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Oak Grove, Alabama

Oak Grove is a town in Talladega County, United States. It incorporated in 1966. At the 2010 census, the population was 528; the town of Oak Grove is located at 33°11′23″N 86°18′11″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of all land. Oak Grove is a suburb of the city of Sylacauga; the two municipalities are contiguous, both run along U. S. Highway 280, which runs from Birmingham, southeastward to Columbus and through Georgia toward Savannah. Oak Grove is 40 miles southeast of Birmingham and 70 miles north of Montgomery via U. S. Highway 231. Oak Grove is a hilly town occupying both sides of Merkle Mountain. There is downtown. There are numerous businesses along U. S. Highway 280, locally called "the four-lane", County Road 280, U. S. 280 before construction of the four-lane. In the middle of Oak Grove between its two hills there was a cut-your-own Christmas tree farm which yearly drew hundreds of families to Oak Grove, it was started in 1978 by Oak Grove Mayor Bloise Zeigler, who operated the farm through 2009.

Zeigler grew the official Alabama state Christmas tree, displayed at the Alabama Governor's Mansion in 2004. The Christmas tree farm was closed in 2010 and donated by the former Mayor to the Town of Oak Grove as a community garden named "Comet Grove", it provides free produce to low-income people and cheap produce to everyone else. It has ordinary open gardens and two acres of experimental "plasticulture"; as of the census of 2000, there were 457 people, 178 households, 124 families residing in the town. The population density was 399.4 people per square mile. There were 203 housing units at an average density of 177.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.72% White, 2.84% Black or African American and 0.44% Native American. 0.44 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 178 households out of which 32.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.7% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.8% were non-families.

25.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.96. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 26.9% from 45 to 64, 14.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $28,625, the median income for a family was $29,625. Males had a median income of $29,417 versus $19,375 for females; the per capita income for the town was $12,865. About 10.4% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.0% of those under age 18 and 21.8% of those age 65 or over. Oak Grove gained national recognition in 1954 when it became the first reported site in the history of the world of a meteor striking a human.

Mrs. Ann E. Hodges was on her sofa in her Oak Grove home when something crashed through her roof, striking her on the hip, it turned out to be a meteorite. The incident gained national news coverage, including an appearance by Mrs. Hodges on Gary Moore's TV show, I've Got a Secret. Celebrity participant Henry Morgan guessed the secret. Oak Grove has a "Gravity Hill" where cars appear to coast uphill, but is an optical illusion; the phenomenon has generated news curiosity seekers. It is on Old Highway 280, now named "Gravity Hill Road", just off Highway 280 in the western part of Oak Grove toward Childersburg. One native son of Oak Grove was elected to the Alabama Public Service Commission. Jim Zeigler, born in neighboring Sylacauga in 1948 and raised in Oak Grove, won the PSC seat in 1974, becoming the youngest person to hold a state office, he won the seat two years after graduating from the University of Alabama, where he had been elected President of the Student Government Association, defeating the fraternity political party, "The Machine".

Skinny Graham, former Major League Baseball pitcher Town of Oak Grove

Jackie Robinson Parkway

The Jackie Robinson Parkway is a 4.95-mile parkway in the New York City boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens. The western terminus of the parkway is at Jamaica Avenue in the Brooklyn neighborhood of East New York, it runs through Highland Park, along the north side of Ridgewood Reservoir, through Forest Park. The eastern terminus is at the Kew Gardens Interchange in Kew Gardens, where the Jackie Robinson Parkway meets the Grand Central Parkway and Interstate 678, it is designated an unsigned reference route. The parkway was named the Interboro Parkway until 1997, when it was renamed for trailblazing Major League Baseball player Jackie Robinson; the Jackie Robinson Parkway starts where Jamaica and Pennsylvania Avenues intersect in the Brooklyn neighborhood of East New York. The next four exits are located within the Cemetery Belt on the border of Brooklyn. Exit 1, Bushwick Avenue via Highland Boulevard, is a westbound-only exit; the highway enters Queens and passes Mount Judah Cemetery before exit 2 at Vermont Place and Cypress Avenue, which lead to Highland Park and the Hungarian Cemetery.

