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Oak savanna

An oak savanna is a type of savanna-or forested grassland- where oaks are the dominant trees. These savannas were maintained through wildfires set by lightning, grazing, low precipitation, and/or poor soil. Although there are pockets of oak savanna anywhere in North America where oaks are present, there are three major oak savanna areas: 1) California and Oregon in the west. There are small areas of oak savannas in other parts of the world; the oak savannas of the Midwestern United States and form a transition zone between the arid Great Plains to the west and the moist broadleaf and mixed forests to the east. Oak savannas are found in a wide belt from northern Minnesota and southern Wisconsin, down through Iowa, Illinois and central Missouri, eastern Kansas, central Oklahoma to north-central Texas, with isolated pockets further east around the Great Lakes including Ontario; the bur oak is the dominant species in northern oak savannas, although black oak, white oak, Hill's oak are sometimes present.

The dominant tree in the south is the black oak, although the chinquapin oak, post oak, black-jack oak are common. The flora of the herbaceous layer consists of species associated with tallgrass prairies, both grasses and flowering plants, although some woodland species may be present. There are a few species that are unique to oak savannas. Oak savannas, because of their mixture of grassland and unique savanna species have a higher plant diversity than grasslands and woodlands combined. Before European settlement, the oak savanna, a characteristic fire ecology, was extensive and was a dominant part of the ecosystem. Fires, set by lightning or Native Americans, ensured that the savanna areas did not turn into forests. Only trees with a high tolerance for fire, principally certain oak species, were able to survive. On sandy soils, black oak predominated. On rich soils bur oak was the major tree in Midwestern North America; these savanna areas provided habitat for many animals, including American bison and white-tailed deer.

The most fire-tolerant of the oak species is the bur oak, common in hill-country savannas in the Midwest. European settlers cleared much of the savanna for agricultural use. In addition, they suppressed the fire cycle, thus surviving pockets of savanna became less like savannas and more like forests or thickets. Many oak savanna plant and animal species became rare. With the rise in interest in environmental conservation and preservation of surviving areas of oak savanna began. Low intensity, spring prescribed burns have been used since 1964 at the Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve in Minnesota in an attempt to restore the area to an oak savanna. Burned areas are now more savanna like than unburned areas but still have higher overstory densities than existed in presettlement times. Restoration work began in the 1970s in Illinois, followed by work in Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota. Presettlement there was 50,000,000 acres of oak savanna in Midwestern United States, all of it being in a wide strip stretching from southwestern Michigan to eastern Nebraska and from southern Manitoba to central Texas.

After Europeans arrived, fire suppression and settlement diminished the oak savannas to a fraction of their former expanse, which exist in many fragmented pockets throughout its native range. Many sites are protected and maintained by government bodies or non-profit organizations such as The Nature Conservancy, the Wisconsin and Minnesota Departments of Natural Resources, the Iowa Natural Heritage Foundation. Examples of remnant oak savanna include: Neal Smith Wildlife Refuge near Iowa. Indiana Dunes National Park in Indiana. Numerous State Natural Areas in Wisconsin. Lake County Forest Preserve District in Illinois. Cook County Forest Preserve District and Iroquois County State Wildlife Area in Illinois. Oak Openings Preserve Metropark in Ohio. Pinery Provincial Park on Lake Huron in Ontario, Canada. Examples of restored oak savanna sites: Oak savanna restoration project site on Winchell Trail in Minneapolis, Minnesota Wisconsin's Pleasant Valley Conservancy State Natural Area. "Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition".

Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. "Central forest-grasslands transition". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Oak Savannas: Characteristics and Long-Term Management Pleasant Valley Conservancy State Natural Area Oak Savannah Documentary produced by Oregon Field Guide

Jan van Eyck Academie

The Van Eyck – Multiform Institute for Fine Art and Reflection is a post-academic institute for research and production in the fields of fine art and art theory, based in Maastricht, Netherlands. The academy was named after the painter Jan van Eyck. In 2013, 39 researches from countries around the world were working and studying at the institutes premises in Jekerkwartier. In 2012, the Hubert van Eyck Academie / Caterina van Hemessen Academie was established as a ‘teaching bridge,’ linking the Jan van Eyck Academie / Margaret van Eyck Academie with Maastricht University and other Maastricht art schools. In 1928 the priest Leo Linssen, the architect Alphons Boosten and the artist-writer Jan Engelman discussed the state of art in the province of Limburg, the need for an art academy in the south of the Netherlands based on Roman Catholic principles. However, their ideas did not materialize at the time. Nearly two decades in December 1947, the Saint Bernulphus Foundation succeeded in establishing an institute for advanced education in fine art based on Catholic principles in Maastricht.

