Corcoran Gallery of Art
The Corcoran Gallery of Art was an art museum in Washington, D. C., now the location of the Corcoran School of the Arts and Design, a part of the George Washington University. The Corcoran School, founded in 1878, hosts exhibitions by its students and visiting artists and offers degrees in Fine Art, Interaction Design, Interior Architecture, etc. Prior to the Gallery's closing, it was one of the oldest supported cultural institutions in the United States. Starting in 1890, a museum school known as the Corcoran College of Art + Design, co-existed with the gallery; the museum's main focus was American art. In 2014, after decades of financial problems and mismanagement, the Corcoran was dissolved by court order. A new non-profit was established and the Corcoran's $2 billion, 17,000 piece art collection was given away for free to the National Gallery of Art. What works the NGA did not accession were donated to cultural institutions throughout Washington, D. C. and across the country. The Corcoran School of Art and Design was given to George Washington University along with the $200 million historic 17th street building along with $50 million.
When the gallery was founded in 1869 by William Wilson Corcoran, the co-founder of Riggs Bank, it was one of the first fine art galleries in the country. Corcoran established the gallery, supported with an endowment, "for the perpetual establishment and encouragement of the Fine Arts." While an independent institution, the Corcoran was the oldest and largest non-federal art museum in the District of Columbia. Its mission was "dedicated to art and used for the purpose of encouraging the American genius." The Corcoran Gallery of Art was located at 17th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, in the building that now houses the Renwick Gallery. Construction of that building started before the Civil War; the building, near completion, was used by the government as a warehouse during the Civil War. It was completed in 1874 and the gallery opened to the public. By 1897, the Corcoran Gallery collection outgrew the space of its original building. A new building was designed by Ernest Flagg in a Beaux-Arts style.
The 135,000 square feet building was built to house an expanded Corcoran collection in addition to the nascent school, formally founded in 1890. The new building features a pair of the Canova Lions, at its entrance; these lions were purchased at auction by the Corcoran Galley in 1888 and placed in front of the museum at its original location. The iconic bronze castings were moved to their current location in 1897 when the museum moved to its current building at 17th Street and New York Avenue. In 1928, the art collection of former Senator William A. Clark joined the Corcoran in a new wing designed by Charles Adam Platt, inaugurated by President Calvin Coolidge. For decades, the Corcoran examined the possibility of adding on a final wing which would complete the campus footprint; these plans abruptly ended in 2005 after a Frank O. Gehry -designed wing was scrapped due to lack of funding, the remainder of the available property was sold to a private developer. Throughout the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, the gallery continued to display its main collection from Corcoran, a few select major donors.
At its peak, the museum owned a significant collection including work from Rembrandt Peale, Eugène Delacroix, Edgar Degas, Thomas Gainsborough, John Singer Sargent, Claude Monet, Mariano Fortuny, Pablo Picasso, Edward Hopper, Willem de Kooning, Joan Mitchell, Gene Davis, many others. Space was always a challenge - only a small percentage of the gallery's permanent collection was able to be displayed in the confines of the 17th street gallery, which shared its 140,000 square feet with the art school. In 1989, the Corcoran Gallery of Art had agreed to host a traveling solo exhibit of Robert Mapplethorpe's works. Mapplethorpe decided to show a new series that he had explored shortly before his death, Robert Mapplethorpe: The Perfect Moment curated by Janet Kardon of the Institute of Contemporary Art. Several Trustees of the Corcoran and U. S. Representatives Dick Armey and Jesse Helms were horrified when the works were revealed to them, the museum director, Christina Orr-Cahall succumbed to pressure and cancelled the exhibit, announced to its members through an exhibition preview invitation.
