According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a natural surface. In January 1919, aviation pioneer Orville Wright underlined the need for "distinctly marked and prepared landing places, the preparing of the surface of reasonably flat ground an expensive undertaking there would be a continuous expense for the upkeep." Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the local magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west and runway 36 points to the north; when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane is heading around 90°. A runway can be used in both directions, is named for each direction separately: e.g. "runway 15" in one direction is "runway 33" when used in the other. The two numbers differ by 18.
For clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually: runway one-five, runway three-three, etc.. A leading zero, for example in "runway zero-six" or "runway zero-one-left", is included for all ICAO and some U. S. military airports. However, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield; this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is common in a country such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04, the pilot read back the clearance as runway 4. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world. For example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05. If there is more than one runway pointing in the same direction, each runway is identified by appending left and right to the number to identify its position — for example, runways one-five-left, one-five-center, one-five-right.
Runway zero-three-left becomes runway two-one-right. In some countries, regulations mandate that where parallel runways are too close to each other, only one may be used at a time under certain conditions. At large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 1 to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways. For example, in Los Angeles, this system results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L, 7R though all four runways are parallel at 69°. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, 18R, all oriented at a heading of 175.4°. An airport with only three parallel runways may use different runway identifiers, such as when a third parallel runway was opened at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in 2000 to the south of existing 8R/26L — rather than confusingly becoming the "new" 8R/26L it was instead designated 7R/25L, with the former 8R/26L becoming 7L/25R and 8L/26R becoming 8/26.
Runway designations may change over time because Earth's magnetic lines drift on the surface and the magnetic direction changes. Depending on the airport location and how much drift occurs, it may be necessary to change the runway designation; as runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10°, this affects some runways sooner than others. For example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233°, it is designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changes downwards by 5 degrees to 228°, the runway remains Runway 23. If on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226°, the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224°, the runway becomes Runway 22; because magnetic drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon, not welcomed, as they require an accompanying change in aeronautical charts and descriptive documents. When runway designations do change at major airports, it is changed at night as taxiway signs need to be changed and the huge numbers at each end of the runway need to be repainted to the new runway designators.
In July 2009 for example, London Stansted Airport in the United Kingdom changed its runway designations from 05/23 to 04/22 during the night. For fixed-wing aircraft it is advantageous to perform takeoffs and landings into the wind to reduce takeoff or landing roll and reduce the ground speed needed to attain flying speed. Larger airports have several runways in different directions, so that one can be selected, most nearly aligned with the wind. Airports with one runway are constructed to be aligned with the prevailing wind. Compiling a wind rose is in fact one of the preliminary steps taken in constructing airport runways. Note that wind direction is given as the direction the wind is coming from: a plane taking off from runway 09 faces east, into an "east wind" blowing from 090°. Runway dimensions vary from as small as 245 m long and 8 m wide in s
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements. Airline companies are recognized with an air operating certificate or license issued by a governmental aviation body. Airlines vary in size, from small domestic airlines to full-service international airlines with double decker airplanes. Airline services can be categorized as being intercontinental, regional, or international, may be operated as scheduled services or charters; the largest airline is American Airlines Group. DELAG, Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft I was the world's first airline, it was founded on November 16, 1909, with government assistance, operated airships manufactured by The Zeppelin Corporation. Its headquarters were in Frankfurt; the first fixed wing scheduled airline was started on January 1, 1914, from St. Petersburg, Florida, to Tampa, Florida.
The four oldest non-dirigible airlines that still exist are Netherlands' KLM, Colombia's Avianca, Australia's Qantas, the Czech Republic's Czech Airlines. The earliest fixed wing airline in Europe was Aircraft Transport and Travel, formed by George Holt Thomas in 1916. Using a fleet of former military Airco DH.4A biplanes, modified to carry two passengers in the fuselage, it operated relief flights between Folkestone and Ghent. On 15 July 1919, the company flew a proving flight across the English Channel, despite a lack of support from the British government. Flown by Lt. H Shaw in an Airco DH.9 between RAF Hendon and Paris – Le Bourget Airport, the flight took 2 hours and 30 minutes at £21 per passenger. On 25 August 1919, the company used DH.16s to pioneer a regular service from Hounslow Heath Aerodrome to Le Bourget, the first regular international service in the world. The airline soon gained a reputation for reliability, despite problems with bad weather, began to attract European competition.