The institute is named after the painter Jan van Eyck, born in Maaseik, not far from Maastricht, considered a suitable role model for Catholic artists. The academy in Maastricht was conceived as a Catholic counterpart of the non-denominational Rijksakademie in Amsterdam, founded in 1870; the institute's main objectives were to further and expand art education in the broadest sense of the word, although the deed clearly stipulated that the students should be trained in their art practice for tasks in the service of the Catholic Church, which involved the reconstruction and decoration of churches destroyed in the war. The academy was established as a private institute, subsidized by the state, the province of Limburg and local authorities. On 13 May 1948, the feast of patron saint Servatius of Maastricht, the founding charter was signed by representatives of the Dutch Ministry of Education and Science, the Province of Limburg, the city of Maastricht, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Roermond; this day has since been observed as the academy's dies natalis.

Classes started on 1 October 1948 with seven students enrolled. Compulsory subjects included the history of art, iconography and philosophy, sources of Christian art, history of civilization and literature. However, the statement of principles stressed that contemporary art was vital as well to the academy's set-up. In November 1948, the priest Leo W. Linssen was assigned first director of the Jan van Eyck Academie. Linssen, in his opening speech referred to Van Eyck's Ghent Altarpiece as an example of'Christian art'; the Jan van Eyck Academie took up residence in the former Sepulchrine church and convent in the Jekerkwartier neighbourhood in the center of Maastricht. The rather derelict building with sparse natural light was shared with several other institutions. In 1949 the board decided that, as an applied art institution, the academy should incorporate the training of architects. Three curricula were set up: architecture and fine art. Belgian sculptor Oscar Jespers was professor of sculpting.

Classes of theory and technical education – with a firm scientific basis – were compulsory. There were studios for ceramics and glass art, plaster casting and goldsmithing. In 1951 the Jan van Eyck Academie moved to a 17th-century orphanage in Lenculenstraat. On 21 July 1952 the first group of 15 students graduated. In 1954, professor J. J. M. Timmers, an eminent art historian and director of the Bonnefanten Museum, was appointed the academy's second director, his major task was to find the academy a new, suitable building, as well as to bring the academy up to equal level with the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam. Consultations concerning the latter soon ran aground because the board of governors insisted on the Jan van Eyck Academie remaining a private institute, based on catholic principles. Plans for a new building, designed by Modernist architect Frits Peutz were approved. In June 1959 construction work began and in January 1961 staff and students moved into the new building – a building however, but a third of the size of Peutz' original plan.

In 1965, Timmers was succeeded by Albert Troost. Teaching and advising staff by that time had changed considerably. Troost, together with Ko Sarneel, visited art institutes of higher education in Amsterdam, Antwerp, Düsseldorf and Brussels and studied their educational programs and methods; the two men drew a master plan that emphasized the Maastricht academy's need for a clear statement of principles and a well-founded program. Education from now on was to match developments in contemporary art practices. Education was restricted to fine art. Entry requirements became more rigid, a fact-finding year was introduced, more visiting lecturers were employed; the new adage was that art education should be more individually directed: the student, his consciousness and questions were to feature centrally. When in 1966 the Dutch Minister of Culture, Maarten Vrolijk, opened a new wing adjacent to the existing building, he praised the Academie for being outstandingly fitted out: there was a studio for metal working, a welding workshop, a carving studio, a foundry for bronze molding, a pottery kiln an