The Coalition of Washington Artists organized a demonstration to protest the Corcoran Gallery's cancellation of the exhibit. An estimated 700 people attended the demonstration. In June 1989, pop artist Lowell Blair Nesbitt became involved in the controversy over Mapplethorpe's work, it was at this time that Nesbitt, a long-time friend of Mapplethorpe, revealed that he had a $1.5 million bequest to the museum in his will. Nesbitt publicly promised that if the museum refused to host the exhibition he would revoke his bequest; the Corcoran refused and Nesbitt bequeathed the money to the Phillips Collection instead. After the Corcoran cancelled the Mapplethorpe exhibition, the underwriters of the exhibition went to the nonprofit Washington Project for the Arts, which showed the controversial images in its own space from July 21 to August 13, 1989, to large crowds; the 1990 NEA Appropriations Bill included language against "obscene" work. As a result of the controversy, more than a dozen artists canceled exhibitions while the director, Christina Orr-Cahall and moved to the Norton Museum of Art.
In its final years, the museum and its affiliated art and design college Corcoran School of the Arts and Design together had a staff of about 140 and an operating budget of about $24 million. Revenue came from grants and contributions, admissions fees, membership dues, gift shop and
Herman Hollerith was an American inventor who developed an electromechanical punched card tabulator to assist in summarizing information and accounting. He was the founder of the Tabulating Machine Company, amalgamated in 1911 with three other companies to form a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company, renamed IBM in 1924. Hollerith is regarded as one of the seminal figures in the development of data processing, his invention of the punched card tabulating machine marks the beginning of the era of semiautomatic data processing systems, his concept dominated that landscape for nearly a century. Herman Hollerith was born the son of German immigrant Prof. Georg Hollerith from Großfischlingen in Buffalo, New York, where he spent his early childhood, he entered the City College of New York in 1875, graduated from the Columbia University School of Mines with an "Engineer of Mines" degree in 1879 at age 19, in 1890 asked for a Ph. D based on his development of the tabulating system.
In 1882 Hollerith joined the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he taught mechanical engineering and conducted his first experiments with punched cards. He moved to Washington, D. C. living in Georgetown, with a home on 29th Street and a business building at 31st Street and the C&O Canal, where today there is a commemorative plaque installed by IBM. He died in Washington D. C. of a heart attack. At the urging of John Shaw Billings, Hollerith developed a mechanism using electrical connections to increment a counter, recording information. A key idea was that a datum could be recorded by the presence or absence of a hole at a specific location on a card. For example, if a specific hole location indicates marital status a hole there can indicate married while not having a hole indicates single. Hollerith determined that data in specified locations on a card, the now-familiar rows and columns, could be counted or sorted electromechanically. A description of this system, An Electric Tabulating System, was submitted by Hollerith to Columbia University as his doctoral thesis, is reprinted in Randell's book.
On January 8, 1889, Hollerith was issued U. S. Patent 395,782, claim 2 of which reads: The herein-described method of compiling statistics, which consists in recording separate statistical items pertaining to the individual by holes or combinations of holes punched in sheets of electrically non-conducting material, bearing a specific relation to each other and to a standard, counting or tallying such statistical items separately or in combination by means of mechanical counters operated by electro-magnets the circuits through which are controlled by the perforated sheets as and for the purpose set forth. Hollerith had left teaching and begun working for the United States Census Bureau in the year he filed his first patent application. Titled "Art of Compiling Statistics", it was filed on September 23, 1884. S. Patent 395,782 was granted on January 8, 1889. Hollerith did business under his own name, as The Hollerith Electric Tabulating System, specializing in punched card data processing equipment.
He provided tabulators and other machines under contract for the Census Office, which used them for the 1890 census. The net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. In 1896 Hollerith founded the Tabulating Machine Company. Many major census bureaus around the world leased his equipment and purchased his cards, as did major insurance companies. Hollerith's machines were used for censuses in England, Germany, Austria, France, Puerto Rico and the Philippines, again in the 1900 census, he invented the first keypunch. The 1890 Tabulator was hardwired to operate on 1890 Census cards. A control panel in his 1906 Type I Tabulator simplified rewiring for different jobs; the 1920s removable control panel supported near instant job changing.