Exit 3, Cypress Hills Street, leads to Cypress Hills Cemetery. Here the parkway makes sharp turns. At exit 4, Forest Park Drive, the parkway enters Forest Park. Exit 5 is at Woodhaven Boulevard. At exit 6, Metropolitan Avenue, Union Turnpike straddles the parkway, but there is no access to or from Union Turnpike; the parkway and Union Turnpike exit the Forest Park neighborhood, go under Queens Boulevard. Union Turnpike shares a diamond interchange with Queens Boulevard, but there is no access from the parkway. Exit 7, an eastbound-only exit, goes to the Van Wyck Expressway northbound. Exit 8 is the Grand Central Parkway; when built in 1870, Eastern Parkway stretched from Prospect Park to Ralph Avenue in Brooklyn, was one of two parkways leading from Prospect Park, the other being Ocean Parkway which led to Coney Island. By 1897, Eastern Parkway was being extended further toward Highland Park and planned to enter Queens County at the Ridgewood Reservoir. A further extension of Eastern Parkway was suggested by Brooklyn city officials, running from the Cemetery Belt through Forest Park to Dry Harbor Road and toward Hoffman Boulevard.

An extension of the Eastern Parkway following a similar route was suggested in 1899 by the Queens County Topographical Bureau, the extension running through Cypress Hills Cemetery and Forest Park to Dry Harbor Road. Officials proposed an amendment to the Rural Cemetery Act to "provide for the construction of a road" running through the Cemetery Belt; this proposed road was to serve as an extension of Eastern Parkway, running through Cypress Hills Cemetery toward Forest Park where it would connect to an existing road. This bill was introduced in the New York State Legislature in 1901 but failed to pass, as it did every subsequent year it was reintroduced in the legislature; the bill was passed in 1908, but no funds were allocated to the project. The parkway project did have the unintended consequence of bringing attention to corruption among the trustees of Cypress Hills Cemetery; as the presence of motor vehicles were increasing due to the success of Henry Ford's Model T, by July 1923, local civic associations were pressuring the government to build the road.

New York City's Board of Estimate proposed to construct the road if local residents financed the construction, to no avail. In order to exploit a "condition of approval" with the Cypress Hills Cemetery expiring on January 1, 1928, New York City authorities began expediting plans for the parkway in March 1927; the trustees of the cemetery approved the city's acquisition of land for the parkway on the condition that "physical improvement of the road be started" prior to January 1, 1928. The Board of Estimate convened on March 24, 1927 to discuss the cost estimates for the parkway, including land acquisition and grave removal. Several civic associations from Glendale and Ridgewood suggested the cost of parkway construction be split - 45% of the cost would be covered by New York City, 35% would be covered by Brooklyn, 15% by Queens and 5% by residents living south of the parkway; this proposal would have exempted Ridgewood and Glendale, neighborhoods north of the parkway, from paying for the parkway construction.

The planned parkway would serve as an extension of Eastern Parkway from its terminus in Brooklyn, running through Highland Park toward the Ridgewood Reservoir. From the Ridgewood Reservoir, the parkway would cross Cypress Hills Street into Cypress Hills Cemetery; the parkway would "pass through the cemetery just south of the boundary" with Mount Carmel Cemetery and enter Forest Park, where the New York City Parks Department would construct a "driveway several hundred feet long from the end of the parkway" to connect with an existing road in Forest Park. The estimated costs for this planned parkway was projected at $3.5 million. In July 1928, New York City was "granted authority to acquire the land for the roadbed by condemnation" along the eastern section of Highland Park toward Forest Park. However, it was announced on August 1928 that construction commencement on the parkway was delayed "until July or August 1929" due to an issue "routing the road" through the Cypress Hills and Mount Carmel cemeteries while disturbing as few graves as possible.

Announced in November 1929, another delay on parkway construction occurred, this time between Cypress Hills Street and Forest Park. The issue surrounding the delay revolved around legal dispute between city authorities and Cypress Hills Cemetery

C syntax

The syntax of the C programming language is the set of rules governing writing of software in the language. It is designed to allow for programs that are terse, have a close relationship with the resulting object code, yet provide high-level data abstraction. C was the first successful high-level language for portable operating-system development. C syntax makes use of the maximal munch principle; the C language represents numbers in three forms: integral and complex. This distinction reflects similar distinctions in the instruction set architecture of most central processing units. Integral data types store numbers in the set of integers, while real and complex numbers represent numbers in the set of real numbers in floating point form. All C integer types have signed and unsigned variants. If signed or unsigned is not specified explicitly, in most circumstances signed is assumed. However, for historic reasons plain char is a unsigned char, it may be an unsigned type, depending on the compiler and the character set.