In November 1919, it won the first British civil airmail contract. Six Royal Air Force Airco DH.9A aircraft were lent to the company, to operate the airmail service between Hawkinge and Cologne. In 1920, they were returned to the Royal Air Force. Other British competitors were quick to follow – Handley Page Transport was established in 1919 and used the company's converted wartime Type O/400 bombers with a capacity for 12 passengers, to run a London-Paris passenger service; the first French airline was Société des lignes Latécoère known as Aéropostale, which started its first service in late 1918 to Spain. The Société Générale des Transports Aériens was created in late 1919, by the Farman brothers and the Farman F.60 Goliath plane flew scheduled services from Toussus-le-Noble to Kenley, near Croydon, England. Another early French airline was the Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes, established in 1919 by Louis-Charles Breguet, offering a mail and freight service between Le Bourget Airport and Lesquin Airport, Lille.
The first German airline to use heavier than air aircraft was Deutsche Luft-Reederei established in 1917 which started operating in February 1919. In its first year, the D. L. R. Operated scheduled flights on routes with a combined length of nearly 1000 miles. By 1921 the D. L. R. Network was more than 3000 km long, included destinations in the Netherlands and the Baltic Republics. Another important German airline was Junkers Luftverkehr, which began operations in 1921, it was a division of the aircraft manufacturer Junkers, which became a separate company in 1924. It operated joint-venture airlines in Austria, Estonia, Hungary, Norway, Poland and Switzerland; the Dutch airline KLM made its first flight in 1920, is the oldest continuously operating airline in the world. Established by aviator Albert Plesman, it was awarded a "Royal" predicate from Queen Wilhelmina, its first flight was from Croydon Airport, London to Amsterdam, using a leased Aircraft Transport and Travel DH-16, carrying two British journalists and a number of newspapers.
In 1921, KLM started scheduled services. In Finland, the charter establishing Aero O/Y was signed in the city of Helsinki on September 12, 1923. Junkers F.13 D-335 became the first aircraft of the company, when Aero took delivery of it on March 14, 1924. The first flight was between Helsinki and Tallinn, capital of Estonia, it took place on March 20, 1924, one week later. In the Soviet Union, the Chief Administration of the Civil Air Fleet was established in 1921. One of its first acts was to help found Deutsch-Russische Luftverkehrs A. G. a German-Russian joint venture to provide air transport from Russia to the West. Domestic air service began around the same time, when Dobrolyot started operations on 15 July 1923 between Moscow and Nizhni Novgorod. Since 1932 all operations had been carried under the name Aeroflot. Early European airlines tended to favor comfort – the passenger cabins were spacious with luxurious interiors – over speed and efficiency; the basic navigational capabilities of pilots at the time meant that delays due to the weather were commonplace.
By the early 1920s, small airlines were struggling to compete, there was a movement towards increased rationalization and consolidation. In 1924, Imperial Airways was formed from the merger of Instone Air Line Company, British Marine Air Navigation, Daimler Airway and Handley Page Transport Co Ltd. to allow British airlines to compete with stiff competition from French and German airlines that were enjoying heavy government subsidies. The ai
Pellston Regional Airport
Pellston Regional Airport known as Pellston Regional Airport of Emmet County, is a public airport located one mile northwest of the central business district of Pellston, a village in Emmet County, United States. It is included in the Federal Aviation Administration National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2017–2021, in which it is categorized as a non-hub primary commercial service facility. A general aviation airport, Pellston Regional Airport functions as the primary commercial airport for the sparsely populated northern tip of Michigan's Lower Peninsula, owing to its location halfway between the region's primary cities and Cheboygan, as well as its close proximity to the tourist centers of Mackinaw City and Mackinac Island. One commercial airline, SkyWest, doing business as Delta Connection serves Pellston Regional with two departures and two arrivals daily; the 35,000 square feet northern lodge themed passenger terminal building was constructed in 2003 and designed by architect Paul W. Powers.