These inventions were among the foundations of the data processing industry and Hollerith's punched cards continued in use for a century. In 1911 four corporations, including Hollerith's firm, were amalgamated to form a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company. Under the presidency of Thomas J. Watson, CTR was renamed International Business Machines Corporation in 1924. By 1933 The Tabulating Machine Company name had disappeared as subsidiary companies were subsumed by IBM. Hollerith is buried at Oak Hill Cemetery in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D. C. Hollerith cards were named after Herman Hollerith, his great-grandson, the Rt. Rev. Herman Hollerith IV, was the Episcopal bishop of the Diocese of Southern Virginia, another great-grandson, Randolph Marshall Hollerith, is an Episcopal priest and the dean of Washington National Cathedral in Washington, D. C. For more on Punched card history, see: Unit record equipment#Further reading For IBM see: IBM#Further reading and History of IBM#Further reading Ashurst, Gareth.
Pioneers of Computing. Frederick Muller. Pp. 77–90. Beniger, James R; the Control Revolution: Technological and Economic Origins of the Information Socie
David Baldacci is a bestselling American novelist. David Baldacci was raised in Richmond, Virginia, he graduated from Henrico High School and earned a B. A. from Virginia Commonwealth University and a J. D. from the University of Virginia School of Law, after which he practiced law for nine years in Washington, D. C, he is in Tuscany. Baldacci began writing stories as a child, when his mother gave him a notebook in which to record them, he wrote for more than two decades, penning short stories and screenplays without much success. While practicing law, he turned to novel writing. Published in 1996, it was an international best seller. To date, Baldacci has published 37 best-selling novels for adults as well as seven novels for younger readers. Baldacci resides in Fairfax County, with his family. Baldacci and his wife, are the co-founders of the Wish You Well Foundation, which works to combat illiteracy in the United States. Baldacci became involved with the National Multiple Sclerosis Society after his sister, author Sharon Baldacci, was diagnosed with MS.
Baldacci's first novel, Absolute Power, tells the story of a fictional American president and his Secret Service agents who are willing to commit murder in order to cover up the accidental death of a woman with whom the President was having an affair. It was adapted as Absolute Power, starring Clint Eastwood and Gene Hackman. Baldacci wrote the screenplay for the film adaptation of his novel Wish You Well. Baldacci was a consulting producer on King & Maxwell, a TNT television series based on his characters Sean King and Michelle Maxwell. Jon Tenney and Rebecca Romijn starred; the Christmas Train, Baldacci's eighth novel, was adapted in 2017 by Hallmark Channel as a Hallmark Hall of Fame feature presentation. The TV movie starred Dermot Mulroney, Kimberly Williams-Paisley, Danny Glover and Joan Cusack and was directed by Ron Oliver. Baldacci's novels have been published in over 45 languages and in more than 80 countries, with over 130 million worldwide sales as of 2018; the Finisher seriesThe Finisher book #1 in Baldacci's Vega Jane series for young readers The Keeper, book #2 The Width of the World, book #3 The Stars Below, book #4The 39 Clues seriesDay of Doom Book 6 in the "Cahills Vs. Vespers" series of The 39 Clues booksFreddy and the French Fries seriesFreddy and the French Fries: Fries Alive!, Baldacci's debut novel for young readers Freddy and the French Fries: The Mystery of Silas Finklebean The Camel Club The Collectors Stone Cold Divine Justice Hell's Corner Split Second Hour Game Simple Genius First Family The Sixth Man King and Maxwell The Whole Truth Deliver Us From Evil Zero Day The Forgotten The Escape No Man's Land The Innocent The Hit Bullseye The Target The Guilty End Game Memory Man The Last Mile The Fix The Fallen Redemption Long Road to Mercy Absolute Power Total Control The Winner The Simple Truth Saving Faith Wish You Well Last Man Standing The Christmas Train True Blue One Summer No Time Left Bullseye Long Road to Mercy Absolute Power, starring Clint Eastwood, Gene Hackman, Ed Harris.