Bit field types specified as plain int may be signed or unsigned, depending on the compiler. C's integer types come in different fixed sizes, capable of representing various ranges of numbers; the type char occupies one byte, 8 bits wide. Most integer types have both signed and unsigned varieties, designated by the signed and unsigned keywords. Signed integer types may use a two's complement, ones' complement, or sign-and-magnitude representation. In many cases, there are multiple equivalent ways; the representation of some types may include unused "padding" bits, which occupy storage but are not included in the width. The following table provides a complete list of the standard integer types and their minimum allowed widths; the char type is distinct from both signed char and unsigned char, but is guaranteed to have the same representation as one of them. The _Bool and long long types are standardized since 1999, may not be supported by older C compilers. Type _Bool is accessed via the typedef name bool defined by the standard header stdbool.h.

In general, the widths and representation scheme implemented for any given platform are chosen based on the machine architecture, with some consideration given to the ease of importing source code developed for other platforms. The width of the int type varies widely among C implementations; the standard header limits.h defines macros for the minimum and maximum representable values of the standard integer types as implemented on any specific platform. In addition to the standard integer types, there may be other "extended" integer types, which can be used for typedefs in standard headers. For more precise specification of width, programmers can and should use typedefs from the standard header stdint.h. Integer constants may be specified in source code in several ways. Numeric values can be specified as decimal, octal with zero as a prefix, or hexadecimal with 0x as a prefix. A character in single quotes, called a "character constant," represents the value of that character in the execution character set, with type int.

Except for character constants, the type of an integer constant is determined by the width required to represent the specified value, but is always at least as wide as int. This signedness modifier. There are no negative integer constants, but the same effect can be obtained by using a unary negation operator "-"; the enumerated type in C, specified with the enum keyword, just called an "enum", is a type designed to represent values across a series of named constants. Each of the enumerated constants has type int; each enum type itself is compatible with char or a signed or unsigned integer type, but each implementation defines its own rules for choosing a type. Some compilers warn if an object with enumerated type is assigned a value, not one of its constants. However, such an object can be assigned any values in the range of their compatible type, enum constants can be used anywhere an integer is expected. For this reason, enum values are used in place of preprocessor #define directives to create named constants.

Such constants are safer to use than macros, since they reside within a specific identifier namespace. An enumerated type is declared with the enum specifier and an optional name for the enum, followed by a list of one or more constants contained within curly braces and separated by commas, an optional list of variable names. Subsequent references to a specific enumerated type use the name of the enum. By default, the first constant in an enumeration is assigned the value zero, each subsequent value is incremented by one over the previous constant. Specific values may be assigned to constants in the declaration, any subsequent constants without specific values will be given incremented values from that point onward. For example, consider the following declaration: This declares the enum colors type.

German submarine U-193

German submarine U-193 was a Type IXC/40 U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine built during World War II for service in the Atlantic Ocean. The submarine was laid down on 22 December 1941 at the AG Weser yard in Bremen as yard number 1039, she was launched on 24 August 1942 and commissioned on 10 December under the command of Korvettenkapitän Hans Paukstadt. She was a member of two wolfpacks and carried out four war patrols in which she sank one ship, before being lost herself in the Bay of Biscay in April 1944. German Type IXC/40 submarines were larger than the original Type IXCs. U-193 had a displacement of 1,144 tonnes when at 1,257 tonnes while submerged; the U-boat had a total length of 76.76 m, a pressure hull length of 58.75 m, a beam of 6.86 m, a height of 9.60 m, a draught of 4.67 m. The submarine was powered by two MAN M 9 V 40/46 supercharged four-stroke, nine-cylinder diesel engines producing a total of 4,400 metric horsepower for use while surfaced, two Siemens-Schuckert 2 GU 345/34 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 1,000 shaft horsepower for use while submerged.

