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OS X Mountain Lion

OS X Mountain Lion is the ninth major release of OS X, Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers. OS X Mountain Lion was released on July 25, 2012 for purchase and download through Apple's Mac App Store, as part of a switch to releasing OS X versions online and every year, rather than every two years or so. Named to signify its status as a refinement of the previous Mac OS X version, Apple's stated aims in developing Mountain Lion were to allow users to more manage and synchronise content between multiple Apple devices and to make the operating system more familiar; the operating system gained the new malware-blocking system Gatekeeper and integration with Apple's online Game Center and iCloud services, while the Safari web browser was updated to version 6. As on iOS, Notes and Reminders became full applications, separate from Mail and Calendar, while the iChat application was replaced with a version of iOS's Messages. Mountain Lion added a version of iOS's Notification Center, which groups updates from different applications in one place.

Integrated links allowing the user to transfer content to Twitter were present in the operating system from launch. Facebook integration was planned but unfinished at launch date, it was released as a downloadable update later. OS X Mountain Lion received positive reviews, with critics praising Notification Center and speed improvements over Mac OS X Lion, while criticizing iCloud for unreliability and Game Center for lack of games. Mountain Lion sold three million units in the first four days, has sold 28 million units as of June 10, 2013, making it Apple's most popular OS X release. Mountain Lion was the last paid upgrade for an OS X major release, with OS X Mavericks and being free. OS X Mountain Lion was announced by Apple on their website on February 16, 2012, as a successor to Mac OS X 10.7 Lion. It achieved golden master status on July 9, 2012. Following a soft transition started with Mac OS X Lion, Apple refers to OS X Mountain Lion as "OS X" rather than "Mac OS X". During the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference keynote on June 11, 2012, Apple announced a "near final" release version of Mountain Lion for developers, with the public version arriving in July 2012 at a price tag of US$19.99.

The third generation MacBook Pro, revised MacBook Air, iPad Smart Case, third-generation AirPort Express were announced at the keynote as well. The specific release date of July 25 was not confirmed until the day before, July 24, by Apple CEO, Tim Cook, as part of Apple's 2012 third-quarter earnings announcement, it was released to the Mac App Store on July 25, 2012, where it sold 3 million units in the first four days of release. An update for Mountain Lion, version 10.8.1, was released on August 23, 2012. It resolved issues with iMessages, Migration Assistant, Microsoft Exchange Server and many other applications. Tests of the update revealed that 10.8.1 improved battery life on laptops, albeit gaining back only half of the battery life, lost in updating to Mountain Lion. Although 10.8.1 improved battery life for some customers, others continue to complain about reduced battery life and a constant drop in battery health resulting in a "Service Battery" message. The official system requirements of OS X 10.8 are 2 GB RAM, 8 GB available storage, OS X 10.6.8 or on any of the following Macs: iMac MacBook, MacBook Pro MacBook Air Mac Mini Mac Pro Xserve As in 10.7, the earliest models supporting AirDrop are the late-2008 MacBook Pro, late-2010 MacBook Air, late-2008 MacBook, mid-2010 Mac Mini, early-2009 Mac Pro with an AirPort Extreme card.

Any Mac released in or after 2011, except the MacBook, supports AirPlay Mirroring. Power Nap is supported on the MacBook Pro with Retina display; the technical basis for these requirements is incompatibility with 32-bit EFI and 32-bit kernel extensions. In order to prevent incompatible systems from installing 10.8, the installer contains a whitelist of supported motherboard IDs. Users have bypassed these limitations so that 10.8 may run with varying functionality on some unsupported computers. Notification Center was added in the operating system, it provides an overview of alerts from applications and displays notifications until the user completes an associated action, rather than requiring instant resolution. Users may choose what applications appear in Notification Center, how they are handled. There are three types of notifications: banners and badges. Banners are displayed for a short period of time in the upper right corner of the Mac's screen, slide off to the right; the icon of the application is displayed on the left side of the banner, while the message from the application will be displayed on the right side.

Alerts will not disappear from the screen until the user takes action. Badges are red notification icons, they indicate the number of items available for the application. Notification Center can be accessed by clicking the icon in the right corner of the menu bar; when open, the user can click a button to tweet, post status updates to Facebook, or view all notifications in the sidebar pane. Swiping up will reveal the option to disable Notif

Cleopatra (cylinder ship)

Cleopatra was a "cylinder ship" constructed to convey Cleopatra's Needle from Alexandria to London in 1877. The obelisk weighed over 200 tons and was encased in an iron cylinder, rolled by means of levers and chains down a track into the sea, it was fitted with a deck-house, mast and steering gear and was manned by a crew of Maltese sailors. This craft was towed to Great Britain by the steamship Olga leaving on 21 September 1877. Captain Henry Carter commanded the Captain Booth was in command of the Olga. On 14 October 1877 the Cleopatra was in danger of sinking off France in the Bay of Biscay; the steam-ship towing her, the Olga, sent six volunteers in a boat to take off the Cleopata's crew, but the boat swamped and the volunteers drowned. The Olga managed to draw alongside and rescue Cleopatra's crew of five and skipper, they cut the towrope, left the vessel adrift in the Bay. Five days a ship spotted the ‘Cleopatra’ floating undamaged off the northern coast of Spain, she was towed to the Ferrol, Galicia.

