Basti district is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state, a part of Basti Division. Basti town is the district headquarters. In the freedom struggle of 1857, about 250 martyrs of Amorha State were hanged by the British Government from peepal trees located at Chhawani. Basti came from Basisth the great sage ashram situated in this area. Sher Shah Suri made a well and a sarai here and hence receiving the name. In 1801, the town Basti became a tehsil headquarter, in 1865, it was chosen as the headquarters of the newly established Basti district of Gorakhpur Commissionary. Amorha Khas is a historical place situated at a distance of 41 km from the district headquarters, its old name is Amorha, it was once a province of Raja Zalim Singh. Raja Zalim Singh's Mahal is here, old wall of mahal is still there with the mark of a bullet used by the English; the famous temple Ramrekha Mandir is here. Ramrekha Temple is one of the most ancient Hindu Mandir of Goddess Sita. Lord Shri Ram stayed here for one day during his journey of Janakpur-Ayodhya.
Lord Shri Rama and Sita with Lakshmana journeyed towards Ayodhya by the road called Ram Janki Marg near Chhawani. The district lies between the parallels of 26° 23' and 27° 30' North Latitude and 82° 17' and 83° 20' East longitude, its maximum length from north to south is about 75 km. and breadth from east to west about 70 km. The district lies between newly created district Sant Kabir Nagar on the east and Gonda on the west on the south, the Ghaghra river near Amorha Khas known as Amorha Province or State of Raja Zalim Singh separates it from the Faizabad and newly created district Ambedkar Nagar. On the north it is bounded by district Sidharth Nagar. According to the 2011 census, Basti district had a population of 2,464,464, of which only 5.6% lived in urban areas. This ranked it the 178th most populous district in India; the district had a population density of 917 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 18.21%. Basti had a sex ratio of 963 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 67.22%.
The child sex ratio of Basti was 922 females for every 1000 males. Languages spoken in the district include Bhojpuri in the eastern side; the district Basti may be considered as the demarcation of the languages Hindi. In city, due to increase in educated population, khari boli of Hindi is observed in daily conversations. During the late 1800s some 6,415 people from the district of Basti migrated through the indenture system to the Fiji Islands. A lot stayed and carried their traditions in the British Colony; the district follows a usual 10+2+3 pattern of education as elsewhere in India. Some notable schools and institutions of the district are: Kendriya Vidyalaya Sarla International Academy St. Basils School Basti town is the district headquarters of the district. Basti district, a part of Basti division, is formed of four tehsils: Basti, Harriya and Rudhauli, 15 development blocks, 139 Nyay Panchayats, two Parganas named Amorha & Nagar as well as 10 Gram Sabhas; the development blocks included are: Amorha Nagar Basti Bahadurpur Bankati Dubauliya Gaur Harraiya Kaptanganj Kudaraha Paras Rampur Ramnagar Rudhauli Saltaua Gopal Pur Sau Ghat Shubham Nagar Vikram Jot The district is noted for its cotton textiles and sugar industries.
Cottage industries and small-scale industries including the manufacturing units of brassware and carpentry goods, agricultural implements, agro-products, foot-wear, soaps and pottery are present here. Basti is known for its bamboo, eucalyptus and shisham populations. Three sugar factories are housed in the district. Sugarcane, paddy, wheat and potato are cultivated; the most of the population is depending for their livelihood on agricultural practices. The district is well connected through NH 28; the city is well connected through railways also. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Basti one of the country's 250 most backward districts, it is one of the 34 districts in Uttar Pradesh receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. City is known for nationwide youth organisation National Association of Youth founded by Bhavesh Kumar Pandey and run from Basti; the organization organizes Basti Mini Marathon every year since 2012. Basti railway station lies on the main line connecting Lucknow with Gorakhpur and places in Bihar and Assam in the east passes through the south of the district.
The main line has 7 railway stations which are, from east to west, Orwara, Govindnagar, Tinich and Babhnan within the district. There is a daily Intercity express between Gorakhpur, Basti and Lucknow. National Highway 28, a part of the East West Corridor project of Government of India and NHAI passes through Basti; the forest cover of the district has dwindled with increasing use of land for agriculture. There are areas with high prevalence of mango, mahua and bamboo trees; some of the wild animals of the district are the nilgai, pig, jackal, hare, wild cat and the porcupine. Several species of game birds are seen, including the peafowl, the black partridge (
Aligarh Muslim University
Aligarh Muslim University is an Indian public central university. It was established by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan as Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College in 1875; the College became Aligarh Muslim University in 1920. The main campus of AMU is located in the city of Aligarh, it has its three off-campus centres at Malappuram and Kishanganj. The university is an Institute of National Importance provided under the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution at its commencement, it was established as Madrasatul Uloom Musalmanan-e-Hind in 1875. The college started on 24 May 1875; the Anglo–Indian statesman Syed Ahmad Khan founded the predecessor of AMU, the Muhammadan Anglo Oriental College, in 1875 having established two schools. The movement of Muslim awakening associated with Syed Ahmad Khan and M. A. O. College came to be known as Aligarh Movement, he considered competence in English and "Western sciences" necessary skills for maintaining Muslims' political influence in Northern India. Khan's image for the college was based on his visit to Oxford and Cambridge and he wanted to establish an education system similar to the British model.