The new passenger terminal building replaced a smaller terminal building, demolished. Wireless internet service is available throughout the terminal at no charge to travelers. Pellston Regional Airport covers an area of 1,675 acres and contains two asphalt paved runways: 14/32 measures 6,513 by 150 feet and 5/23 is 5,401 by 150 feet. For the 12-month period ending September 30, 2016, the airport had 9,022 aircraft operations, an average of 25 per day: 81% general aviation, 18% scheduled commercial and 1% military. In April 2017, there were 38 aircraft based at this airport: 32 single-engine, 3 multi-engine, 2 jet and 1 helicopter; the current terminal serves as check-in, ticketing, TSA checkpoint and gates. Due to the airport being small in size and the amount of flights, only 2 gates are necessary and both are located in the terminal. Since 2009 travel services and offices have been placed at the end of baggage claim. On a normal day, three or four people operate this airport. One airline representative manages check-in, works as the gate agent.
One is a TSA Senior Agent. The others are ground baggage services. Delta/SkyWest has two aircraft in use, both are seat Canadair Regional Jets 100/200 series. On January 15, 2013, a Cessna 208B Cargomaster, operated by Martinaire and registered as N1120N, crashed shortly after takeoff from Pellston Regional Airport, it came down in a wooded area. On May 13, 1978, a brand new Piper Cheyenne with less than twenty hours had a CFIT two miles from the departure end of Runway 32 after failing to land at Boyne Falls airport; the NTSB investigation concluded the pilot attempted to land below published minimums for the ILS approach. The weather was foggy at the time with less than 3/8 of a mile visibility and 200' ceiling while the approach called for a 600' ceiling and 2 miles visibility. A contributing factor was the finding that the middle marker for Runway 32 was not functioning at the time contributing to the disorientation of the pilot and his location relative to the airfield; the aircraft was destroyed.
On May 9, 1970, UAW President Walter Reuther, his wife May, architect Oscar Stonorov, Reuther's bodyguard William Wolfman, the pilot and co-pilot were killed when their chartered Lear-Jet crashed in flames at 9:33 p.m. Michigan time; the plane, arriving from Detroit in rain and fog, was on final approach to the Pellston, airstrip near the union's recreational and educational facility at Black Lake. The Learjet 23, operated by Executive Jet Aviation and registered as N434EJ, crashed into trees and caught fire short of the runway. An investigation concluded that illusions produced by the lack of visual cues during a circling approach over unlighted terrain at night to a runway not equipped with approach lights or other visual approach aids, caused the crash; the aircraft was written off. On April 23, 1970, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9, operated by North Central Airlines, destined for Sault Ste. Marie Airport, was hijacked. One hijacker demanded to be taken to Detroit; the hijacker was taken down. Official website Lakeshore Express Aviation FAA Terminal Procedures for PLN, effective March 28, 2019 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for PLN AirNav airport information for KPLN ASN accident history for PLN FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is a governmental body of the United States with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation in that nation as well as over its surrounding international waters. Its powers include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and aircraft, the protection of U. S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles. Powers over neighboring international waters were delegated to the FAA by authority of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Created in August 1958, the FAA replaced the former Civil Aeronautics Administration and became an agency within the US Department of Transportation; the FAA's roles include: Regulating U. S. commercial space transportation Regulating air navigation facilities' geometric and flight inspection standards Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technology Issuing, suspending, or revoking pilot certificates Regulating civil aviation to promote transportation safety in the United States through local offices called Flight Standards District Offices Developing and operating a system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft Researching and developing the National Airspace System and civil aeronautics Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation The FAA is divided into four "lines of business".