King & Maxwell, starring Jon Tenney and Rebecca Romijn. Wish You Well, starring Mackenzie Foy, Josh Lucas, Ellen Burstyn; the Christmas Train, starring Dermot Mulroney, Kimberly Williams-Paisley, Danny Glover and Joan Cusack. Official website David Baldacci on IMDb Appearances on C-SPAN Freddy and the French Fries website David Baldacci at site Goodreads.com Profile in Newsweek, March 2009 Modern Signed Books BlogTalkRadio Interview with Rodger Nichols about No Man's Land October 2016 Modern Signed Books interviews David Baldacci, May 2018
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
St. Patrick's Cathedral (Manhattan)
The Cathedral of St. Patrick is a decorated Neo-Gothic-style Roman Catholic cathedral church in the United States and a prominent landmark of New York City, it is the seat of the archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York as well as parish church, located on the east side of Fifth Avenue between 50th and 51st Streets in Midtown Manhattan, directly across the street from Rockefeller Center, facing the Atlas statue. It is considered one of the most visible symbols of Roman Catholicism in New York City and the United States; the land on which the present cathedral stands was purchased in 1810. The Jesuit community built a college on the site, three miles north of the city, it contained a "fine old house", fitted with a chapel of St. Ignatius; the school closed in 1814 and the Jesuits sold the lot to the diocese. In 1813, the diocese gave use of the property to Dom Augustin LeStrange, abbot of a community of Trappists who came to America fleeing persecution by French authorities. In addition to a small monastic community, they looked after some thirty-three orphans.
With the downfall of Napoleon in that year, the Trappists returned to France in 1815, abandoning the property. The property at this point was designated for a future cemetery; the neighboring orphanage was maintained by the diocese into the late nineteenth century. Some of the Trappists resettled to Canada and founded St. Joseph's Abbey in Spencer, Massachusetts. Bishop DuBois reopened the chapel in 1840 for Catholics employed at the Deaf and Dumb Asylum and in the general neighborhood. A modest frame church was built for the parish of St. John the Evangelist and dedicated May 9, 1841 by the Rev. John Hughes, administrator of the diocese. Tickets were sold to the dedication to ease the parish's debt level, managed by a lay Board of Trustees, but to no avail and the property mortgage was foreclosed on and the church sold at auction in 1844; the stress is said to have contributed to the death that year of the church's pastor, the Rev. Felix Larkin; the experience was blamed on the management of the trustees and this incident is said to have played a significant role in the abolishment of the lay trusteeship, which occurred shortly thereafter.
The young and energetic Rev. Michael A. Curran was appointed to raise funds for the devastated parish, shortly fitted up an old college hall as a temporary church. Fr. Curran continued raising funds to buy back the church during the Great Famine in Ireland succeeding and taking the deed in his own name. "The site of St. Patrick's Cathedral, came to the Church through the labors of this young priest and the self-denial of his countrymen and not by the gift of the city." The debt was all paid for by 1853 when it was clear a large church was needed and the site was selected as appropriate for the new cathedral. The Diocese of New York, created in 1808, was made an archdiocese by Pope Pius IX on July 19, 1850. In 1853, Archbishop John Joseph Hughes announced his intention to erect a new cathedral to replace the Old Saint Patrick's Cathedral in Lower Manhattan; the new cathedral was designed by James Renwick Jr. in the Gothic Revival style. On August 15, 1858, the cornerstone was laid, just south of the diocese's orphanage.
At that time, present-day midtown Manhattan was far north of the populous areas of New York City. Work began in 1858 but was halted during the Civil War and resumed in 1865; the cathedral was completed in 1878 and dedicated on May 25, 1879, its huge proportions dominating the midtown of that time. The archbishop's house and rectory were added in 1880, both by James Renwick Jr. and an adjacent school opened in 1882. The spires were added in 1888, at 329 feet and 6 inches were the tallest structures in New York City and the second highest in the United States. An addition on the east, including a Lady chapel, designed by Charles T. Mathews, was constructed from 1901 to 1906; the Lady Chapel's stained-glass windows were made between 1912 and 1930 by English stained glass artist and designer Paul Vincent Woodroffe. In 1927 and 1931, the cathedral was renovated, which included enlarging the sanctuary and installing the great organ; the cathedral and associated buildings were declared a National Historic Landmark in 1976.
