Oak Ridge is a suburban city in Anderson and Roane counties in the eastern part of the U. S. state of Tennessee, about 25 miles west of Knoxville. Oak Ridge's population was 29,330 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Knoxville Metropolitan Area. Oak Ridge's nicknames include the Atomic City, the Secret City, the Ridge and the City Behind the Fence. Oak Ridge was established in 1942 as a production site for the Manhattan Project—the massive American and Canadian operation that developed the atomic bomb; as it is still the site of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Y-12 National Security Complex, scientific development still plays a crucial role in the city's economy and culture in general. The earliest substantial occupation of the Oak Ridge area occurred during the Woodland period, although artifacts dating to the Paleo-Indian period have been found throughout the Clinch Valley. Two Woodland mound sites—the Crawford Farm Mounds and the Freels Farm Mounds—were uncovered in the 1930s as part of the Norris Basin salvage excavations.
Both sites were located just southeast of the former Scarboro community. The Bull Bluff site, occupied during both the Woodland and Mississippian periods, was uncovered in the 1960s in anticipation of the construction of Melton Hill Dam. Bull Bluff is a cliff located southeast of Haw Ridge, opposite Melton Hill Park; the Oak Ridge area was uninhabited by the time Euro-American explorers and settlers arrived in the late 18th century, although the Cherokee claimed the land as part of their hunting grounds. During the early 19th century, several rural farming communities developed in the Oak Ridge area, namely Edgemoor and Elza in the northeast, East Fork and Wheat in the southwest, Robertsville in the west, Bethel and Scarboro in the southeast; the European-American settlers who founded these communities arrived in the late 1790s following the American Revolutionary War and after the Cherokee signed the Treaty of Holston, ceding what is now Anderson County to the United States. According to local tradition, John Hendrix, an eccentric local resident regarded as a mystic, prophesied the establishment of Oak Ridge some 40 years before construction began.
Upset by the death of his young daughter and the subsequent departure of his wife and remaining family, he became religious and told his neighbors he was seeing visions. When he described his visions, people thought. According to several published accounts, one vision that he described was considered to be a description of the city and production facilities built 28 years after his death, to be used in World War II; the version recalled by neighbors and relatives has been reported as follows: In the woods, as I lay on the ground and looked up into the sky, there came to me a voice as loud and as sharp as thunder. The voice told me to sleep with my head on the ground for 40 nights and I would be shown visions of what the future holds for this land.... And I tell you, Bear Creek Valley someday will be filled with great buildings and factories, they will help toward winning the greatest war that will be, and there will be a city on Black Oak Ridge and the center of authority will be on a spot middle-way between Sevier Tadlock's farm and Joe Pyatt's Place.
A railroad spur will branch off the main L&N line, run down toward Robertsville and branch off and turn toward Scarborough. Big engines will dig big ditches, thousands of people will be running to and fro, they will be building things, there will be great noise and confusion and the earth will shake. I've seen it. It's coming. In 1942, the United States federal government chose the area as a site for developing materials for the Manhattan Project. Maj. Gen. Leslie Groves, military head of the Manhattan Project, liked the area for several reasons, its low population made acquisition affordable, yet the area was accessible by both highway and rail, utilities such as water and electricity were available due to the recent completion of Norris Dam. The project location was established within a 17-mile-long valley; this feature was linear and partitioned by several ridges, providing natural protection against the spread of disasters at the four major industrial plants—so they wouldn't blow up "like firecrackers on a string."When the Governor of Tennessee Prentice Cooper was handed by a junior officer the July 1943 presidential proclamation making Oak Ridge a military district not subject to state control, he tore it up and refused to see the MED Engineer, Lt. Col. James C. Marshall.
The new District Engineer Kenneth Nichols had to placate him. Cooper came to see the project on November 3, 1943. House and dormitory accommodations at the Clinton Engineer Works in Oak Ridge and Hanford Engineer Works in Washington State were basic, with coal rather than oil or electric furnaces, but they were of a higher standard than Director Groves would have liked, were better than at Los Alamos. Medical care was provided by Army doctors and hospitals, with civilians paying $2.50 per month to the medical insurance fund. The location and low population helped keep the town a secret, though the population of the settlement grew from about 3,000-3,750 in 1942 to about 75,000 by 1945; the K-25 uranium-separating facility by itself covered 44 acres and was the largest building in the world at that time. The name "Oak Ridge" was chosen for the settlement in 1943 from among suggestions submitted by project employees; the name related to the settlement's locat
Bethania Hospital is located in Sialkot, Pakistan. It is a medical facility owned by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lahore; the hospital treats 60,000 patients a year. It has a staff of 130 and occupies an area of 300,000 sq. ft. Sister Isobel Moran took over the hospital transforming it into a thriving facility with the addition of extra 50 beds, high standards of affordable care, the introduction of surgical procedures, obstetric services and improved anaesthetic and intensive care services. Direct Relief has supported the facility from 2002 to 2005, most with a $1.3 million medical assistance shipment in September 2005. Since its establishment in 1964, the hospital has worked extensively to detect and treat TB patients in the region, it is a 215-bed frontline and referral hospital, providing medical and surgical services. There is a specialized TB unit with 100 beds. In 1991, the Government of Pakistan approved the hospital as a charitable institution; the hospital receives free medicines for TB treatment under the National TB Control Programme.