Each LOB has a specific role within the FAA. Airports: plans and develops projects involving airports, overseeing their construction and operations. Ensures compliance with federal regulations. Air Traffic Organization: primary duty is to safely and efficiently move air traffic within the National Airspace System. ATO employees manage air traffic facilities including Airport Traffic Control Towers and Terminal Radar Approach Control Facilities. See Airway Operational Support. Aviation Safety: Responsible for aeronautical certification of personnel and aircraft, including pilots and mechanics. Commercial Space Transportation: ensures protection of U. S. assets during the launch or reentry of commercial space vehicles. The FAA is headquartered in Washington, D. C. as well as the William J. Hughes Technical Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City and its nine regional offices: Alaskan Region – Anchorage, Alaska Northwest Mountain – Seattle, Washington Western Pacific – Los Angeles, California Southwest – Fort Worth, Texas Central – Kansas City, Missouri Great Lakes – Chicago, Illinois Southern – Atlanta, Georgia Eastern – New York, New York New England – Boston, Massachusetts The Air Commerce Act of May 20, 1926, is the cornerstone of the federal government's regulation of civil aviation.
This landmark legislation was passed at the urging of the aviation industry, whose leaders believed the airplane could not reach its full commercial potential without federal action to improve and maintain safety standards. The Act charged the Secretary of Commerce with fostering air commerce and enforcing air traffic rules, licensing pilots, certifying aircraft, establishing airways, operating and maintaining aids to air navigation; the newly created Aeronautics Branch, operating under the Department of Commerce assumed primary responsibility for aviation oversight. In fulfilling its civil aviation responsibilities, the Department of Commerce concentrated on such functions as safety regulations and the certification of pilots and aircraft, it took over the building and operation of the nation's system of lighted airways, a task initiated by the Post Office Department. The Department of Commerce improved aeronautical radio communications—before the founding of the Federal Communications Commission in 1934, which handles most such matters today—and introduced radio beacons as an effective aid to air navigation.
The Aeronautics Branch was renamed the Bureau of Air Commerce in 1934 to reflect its enhanced status within the Department. As commercial flying increased, the Bureau encouraged a group of airlines to establish the first three centers for providing air traffic control along the airways. In 1936, the Bureau itself began to expand the ATC system; the pioneer air traffic controllers used maps and mental calculations to ensure the safe separation of aircraft traveling along designated routes between cities. In 1938, the Civil Aeronautics Act transferred the federal civil aviation responsibilities from the Commerce Department to a new independent agency, the Civil Aeronautics Authority; the legislation expanded the government's role by giving the CAA the authority and the power to regulate airline fares and to determine the routes that air carriers would serve. President Franklin D. Roosevelt split the authority into two agencies in 1940: the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the Civil Aeronautics Board.
CAA was responsible for ATC, airman and aircraft certification, safety enforcement, airway development. CAB was entrusted with safety regulation, accident investigation, economic regulation of the airlines; the CAA was part of the Department of Commerce. The CAB was an independent federal agency. On the eve of America's entry into World War II, CAA began to extend its ATC responsibilities to takeoff and landing operations at airports; this expanded role became permanent after the war. The application of radar to ATC helped controllers in their drive to keep abreast of the postwar boom in commercial air transportation. In 1946, Congress gave CAA the added task of administering the federal-aid airport program, the first peacetime program of financial assistance aimed exclusivel
Oakland International Airport
Oakland International Airport is an international airport in Oakland, United States. It is located 10 miles south of Downtown Oakland and across from San Francisco, situated on the other side of the San Francisco Bay, it is owned by the Port of Oakland and features passenger services to cities in the United States and Europe with additional cargo destinations in China and Japan. In 2018, 13,594,251 people traveled through OAK. Oakland is a focus city for Allegiant Air; as of August 2015 Southwest has 120 daily departures on peak-travel days of the week making it Southwest’s largest operation in California. Alaska Airlines combined with sister-carrier Horizon Air has been the second-busiest carrier at the airport through 2013. In January 2014, Delta overtook Alaska as the airport's No. 2 carrier. The city of Oakland looked into the construction of an airport starting in 1925. In 1927 the announcement of the Dole prize for a flight from California to Hawaii provided the incentive to purchase 680 acres in April 1927 for the airport.