There a steam-ship, the Anglia, arrived to tow her to London. They arrived at Gravesend on 21 January 1878; the Cleopatra was broken up after the obelisk had been removed on 6 July 1878. The needle was positioned in September 1878 where it still stands. Designed by engineer John Dixon, the Cleopatra was of an iron cylinder 92 feet long and 16 feet diameter containing the obelisk, it was supplemented by a bow and a vertical stern, two sidewalls, a mast for sails to stabilise the vessel. A bridge was built to accommodate the crew. Designed as a floating pontoon, commanded by Captain Carter, it was to be towed to London by ship the Olga, commanded by Captain Booth; the cylindrical shape was a clever choice in the context of a constrained budget. Indeed, the cylinder, made of sheet metal riveted curves was built around the obelisk, with circular internal partitions used as cradles for the monolith. Both ends were topped with a crown of planks, the cylinder could ride on the Nile, with minimal effort, using cables driven by winches.

At the time of launching, a concealed rock in the mud punctured the cylinder which blocked the waterway. After towing to a dry-dock of the Egyptian Admiralty, the cylinder was turned into a ship by adding an internal ballast made of rails, a bow and a stern with rudder and a roof to shelter the crew and was with a small rig. Once completed, the ship looked like a primitive submarine, but its seagoing capabilities were more limited and in retrospect, the choice of crossing the Bay of Biscay in the autumn was a risky choice. Cleopatra's Needle, moving it SS Dessoug, the vessel used to ship the other Cleopatra's Needle to New York Cleopatra's Needle Brier, Bob. Cleopatra's Needles: The Lost Obelisks of Egypt. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 9781474242936; the Annual summary, by J. Mason. 1 January 1877. Wilson, Sir Erasmus. Cleopatra's Needle: With Brief Notes on Egypt and Egyptian Obelisks. Brain & Company; the Builder. 1 January 1877

Jewish History Museum (Tucson)

The Jewish History Museum known as the Jewish Heritage Center of the Southwest, is a museum housed in a historic synagogue building in Tucson, Arizona. The museum's building, which housed the first synagogue in the Arizona Territory, is the oldest synagogue building in the state; the building is the original home of Temple Emanu-El, built in 1910. The pioneer Jewish Women's organization called the Hebrew Benevolent Society were the individuals who lobbied for a permanent Jewish house of worship in the Arizona Territory; the historic synagogue is a brick structure designed by architect Ely Blount. Blount blended a pedimented, pilastered Greek revival facade with rounded windows and twin towers in Rundbogenstil style. In 1937 the building's front facade was covered with stucco; the original stained-glass windows have been lost. The building is listed in on the National Register of Historic Places. Efforts to preserve the synagogue garnered national attention when it received the National Preservation Honor Award from the National Trust for Historic Preservation.

The Museum was created in 2005 by the merger of the non-profit, formed to rescue the building from destruction in 1998 - The Historic Stone Avenue Temple Project with the Jewish Historical Society of Southern Arizona. In addition to its permanent collection, the Museum hosts exhibitions, the annual Ketubah and Antique wedding gown exhibit and the Jewish Storytelling Festival as well as is the home of the Jewish Arizona Oral History Project. Temple Emanu-El Tucson Hebrew Academy Holocaust and Tolerance Museum http://www.jewishhistorymuseum.org David Leighton, "Street Smarts: Tucson veteran was among 1,000 children saved from Nazi Germany," Arizona Daily Star, May 13, 2014

King Oscar sardines

The King Oscar export brand was founded in 1902, when King Oscar II, ruler of Norway and Sweden, gave Chr. Bjelland & Co, one of Norway's leading canning companies at the time, special royal permission to use his name and likeness on a line of sardine products. Over the years, the King Oscar brand expanded into new markets, introduced new product lines, was acquired by several different parent companies as the sardine canning industry evolved in Norway. Today, King Oscar AS is owned by Thai Union Group, one of the largest seafood producers in the world. In 1880, Norwegian fish canneries began exporting sardines. At the World's Fair in Chicago in 1893, the Norwegian exhibition included smoked sardines. In 1903, a year after the royal permit had been granted, Chr. Bjelland & Co. first began exporting the King Oscar brand of sardines to the United States, by 1920, the brand was established in the US and British markets. In 1965, the company started exporting their sardines to Japan. Chr. Bjelland & Co. produced.

