuse parts of input sets in the output. OCaml features a static type system, type inference, parametric polymorphism, tail recursion, pattern matching, first class lexical closures, exception handling, incremental generational automatic garbage collection. OCaml is notable for extending ML-style type inference to an object system in a general-purpose language; this permits structural subtyping, where object types are compatible if their method signatures are compatible, regardless of their declared inheritance. A foreign function interface for linking to C primitives is provided, including language support for efficient numerical arrays in formats compatible with both C and Fortran.
OCaml supports creating libraries of OCaml functions that can be linked to a main program in C, so that an OCaml library can be distributed to C programmers who have no knowledge or installation of OCaml. The OCaml distribution contains: Lexical analysis and parsing tools called ocamllex and ocamlyacc Debugger that supports stepping backwards to investigate errors Documentation generator Profiler – to measure performance Many general-purpose librariesThe native code compiler is available for many platforms, including Unix, Microsoft Windows, Apple macOS. Portability is achieved through native code generation support for major architectures: IA-32, X86-64, Power, SPARC, ARM, ARM64. OCaml bytecode and native code programs can be written in a multithreaded style, with preemptive context switching. However, because the garbage collector of the INRIA OCaml system is not designed for concurrency, symmetric multiprocessing is unsupported. OCaml threads in the same process execute by time sharing only.
There are however several libraries for distributed computing such as ocamlnet/Plasma. Since 2011, many new tools and libraries have been contributed to the OCaml development environment: Development tools opam is a package mana
Minnesota State Highway 235 was a 10.027-mile-long highway in west-central Minnesota, which ran from its intersection with Otter Tail County Road 59 in Urbank and continued east to its eastern terminus at its intersection with State Highway 29 in Parkers Prairie. In 2013, the route was removed from the state highway system; the route became an extension of Otter Tail County Road 38. Highway 235 served as an east–west connector route in west-central Minnesota between Urbank and Parkers Prairie. Highway 235 was known as West Main Street in Parkers Prairie and Main Street in Urbank. Inspiration Peak State Wayside Park was located 4 miles west of the junction of Highway 235 and County State-Aid Highway 38 at Urbank; the park entrance is located on County State-Aid Highway 38 in nearby Leaf Mountain Township. The route was defined as Route 235 in the Minnesota Statutes until 2013. Highway 235 was authorized on July 1, 1949; the eastern half of the route was paved in 1950. The remainder was paved in 1952.
The entire route is in Otter Tail County. Highway 235 at the Unofficial Minnesota Highways Page
JBTV is a nationally broadcast, weekly 60-minute music television show featuring live in-studio performances, music videos, music-related interviews from emerging and established musicians. Based in Chicago, Illinois, JBTV has over a 30-year history, it was created and hosted by Jerry Bryant in 1984. As of the show's 32nd Season, Jerry Bryant and Greg Corner are the show's main hosts; the show is broadcast locally on WJYS-TV on Saturday at 1am CT, on both the main channel at 62.1, & the third sub-channel at 62.4, which carries Heartland, with re-broadcast on Wednesday at 11:30pm CT on the second sub-channel at 62.3, which carries Charge!. It posts all of its aired content on its website, as well as exclusive, live streams of in-studio performances and behind-the-scenes footage showcasing visiting bands and the show's production team. Original Format In its original format a band or solo performer would visit the JBTV studio for an interview with owner and host Jerry Bryant, selecting a number of music videos that would be shown in the aired episode.
JBTV is on broadcast television WJYS-62 in Chicago Wednesday nights at 11pm with New Music Videos and live JBTV performances. JBTV is hosting live in-studio performances with new artists and established bands. In 2012, JBTV will be adding more new lots of new bands for all of the world to see. JBTV is broadcast weekly on WJYS. Episodes air weekly on Saturday nights at 1am CT on Ch. 62.1 & 62.4, with re-airing on Wednesday nights at 11:30pm CT on Ch. 62.3 Billboard - Best Modern Rock Program - 1995 Chicago/Midwest Emmy-Outstanding Achievement, Entertainment Programming - 1995 Chicago/Midwest Emmy-Outstanding Achievement for Individual Excellence Off Camera: Art Direction and Graphics/Animation - 2010 Chicago/Midwest Emmy-2014 Silver Circle recipient for 25+ years of service Official JBTV website JBTV on IMDb