She had two 1.92 m propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres; the submarine had a maximum submerged speed of 7.3 knots. When submerged, the boat could operate for 63 nautical miles at 4 knots. U-193 was fitted with six 53.3 cm torpedo tubes, 22 torpedoes, one 10.5 cm SK C/32 naval gun, 180 rounds, a 3.7 cm SK C/30 as well as a 2 cm C/30 anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of forty-eight; the boat's first patrol was preceded by a short trip from Kiel in Germany to Bergen in Norway in May 1943. She left the Nordic port on 22 May, heading west, she entered the Atlantic Ocean. She did not encounter any Allied shipping, failed to find her first victory. An unidentified aircraft attacked U-193 south of the Canary Islands on 6 July, wounding two men and destroying the Metox radar detection equipment; the submarine entered Bordeaux in occupied France, on 23 July. U-193's second foray began with her departure from La Pallice, on 12 October 1943. Moving to the Gulf of Mexico, she sank the independently sailing 10,000-ton American oil tanker SS Touchet west of Florida with the loss of ten of her crew.

The remainder of the patrol was a failure, however, as a combination of dud torpedoes, well-organized convoys and effective counter-measures combined to prevent the boat gaining a single hit. As the second patrol came to an end in February 1944 after five frustrating months at sea, U-193 caused an international incident following an attack by Allied aircraft and convoy escorts off the Spanish coast. In her desperate attempts to escape, she dived straight into the seabed, causing serious damage to the boat. Knowing a journey to a German-held port was now impossible, her captain, Hans Pauckstadt, decided to intern his boat in Ferrol, Spain. Under international law, if U-193 remained in the neutral harbour for more than 24 hours the Spanish authorities were obliged to detain the submarine for the remainder of hostilities; this did not occur, U-193 stayed in Ferrol for ten days whilst Spanish workmen performed superficial repairs to the U-boat. U-193 left the port despite Allied protests and returned to La Pallice in France, where more extensive repairs were completed and Paukstadt was replaced by Kptlt.

Dr. Ulrich Abel. Abel had served as Watch Officer on U-154 under the command of de:Oskar Kusch. Abel denounced Kusch, which led to Kusch's court execution for defeatism; this six-day passage is listed as U-193's'third' patrol, although there was no intention of operating against Allied shipping. Following repairs, U-193 was never heard from again, her loss remains a mystery. A post-war assessment states that on the 28 April 1944, she was seen and attacked by a British Royal Air Force Vickers Wellington bomber of No. 612 Squadron RAF, whose depth charges sank the boat with all 59 hands not far from Nantes. This attack was against U-802, inflicting no damage. Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type IXC/40 boat U-193". German U-boats of WWII - Retrieved 7 December 2014. Hofmann, Markus. "U 193". Deutsche U-Boote 1935–1945 - Retrieved 7 December 2014

Skin infection

An infection of the skin and skin structure is an infection—generally in humans, but relevant to other animals as well—of the animal's skin and associated soft tissues. They have comprised a category of infections termed skin and skin structure infections or skin and soft tissue infections, more the important bacterial component of them as acute bacterial SSSIs, they are distinguished from dermatitis. Bacterial skin infections affected about 155 million people and cellulitis occurred in about 600 million people in 2013. Bacterial skin infections include: Cellulitis, a diffuse inflammation of connective tissue with severe inflammation of dermal and subcutaneous layers of the skin Erysipelas, an acute streptococcus bacterial infection of the deep epidermis with lymphatic spread Folliculitis, an infection of the hair follicle Impetigo, a contagious ABSSSI common among pre-school children associated with the pathogens S. aureus and S. pyogenes Fungal skin infections may present as either a superficial or deep infection of the skin, and/or nails.