The 7,020-foot-long runway was the longest in the world at the time, was built in just 21 days to meet the Dole race start. The airport was dedicated by Charles Lindbergh September 17. In its early days, because of its long runway enabling safe takeoff rolls for fuel-heavy aircraft, Oakland was the departing point of several historic flights, including Charles Kingsford Smith's historic US-Australia flight in 1928, Amelia Earhart's final flight in 1937. Earhart departed from this airport when she made her final, ill-fated voyage, intending to return there after circumnavigating the globe. Boeing Air Transport began scheduled flights to Oakland in December 1927, it was joined by Trans World Airlines in 1932. In 1929, Boeing opened the Boeing School of Aeronautics on the field, which expanded in 1939 as part of the Civilian Pilot Training Program. Thousands of pilots and mechanics were trained before the facility was changed into the United Air Lines training center in 1945. In 1943, the U. S. Armed Forces temporarily opened Naval Air Station Oakland.
It was transformed into an airlift base for military flights to the Pacific islands, ordering all scheduled service to move to San Francisco International Airport. After the war, airlines returned to Oakland; the airport's first Jet Age airline terminal was designed by John Carl Warnecke & Associates and opened in 1962, part of a $20 million expansion on bay fill that included the 10,000-foot runway 11/29. The May 1963 OAG showed 15 airline flights arriving in Oakland each day, including nine from San Francisco. During the Vietnam War, World Airways shuttled thousands of military passengers through Oakland to their bases in Southeast Asia, an international arrivals facility was built, allowing the airport to handle international flights for the first time. World Airways had broken ground on the World Airways Maintenance Center at Oakland International Airport; the maintenance hangar could store four Boeing 747's. It opened in May 1973. After the war Oakland's traffic slumped, but airline deregulation prompted several low-fare carriers to begin flights.
This increase prompted the airport to build a $16.3 million second terminal, the Lionel J. Wilson Terminal 2, with seven gates for PSA and AirCal service. In 1987 an Air France Concorde visited Oakland to provide supersonic two-hour flights to the Pacific halfway to Hawaii and back to Oakland. FedEx Express opened a cargo base at OAK in 1988, now one of the busiest air freight terminals in the United States. In the 1990s, Southwest Airlines opened a crew base in Oakland, expanded its flights to become the airport's dominant passenger carrier; the airport has international arrival facilities, including U. S. Customs and Border Protection officials. Mexicana Airlines flew between cities in Mexico for many years. In the past Corsairfly flew Orly Airport to OAK to Papeete, Martinair flew to Schiphol Airport and CityBird flew to Brussels Airport in Brussels. United Airlines vacated its 300,000 sq ft Oakland Maintenance Center in May 2003 and transferred work to its base across the bay at San Francisco International Airport.
Oakland International Airport began a $300 million expansion and renovation project in 2004, including adding five gates in Terminal 2. The new concourse opened in fall 2006, was opened by spring 2007, a new baggage claim in Terminal 2 opened in summer 2006; the former Terminal 2 baggage claim has been replaced by a renovated and expanded security screening area. As part of this program, airport roadways and parking lots were renovated by the end of 2008. In 2008 Oakland saw a series of cutbacks due to high fuel costs and airline bankruptcies, more than other Bay Area airports. In just a few days, Oakland's numerous non-stops to Hawaii were eliminated following the liquidation of ATA Airlines and Aloha Airlines, although Hawaiian Airlines started a daily flight to Honolulu a month later. Skybus Airlines stopped flying to Columbus, OH when it ended operations on April 5. American Airlines and Continental Airlines both dropped Oakland on September 3, United Airlines ended service to Los Angeles on November 2, TACA ended service to San Salvador on September 1.
New air traffic control tower A groundbreaking ceremony for a new control tower took place October 15, 2010. A grant awarded to the Federal A
Midway International Airport
Chicago Midway International Airport is a major commercial airport on the southwest side of Chicago, located eight miles from the Loop. Established in 1927, Midway served as Chicago's primary airport until the opening of O'Hare International Airport in 1955. Today, Midway is the second-largest airport in Chicago metropolitan area and the state of Illinois, serving 22,027,737 passengers in 2018. Traffic is dominated by low-cost carrier Southwest Airlines. Named Chicago Municipal Airport, it was renamed to honor the Battle of Midway; the airfield is located in a square mile bounded by 55th and 63rd Streets, Central and Cicero Avenues. The current terminal complex was completed in 2001; the terminal bridges Cicero Avenue and contains 43 gates with facilities for international passengers. Stevenson Expressway and the CTA Orange Line provide freeway and rapid transit access to The Loop. Named Chicago Air Park, Midway Airport was built on a 320-acre plot in 1923 with one cinder runway for airmail flights.