Piero Umiliani

Piero Umiliani was an Italian composer of film scores, is most famous for his song "Mah Nà Mah Nà" and orchestra score "Arrivano I Marines". Umiliani was born in Tuscany. Like many of his Italian colleagues at that time, he composed the scores for many exploitation films in the 1960s and 1970s, covering genres such as Spaghetti Westerns, Eurospy and softcore sex films, his composition "Crepuscolo Sul Mare" was used in Ocean's Twelve."Mah Nà Mah Nà" was used in Sweden: Heaven and Hell, a 1968 Mondo documentary about Sweden. It was a minor charting popularized by The Muppets, who covered the song several times; the track was a hit in the UK, reaching number 8 in the UK Singles Chart in May 1977. Umiliani's other scores included Son of Django, Gangster's Law, Death Knocks Twice, Five Dolls for an August Moon, Baba Yaga, The Slave and Sex Pot, his orchestra score "Arrivano I Marines" for War Italian Style, a 1966 comedy about two USMC soldiers in Italy, is used in the Armored Trooper Votoms series as "March of the Red Shoulders".

Umiliani died in Rome in February 2001, at the age of 74. Piero Umiliani on IMDb Official Website

Carabaya Province

Carabaya Province is a province of the Puno Region in the southern part of Peru. It is bounded on the north by the Madre de Dios Region, on the east by the Sandia Province, on the south by the provinces of Azángaro and Putina and on the west by the Cusco Region; the capital of the province is the city of Macusani. The province is traversed by the Kallawaya mountain ranges; some of the highest peaks of the province are Pumanuta. Other mountains are listed below: Ariquma Lake, Wiluyuq Qucha and Sayt'uquta belong to the largest lakes of the province; the province measures 12,266.4 square kilometres and is divided into ten districts: The people in the province are indigenous citizens of Quechua descent. Quechua is the language which the majority of the population learnt to speak in childhood, 15.14% of the residents started speaking using the Spanish language and 0.62% Aymara. Chawpiqucha Chichakuri Ch'uxñaquta Inambari River Kimsaqucha Parinaquta Saytuqucha Yawarmayu Official website

Bergsøysund Bridge

The Bergsøysund Bridge is a pontoon bridge that crosses the Bergsøysundet strait between the islands of Aspøya and Bergsøya in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway. The bridge is 931 metres long, the longest span is 106 metres, the maximum clearance to the sea is 6 metres; the bridge has 13 spans. Bergsøysund Bridge was opened in 1992, it is part of the town of Kristiansund's road connection to the mainland. The bridge cost 277.4 million kr. Floating bridge/pontoon bridge construction has a long history in military and civilian applications on every continent except Antarctica. According to the engineers who designed this bridge, it was designed using recent American technology for floating bridges, combined with Norwegian technology for offshore platforms; the bridge designers researched other bridges in the world and traveled to the state of Washington in the United States to visit the Homer M. Hadley Memorial Bridge and the Hood Canal Bridge—two floating bridges; the continuous floating concrete structure used in the Washington bridges was ruled out in favor of the discrete floating concrete pier design.

This design afforded: 1) an elevated roadway that reduced traffic hazards in storms, 2) a reduction in corrosion of the bridge deck, 3) improved passage of water beneath the bridge thereby supporting native species. List of bridges in Norway List of bridges in Norway by length List of bridges List of bridges by length Gjemnessund Bridge Straumsund Bridge

Figure skating at the 1960 Winter Olympics – Women's singles

The women's single skating competition of the 1960 Winter Olympics was held at the Blyth Arena in Squaw Valley, United States. The compulsory figures section took place on Sunday 21 February 1960 with the free skating section concluding the event two days later; each judge ranked each skater by Ordinal Placement from first to last place. If a skater was ranked first by a majority of the judges, that skater was placed first overall, this process was repeated for each place. If more than one skater had a majority ranking for the same position a series of tiebreaks were in place, indicated in order in the result section. Carol Heiss won gold for the United States going one better from her silver medal at the 1956 Olympics. Referee: Josef DědičAssistant Referee: Alexander D. C. GordonJudges: Martin Felsenreich John Greig Emil Skákala Adolf Walker Pamela Davis Giovanni de Mori Shotaro Kobayashi Charlotte Benedict-Stieber Howell Janes 1960 Squaw Valley Official Olympic Report sports-reference