This enables it to provide free treatment to TB patients. Ilyas Gill was the manager of the tuberculosis program at Bethania Hospital in 2011; every year 350,000 people in Pakistan develop TB. Treatment defaulting is one of the major causes of the failure of TB control programs. A study was carried out in Bethania Hospital from May - July 2006. In the Hospital defaulting rates are as high as 72% for the standard 12 months course; the study revealed the urgent need for a health education campaign to convince the general population that tuberculosis is curable. TB is a major cause of ill health in Pakistan. Research carried out in Bethania Hospital in 1996-97 was able to contribute to better understanding the problem of low treatment adherence among patients. A randomised trial of the impact of counselling on treatment adherence of tuberculosis patients in Sialkot was carried out at the hospital in 1999, it included more than 1000 adult patients of the hospital
The 2015 NATO emergency meeting was an emergency convention of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation called by Turkey, in accordance to Article 4 of NATO's founding treaty. It is the fifth such meeting called in the organisation's 66-year history; the meeting was held in Brussels, Belgium on 28 July 2015 and was attended by ambassadors of all NATO's member states. The meeting was called after developments on the Syria–Turkey border resulted in an escalation of violence by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and the Kurdistan Workers' Party, resulting in Turkey launching airstrikes and domestic police raids against suspected militants; the dissolution of the three-year solution process between the Turkish government and the PKK, as well as a suicide bombing in Suruç initiated by ISIL, were considered to be the main reasons behind the escalation of violence. Despite a series of terrorist attacks in 2013 and 2015 that were associated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Turkey had until followed a policy of relative inaction against the group.
The government's policy of inaction was criticised both home and abroad, with relations with NATO becoming strained due to Turkey's refusal to allow the United States to use the strategic İncirlik Air Base in Adana Province to fight against ISIL. Since late 2012, the Turkish government has pursued a solution process with the Kurdistan Workers' Party, with which the Turkish Armed Forces have been in conflict with for over 40 years; the solution process resulted in relative peace and stability in the predominantly Kurdish south-east of Turkey, though violations of the ceasefire occurred on numerous occasions. Turkey has been regarded to be at odds with NATO's policy on ISIL, having been criticised by many of the organisation's members for not doing more to tackle ISIL. However, NATO has responded to Turkish requests to maintain security on the Syria–Turkey border, deploying MIM-104 Patriot missiles on the border in 2013. On 20 July 2015, a suicide bombing in the Turkish border town of Suruç, Şanlıurfa Province, led to the death of 32 youth activists, preparing to cross the border into the Syrian town of Kobanî, which had until been under siege by ISIL.
The attack was perpetrated by an ISIL-linked group named the Dokumacılar, with ISIL claiming responsibility soon after the attack. In response, PKK militants killed two Turkish police officers in the district of Ceylanpınar in retaliation for what they saw as collaboration between ISIL and the governing Turkish Justice and Development Party. On July 23, five ISIL militants attacked Turkish military positions in the Turkish border town of Elbeyli, Kilis Province, killing one soldier and injuring two others; the increase in terrorism incidents attributed to both the PKK and ISIL in recent days resulted in Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu launching airstrikes against ISIL positions in Syria and PKK positions in Northern Iraq. Following a prolonged period of inaction against ISIL, the airstrikes received support from NATO members, though many stressed that the solution process with the PKK should be maintained. President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan announced that the US Air Force would be allowed to use İncirlik Air Base to attack ISIL and maintain a no-fly zone around the border.
At the same time, large-scale domestic police operations against alleged members of ISIL, the PKK and other terrorist groups were conducted nationwide, resulting in the arrests of nearly 600 people in over 22 Provinces of Turkey. On July 26, the Turkish government requested the closed-door meeting in accordance to Article 4 of NATO's founding treaty, which states that countries can request consultations if they believe that their territorial integrity, political independence or security is at risk; such a meeting is the fifth in NATO's 66-year history, with Turkey having called two in 2003 and 2013. NATO's Secretary General Jens Stoltenburg announced that the meeting would be held in Brussels on 28 July 2015. Although no request for military support had been made, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu stated that he hoped for support and solidarity from Turkey's allies in their campaign against ISIL and the PKK. NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenburg warned that military support would not be unconditional.
The United States and Turkey agreed to pursue a strategy of creating an ISIL-free zone in Northern Syria, combined with a no-fly zone encompassing the entire Syrian–Turkish border