An extensive restoration of the cathedral was begun in 2012 and lasted 3 years at a cost of $177 million. Overseen by MBB Architects and Construction Manager Structure Tone, the award-winning restoration reversed decades of decay and soot; the restoration was completed by September 17, 2015, before Pope Francis visited the cathedral on September 24 and 25, 2015. The restoration cleaned the exterior marble, repaired stained glass windows, painted the ceiling, repaired the flooring and steps, among many restorations; the cathedral and the renovations were featured on WNET's television program Treasures of New York. In 2017, MBB Architects and Structure Tone, along with Landmark Facilities Group and P. W. Grosser, completed the design and installation of a new geothermal system believed to be the largest in New York City; the geothermal system replaced the steam radiators and 1960s-era air conditioning in the cathedral. On October 13, 1914, a bomb exploded on the northwest corner of St. Patrick's Cathedral.
It caused a panic, but not severe damage, tearing an 18-inch hole in the floor. Despite a full church that day, there was only one victim – a young boy – whose head was grazed by a flying piece of metal. Authorities believed this event was linked to another bombing earlier that day, downtown at St. Alphonsus Church on West Broadway; the Communists celebrated bombings at this and other churches, while po
The Smithsonian Institution, founded on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. The institution is named after British scientist James Smithson. Organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Termed "the nation's attic" for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items, the Institution's nineteen museums, nine research centers, zoo include historical and architectural landmarks located in the District of Columbia. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Massachusetts, New York City, Texas and Panama. More than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states, Puerto Rico, Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates; the Institution's thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge. Its annual budget is around $1.2 billion with two-thirds coming from annual federal appropriations. Other funding comes from the Institution's endowment and corporate contributions, membership dues, earned retail and licensing revenue.
Institution publications include Air & Space magazines. The British scientist James Smithson left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford; when Hungerford died childless in 1835, the estate passed "to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of knowledge among men", in accordance with Smithson's will. Congress accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1, 1836; the American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest. Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns. Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithson's rather vague mandate "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge." The money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas, which soon defaulted.
After heated debate, Massachusetts Representative John Quincy Adams persuaded Congress to restore the lost funds with interest and, despite designs on the money for other purposes, convinced his colleagues to preserve it for an institution of science and learning. On August 10, 1846, President James K. Polk signed the legislation that established the Smithsonian Institution as a trust instrumentality of the United States, to be administered by a Board of Regents and a Secretary of the Smithsonian. Though the Smithsonian's first Secretary, Joseph Henry, wanted the Institution to be a center for scientific research, it became the depository for various Washington and U. S. government collections. The United States Exploring Expedition by the U. S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842; the voyage amassed thousands of animal specimens, an herbarium of 50,000 plant specimens, diverse shells and minerals, tropical birds, jars of seawater, ethnographic artifacts from the South Pacific Ocean.
These specimens and artifacts became part of the Smithsonian collections, as did those collected by several military and civilian surveys of the American West, including the Mexican Boundary Survey and Pacific Railroad Surveys, which assembled many Native American artifacts and natural history specimens. In 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation; the Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, who formed a group called the Megatherium Club. The Smithsonian played a critical role as the U. S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba. Construction began on the Smithsonian Institution Building in 1849. Designed by architect James Renwick Jr. its interiors were completed by general contractor Gilbert Cameron. The building opened in 1855; the Smithsonian's first expansion came with construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881. Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income.
It did, the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss and Paul Schulze, based on original plans developed by Major General Montgomery C. Meigs of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, it opened in 1881. The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonian's Department of Living Animals; the park was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. The National Museum of Natural History opened in June 1911 to accommodate the Smithsonian's United States National Museum, housed in the Castle and the Arts and Industries Building; this structure was designed by the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall. When Detroit philanthropist Charles Lang Freer donated his private collection to the Smithsonian and funds to build the museum to hold it, it was among the Smithsonian's first major donations from a private individual; the gallery opened in 1923. More than 40 years would pass before the next museum, the Museum of History and Technology, opened in 1964.