In 1926 the city leased the airport and named it Chicago Municipal Airport on December 12, 1927. By 1928, the airport lit for night operations. A major fire early on June 25, 1930, destroyed two hangars and 27 aircraft, "12 of them tri-motor passenger planes." The loss was estimated at more than two million dollars. The hangars destroyed were of the Universal Air Lines, Inc. and the Grey Goose Airlines, the latter under lease to Stout Air Lines. The fire followed an explosion of undetermined cause in the Universal hangar. In 1931 a new passenger terminal opened at 62nd St. More construction was funded in part by $1 million from the Works Progress Administration; the March 1939 OAG shows 47 weekday departures: 13 on United, 13 American, 9 TWA, 4 Northwest, two each on Eastern, Pennsylvania Central, C&S. New York's airport was the busiest airline airport in the United States, but Midway passed LaGuardia in 1948 and kept the title until 1960; the record-breaking 1945 Japan–Washington flight of B-29s refueled at the airport on their way to Washington DC.
In July 1949 the airport was renamed after the Battle of Midway. That year Midway saw 3.2 million passengers. The diagram on the January 1951 C&GS approach chart shows four parallel pairs of runways, all 4240 ft or less except for 5730-ft runway 13R and 5230-ft runway 4R. Airport diagram for 1959 The April 1957 OAG shows 414 weekday fixed-wing departures from Midway: 83 American, 83 United, 56 TWA, 40 Capital, 35 North Central, 28 Delta, 27 Eastern, 22 Northwest, 19 Ozark, 11 Braniff, 5 Trans-Canada, 5 Lake Central. Air France, REAL had a few flights per week. Midway was running out of room and in any case could not handle the 707 and DC-8 jets that appeared in 1959. Electras and Viscounts could have continued to fly out of Midway, but O'Hare's new terminal opened in 1962, allowing airlines to consolidate their flights. From July 1962 until United returned in July 1964, Midway's only scheduled airline was Chicago Helicopter. In August 1966 a total of four fixed-wing arrivals were scheduled, all United 727s.
By 1967 reconstruction began at the airport, adding three new concourses with 28 gates and three ticket counters, in 1968 the city invested $10 million in renovation funds. The funds supported construction of the Stevenson Expressway, Midway saw the return of major airlines that year, with 1,663,074 passengers on smaller-capacity, shorter range twin-jet and trijet airliners such as the McDonnell Douglas DC-9, BAC One-Eleven, Boeing 727, Boeing 737 that could use Midway's runways, which the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 could not. In May 1968 there were 22 scheduled departures: six United 727s to MSP, DCA and LGA, 12 Northwest 727s to MSP and CLE, one Delta DC-9 to STL and three Ozark FH227s; the December 1970 OAG shows 86 weekday arrivals on 13 fixed-wing airlines from 31 airports, but the August 1974 shows 14 arrivals on four airlines, in 1976–79 Midway had only the two or three Delta DC-9s from St Louis. Midway Airlines arrived on October 31, 1979 with DC-9 nonstops to Kansas City and Cleveland Lakefront.
Their September 1989 timetable shows 117 weekday departures to 29 cities, plus 108 departures on their commuter affiliates to 22 more cities. Midway quit flying in 1991. In 1982, the city of Chicago purchased Midway Airport from the Chicago Board of Education for $16 million. Three years Southwest Airlines began operations at Midway. Midway was a focus city for Vanguard Airlines from 1997 to 2000; the Chicago Transit Authority displaced the Carlton Midway Inn to open a new CTA terminal at the airport on October 31, 1993, for the new Chicago'L' Orange Line that connected Midway to Chicago's Loop. Midway Airport is the end of the line, which crosses the southwest part of the city before ending at the Loop
The Palace of Auburn Hills
The Palace of Auburn Hills referred to as The Palace, is a defunct multi-purpose arena located in Auburn Hills, Michigan. It was the home of the Detroit Pistons of the National Basketball Association, the Detroit Shock of the Women's National Basketball Association, the Detroit Vipers of the International Hockey League, the Detroit Safari of the Continental Indoor Soccer League, the Detroit Fury of the Arena Football League; the Palace was one of eight basketball arenas owned by their respective NBA franchises. By the time it closed as an NBA venue, the Palace was one of only two arenas which had not sold its naming rights to a corporate sponsor; the other was Madison Square Garden. The Pistons court was named the "William Davidson Court", in honor of the late owner, prior to the home opener on October 30, 2009. From 1957 to 1978, the Pistons competed in Detroit's Olympia Stadium, Memorial Building, Cobo Arena. In 1978, owner Bill Davidson elected not to share the new Joe Louis Arena with the Detroit Red Wings, instead chose to relocate the team to the Pontiac Silverdome, a venue constructed for football, where they remained for the next decade.