As of 2010, they affect about one billion people globally. Parasitic infestations of the skin are caused by several phyla of organisms, including Annelida, Bryozoa, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Nemathelminthes and Protozoa. Virus-related cutaneous conditions caused by these obligate intracellular agents derive from both DNA and RNA viruses


Glycidamide is part of the chemical group of amides and oxiranes, it is classified as a carcinogenic substance. It is associated with tobacco either as natural component, pyrolysis product in tobacco smoke or additive for one or more types of tobacco products. Glycidamide is formed from acrylamide. Acrylamide is an industrial chemical, used in several ways, such as production of polyacrylamides for water treatment, paper processing and cosmetics, it is a product formed in certain foods prepared at high temperature frying, baking or roasting, such as fried potatoes, bakery products and coffee. Glycidamide is formed through the reaction of unsaturated fatty acids with oxygen, it is a dangerous substance, since it causes small mutations in cells which can result in several forms of cancer. Two of the first researchers who acknowledged the existence of glycidamide were Murray and Cloke in 1934, they performed experiments on glycidamide formation. Since glycidamide is a metabolite of acrylamide, not much studies has been done on glycidamide on its own.

Most of the studies focus on the effects of acrylamide, whereas less studies focus on the effects of glycidamide. There are many studies that combine acrylamide and glycidamide, but the focus is still on acrylamide. Glycidamide is a reactive epoxide metabolite from acrylamide. Glycidamides are fine crystals with lumps with a light orange color, it can react with nucleophiles. This results in covalent binding of the electrophile. There is no data on the odor of glycidamide. Glycidamide gives a positive response in the Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity assay, which indicates that it can cause mutations in the DNA. Glycidamide is formed by oxidation of acrylamide by cytochrome P450 2E1; this reaction follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Due to this reaction, glycidamide becomes critical to the genotoxicity of acrylamide. Saturated fatty acids protect the acrylamide from forming glycidamide; when during food processing, oil is used that contains unsaturated fatty acids, the amount of glycidamide formed is much higher.

The first experiments on glycidamide formation were done by Cloke. They tried to form glycidamides from α,β-ethylenic nitriles. In order to do so, they used the modified Radziszewski reaction; the Radziszewski reaction refers to a method for the preparation of amides, described by Radziszewski in 1885. The amides are prepared “by the action of 3% hydrogen peroxide on nitriles in the presence of alkali and at a temperature of 40 degrees Celsius”; the reaction was modified by adding methanol and acetone. Some nitriles did indeed give glycidamides. Glycidamide is more reactive to DNA than acrylamide. Several glycidamide-DNA adducts have been characterized; the main DNA adducts are N7 -- N3-adenine. Glycidamide reacts with haemoglobine to form a cysteine adduct, S-cysteine. With this reaction, N-terminal valine adducts are formed. There are two isomers of this connection: the mirror image - Glycidamide; the racemate -Glycidamide is a 1:1 mixture of both isomers. The epoxide is a strong alkylating agent.

This reactive ion can alkylate it. Alkylation of DNA can cause mutagenicity. There are tumors observed at the site of exposure. Inhibition of the sodium/potassium ATPase protein present in the plasma membrane of the nerve cell is caused by glycidamide. Intracellular sodium increases and intracellular potassium decreases due to this inhibition; this causes depolarization of the nerve membrane. The depolarization triggers a reverse sodium/calcium exchange, which will cause calcium-mediated axon degeneration; the liver is a active organ in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Substances in the liver modify the compounds to make them more soluble in water, in order to excrete them through bile and urine; this modification, can result in a greater toxicity of the compound. Whether this is the case for glycidamide remains unclear. Glycidamide can be detoxified through different pathways to glycidamide-glutathione conjugates. There is an enzymatic pathway via a non-enzymatic pathway; these glycidamide-glutathione conjugates are further metabolized to mercapturic acids by different peptidases and transferases, such as gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase, dipeptidase and N-acetyltransferase.

The mercapturic acids that can be formed are N-acetyl-S--cysteine, N-acetyl-S--cysteine, N-acetyl-S--cysteine. These mercapturic acids are excreted through urine. Glycidamide can be hydrolyzed to glyceramide both spontaneously or enzymatically by microsomal epoxide hydrolase; this too can be excreted through urine. The DEREK NEXUS assessment shows that it is plausible that glycidamide is carcinogenic, neurotoxic, developmental toxic and oestrogenic, it shows that it is plausible that glycidamide causes chromosome damage and irritation of the eye and skin. The results of this assessments are confirmed by the Hazard Identification of lookchem, it states that glycidamide may heritable genetic damage. It causes skin and eye irritation. Mice and rats are used for most of the studies of glycidamide; these are used, because the formation of glycidamide adducts is directly proportional in man and rat. Studies with Big Blue m