It was designed by the world-renowned firm of Mead & White. The Anacostia Community Museum, an "experimental store-front" museum created at the initiative of Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley, opened in the Anacostia neighborhood of
Rock Creek (Potomac River tributary)
Rock Creek is a free-flowing tributary of the Potomac River, which empties into the Atlantic Ocean via the Chesapeake Bay. The creek is 32.6 miles long, with a drainage area of about 76.5 square miles. The last quarter-mile of the creek is affected by tides; the creek rises from a spring near Laytonsville in Montgomery County, in the U. S. state of Maryland, joins the Potomac near Georgetown and the Watergate in Washington, D. C. Beginning in the Derwood–Rockville area in Maryland, the creek flows through Rock Creek Regional Park southward to the D. C. boundary. About 9 miles of the creek flow through Rock Creek Park in Washington, where it is fed by several small creeks — Piney Branch, Pinehurst Branch, Broad Branch, Soapstone Branch, Luzon Branch — and numerous storm sewers; the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal joins Rock Creek in Georgetown, used the mouth of Rock Creek as its terminus in Georgetown. At the Tidewater Lock, the creek empty into the Potomac River; this area, called the "Rock Creek Basin" by the Canal Company, which included a mole and waste weir, was completed in 1831.
Subject to silting up, it was dredged several times for the Canal's use. The Maryland portion of the watershed comprises the second-largest watershed in Montgomery County, about 60 sq mi. About 21 percent of the creek's watershed is in Washington. Total land usage in the watershed is 896 acres of wetlands or water, 22,272 acres of residential and commercial areas, 15,488 acres of forest or grasslands, 10,304 acres of agricultural areas; the creek has a steep gradient, with rapid changes in elevation. The man-made Lake Needwood is located on the creek, north of Rockville. In Maryland, most of the northern Rock Creek watershed has good to excellent water quality, according to studies conducted by the county government. In 2004, to preserve water quality in developed areas, the county imposed restrictions on development in parts of this sub-watershed; the southern portion of the Maryland watershed is urbanized. Most of this portion of the creek and its tributaries have poor water quality; as of 2018 the county has completed several stream restoration projects throughout the watershed, has additional projects planned or under construction.
The D. C. segment of Rock Creek has poor water quality. In addition to typical urban stormwater pollution problems such as runoff from streets and other impervious surfaces, the creek has high bacteria levels due to combined sewer overflows; the D. C. government, which has a stormwater discharge permit from the United States Environmental Protection Agency, is improving its stormwater management to raise water quality in Rock Creek. In 2009, the District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority began a planned two-year effort to replace portions of the combined sewer with separate storm sewers, so eliminate CSO-related problems in the creek. Fish species observed in Rock Creek and its tributaries include eastern blacknose dace, bluntnose minnow, yellow bullhead, satinfin shiner, swallowtail shiner, longnose dace, American eel. In 2006, the National Park Service finished a project to remove or bypass eight fish barriers in the creek by adding a fish ladder to bypass the 1905 Peirce Mill Dam, modifying historic fords, removing abandoned sewage lines and fords.
The effort is designed to restore American shad, river herring, other migratory fish to the creek and their historic upriver spawning grounds. An estimated two million fish migrate up the creek each year; the D. C. government completed a restoration project on the Milkhouse Run and Bingham Run tributaries in 2013. As of 2014, ongoing restoration projects in the watershed include the Broad Branch and Klingle Run tributaries. In D. C. Dumbarton Oaks Normanstone Creek Klingle Valley Creek Piney Branch Melvin Hazen Valley Branch Broad Branch Soapstone Branch Luzon Branch Milkhouse Run Bingham Run Pinehurst Branch Fenwick Branch Portal BranchIn MarylandDonnybrook Tributary Coquelin Run Capitol View Tributary Kensington Heights Branch Stoney Creek Alta Vista Tributary Luxmanor Branch Stoneybrook Tributary Josephs Branch Turkey Branch Sycamore Creek Croydon Park Tributary Southlawn Branch North Branch Lake Needwood Crabbs Branch Mill Creek Pope Farm Branch Airpark Road Branch List of crossings of Rock Creek List of rivers of Washington, D.
C. List of rivers of Maryland Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway Tidewater Lock Montgomery County: Overview of Rock Creek Watershed Rock Creek Watershed Implementation Plan - Stormwater management Rock Creek Park: Environmental Inventory & Monitoring Volunteer stewardship organization: Rock Creek Conservancy