The company used the slogan "Out to conquer the world". In 1950, various King Oscar brisling sardine products were accorded kosher certification. In 1981, eleven Norwegian canneries merged to form a single company, Norway Foods, which acquired the King Oscar brand. Norway Foods was in turn acquired by Rieber & Søn ASA in 1996. Over the following years, the brand was introduced to various European countries. In 2008, King Oscar's central production facilities were moved to a facility in Poland; the company continues to maintain a production facility in Norway. King Oscar AS became the new owner of the brand in 2009; the company was purchased by Procuritas Capital Investments in 2010, by Thai Union Group in 2014. While sardines have always been the company's flagship product, it produces a variety of seafood products including brisling and Baltic sardines, mackerel, tuna and specialty items, as well as fish salads and fish pâtés. Johnsen, J. G.. "Out to conquer the world". King Oscar sardiner gjennom 100 år.

Stavanger: Mesi Forlag. ISBN 82-91794-15-4 Official website

Eva Crackles

Eva Crackles was a British botanist and teacher notable for her major contributions to the Atlas of the British Flora, published in 1962. As a teacher she was Head of Biology at Hull's Malet Lambert School for many years, until 1978, she received an honorary Doctor of Science degree from the University of Hull in 1991. The following year, she was made a Member of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II for her work in plant conservation. Crackles was elected Honorary Life member of the Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland in 2000; the Flowering Plants of Spurn. Hull Academic Press. 1986. ASIN B0007BMORO. Flora of the East Riding of Yorkshire. Hull Academic Press. 1990. ISBN 978-0859584876

1st Czech Republic Hockey League

The Chance Liga is the second-highest level of professional ice hockey in the Czech Republic, after the Extraliga. It is run and administered by Czech Ice Hockey Association; until 2015, the league was known as the 1st Czech National Hockey League. It was known as the WSM Liga until 2018. In the first phase, every team plays each other four times—twice at home and twice away—which makes for a 52-game regular season. After the 52-game regular season, the first six teams directly qualify for the quarter-finals, while teams which placed 7 to 10 play a round-robin to determine the final two participants in the quarter-finals; the First League, unlike other leagues around the world, has two winners. The playoffs end with the two winning teams being declared co-champions; the two teams go on to face the bottom two teams from the Extraliga in a round-robin. The two highest-placed teams at the end of the round robin are promoted to the Extraliga for the following season; the last placed team at the end of the regular season is directly relegated to the Second League for the following season.

They are replaced by the winner of a 3 team round-robin group between the winners of the East, the Central and the West divisions of the Second League. Three points are awarded for a win in regulation time and two points for an overtime or shootout victory, while the defeated team in overtime or shootout gets one point; the level of 1.národní hokejová liga is lower than the Czech Extraliga, but there are a lot of players moving between those two leagues every season. Each team in this league is allowed to have five imports; the league has no salary cap, with an average salary of USD 2200 per month, but some of the best players sign contracts for more than USD 5000 per month, plus most of the teams cover accommodation expenses for their players during the season. 1993–94 Vsetínská hokejová and HC Slavia Praha 1994–95 HC Kometa Brno and TZ Třinec 1995–96 HC Přerov and HC Opava 1996–97 HC Becherovka Karlovy Vary and HC Kralupy nad Vltavou 1997–98 HC Znojemští Orli 1998–99 HC Znojemští Orli 1999–2000 HC Dukla Jihlava 2000–01 KLH Chomutov 2001–02 HC Bílí Tygři Liberec 2002–03 HC Vagnerplast Kladno 2003–04 HC Dukla Jihlava 2004–05 HC České Budějovice 2005–06 HC Slovan Ústí nad Labem 2006–07 HC Slovan Ústí nad Labem 2007–08 BK Mladá Boleslav 2008–09 HC Slovan Ústečtí Lvi 2009–10 KLH Chomutov 2010–11 HC Slovan Ústečtí Lvi 2011–12 Piráti Chomutov 2012–13 BK Mladá Boleslav and HC Olomouc 2013–14 BK Mladá Boleslav and HC Olomouc 2014–15 Piráti Chomutov and Motor České Budějovice 2015–16 HC Dukla Jihlava and HC Slavia Praha 2016–17 Motor České Budějovice and HC Dukla Jihlava 2017–18 Energie Karlovy Vary and Rytíři Kladno 2018–19 Motor České Budějovice and Rytíři Kladno Hokej.cz Hokej iDNES.cz