While the Silverdome could accommodate massive crowds, it offered substandard sight lines for basketball viewing. In late 1985, a group led by Davidson decided to build a new arena in Auburn Hills. Groundbreaking for the arena took place in June 1986. Using private funding, The Palace cost a low price of $90 million; the Davidson family held a controlling interest in the arena until Tom Gores bought it as part of his purchase of the Pistons in 2011. Then-Pistons owner Bill Davidson and two developers financed the $90 million construction of The Palace, did not require public funds; the Palace was built with 180 luxury suites, considered an exorbitant number. However, it managed to lease all of them. In December 2005, the Palace added five underground luxury suites, each containing 450 square feet of space and renting for $450,000 per year. Eight more luxury suites located below arena level, were opened in February 2006, they range in size from rent for $350,000 annually. The architectural design of the Palace, including its multiple tiers of luxury suites, has been used as the basis for many other professional sports arenas in North America since its construction, including the Canadian Tire Centre in Ottawa designed by Rossetti Associates.
The Palace opened in 1988. When one of its basketball occupants won a championship, the number on its address changed, its current address is 6 Championship Drive, reflecting the Pistons' three NBA titles and the Detroit Shock's three WNBA titles. The original address was 3777 Lapeer Road; the Palace was considered to be the first of the modern-style NBA arenas, its large number of luxury suites was a major reason for the building boom of new NBA arenas in the 1990s. Although the Palace became one of the oldest arenas in the NBA, its foresighted design contained the amenities that most NBA teams have sought in new arenas built since that time. By contrast, of the other NBA venues that opened during the 1988-89 season, Amway Arena, Charlotte Coliseum, Miami Arena, the Bradley Center have been demolished, while Sleep Train Arena has been replaced. All of these arenas were rendered obsolete by the lack of luxury suites and club seating, lucrative revenue-generating features that made pro sports teams financially successful in order to remain competitive long-term, being located in suburban rather than downtown areas.
Nonetheless, Palace Sports & Entertainment had spent $117.5 million in upgrades and renovations to keep the arena updated. A new high definition JumboTron monitor, new LED video monitors, more than 950 feet of ribbon display technology from Daktronics was installed in the mid-2000s. On November 19, 2004, a fight broke–out between members of the Pistons and Indiana Pacers; as the on-court fight died down, a fan threw a cup of Diet Coke at Pacers forward Ron Artest, who rushed into the crowd, sparking a melee between players and spectators. The fight resulted in the suspension of nine players, criminal charges against five players, criminal charges against five spectators; the offending fans were banned from attending games at the Palace. In the aftermath of the fight, the NBA decided to increase the security presence between players and spectators; the fact that the fight took place at the Palace led to it becoming colloquially referred to as the "Malice at the Palace" and the "Basketbrawl". The Palace was the site of a brawl between the WNBA's Shock and Sparks on July 21, 2008.
Aerosmith played the venue 14 times from 1990-2012. Michael Jackson performed three sold-out shows during his Bad World Tour on October 24-26, 1988. Pink Floyd performed there on 16 and 17 August 1988 as part of their A Momentary Lapse of Reason Tour. U2 performed at The Palace on 27 March 1992 on the first leg of their Zoo TV Tour. During the performance, Bono called a local pizza bar from the stage and ordered 10,000 pizzas for the crowd in attendance. 100 pizzas were delivered. Bon Jovi performed during their Keep The Faith