The 7th Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Osman Ali Khan made a donation of Rupees 5 Lakh to the institution in 1918. The Viceroy and Governor General of India Lord Northbrook gave a donation of Rs 10000 and the Lt. Governor of the North-Western Provinces contributed Rs 1000. By March 1874 the fund for the college stood at Rs 153492 and 8 anas. Sri Maharao Raja Mahamdar Singh Mahamder Bahadur, the Maharaja of Patiala contributed Rs.58,000. His Highness the Maharaja of Vizianagaram, K. C. S. I made donations. Shambhu Narayan, Raja of Benaras donated Rs 60. In the beginning, the college was affiliated with the University of Calcutta for the matriculate examination but became an affiliate of Allahabad University in 1885. In 1877, the school was raised to the college level and Lord Lytton laid the foundation stone of the college building. Around 1900, efforts began to make the college its own university; the Aligarh Muslim University Act of 1920 made it a central university. Mohammad Ali Mohammad Khan and the Aga Khan III collected funds for building the Aligarh Muslim UniversityIn 1927, a school for the blind was established by Sahibzada Aftab Ahmad Khan and, the following year, a medical school was attached to the university.
By the end of the 1930s, the university had developed an Engineering faculty. Syed Zafarul Hasan, joined the Aligarh Muslim University in early 1900s as head of Philosophy Department, dean Faculty of Arts. Women's education started at the university with the establishment of the Girls School on 19 October 1906; the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference had started a movement to establish girls education from 1896. The school became intermediate college in 1929 and on 1930 it was made a constituent college of the university and the name was changed to Women's College. In late 2014 the university's vice-chancellor Zameer Uddin Shah turned down a demand by female students of the college to be allowed to use the Maulana Azad Library, male-only. Shah stated that the issue was not one of discipline, but of space as if girls were allowed in the library there would be "four times more boys," putting a strain on the library's capacity. Although there was a separate library for the university's Women's College, it was not as well-stocked as the Maulana Azad Library.
National human resource and development minister Smriti Irani decried Shah's defense as "an insult to daughters."Responding to a petition filed by a Human Rights Law Network intern, the Allahabad High Court ruled in November 2014 that the university's ban on female students from using the main library was unconstitutional, that accommodations must be made to facilitate student use regardless of gender. The High Court gave the university until 24 November 2014 to comply. Aligarh Muslim University claims itself as a minority institute guaranteed under Article 29 and 30 of the Constitution of India. However, Allahabad High Court has struck down provisions of Aligarh Muslim University Act stating that AMU is not a minority institution. In April 2016, the Indian government advised the court; the university's formal head is the Chancellor, though this is a titular figure, not involved with the day-to-day running of the university. The Chancellor is elected by the members of University Court, a body with members drawn from all walks of life.
The university's chief executive is the Vice-Chancellor, appointed by the President of India on the recommendation of the Court. The Court is the supreme governing body of the University and exercises all the powers of the University, not otherwise provided for by the Aligarh Muslim University Act, the Statutes, the Ordinances and the Regulations of the University. On 11 April 2015, Mufaddal Saifuddin was elected Chancellor and Ibne Saeed Khan, the former Nawab of Chhatari state, Pro-Chancellor. Habibur Rahman, former vice chancellor of Agra University, was elected Honorary Treasurer. On May 17, 2017, Tariq Mansoor assumed office as 39th Vice-Chancellor of the university. Aligarh Muslim University is a residential university with 13 faculties, 7 constituent colleges, 15 centres, 3 institutes, 10 schools; the university opened faculty of International Studies. AMU was ranked 801-1000 in the QS World University Rankings of 2018; the same rankings ranked it 238 in 161-170 among BRICS nations. It was ranked 601-800 in the world by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings of 2018, 158 in Asia and 157 among BRICS & Emerging Economies in 2017.
It was ranked 17 in India overall by the National Institutional Ranking Framework in 2018, 10th among universities and 49 in the management ranking. Amon
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Asha Bhosle, is an Indian playback singer. She is best known for her playback singing in Hindi cinema. Bhosle's career has spanned over six decades, she has done playback singing for over a thousand Bollywood movies. In addition, she has recorded several private albums and participated in numerous solo concerts in India and abroad. Bhosle is the sister of playback singer Lata Mangeshkar. Renowned for her voice range and credited for her versatility, Bhosle's work includes film music, ghazals, traditional Indian classical music, folk songs and Rabindra Sangeets. Apart from Hindi, she has sung in over 20 Indian and foreign languages. In 2006, Asha Bhosle stated that she had sung over 12,000 songs, a figure repeated by several other sources. In 2011, she was acknowledged by the Guinness Book of World Records as the most recorded artist in music history; the Government of India honoured her with the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 2000 and the Padma Vibhushan in 2008. In 2013, she made her debut as an actress in the film Mai, received critical acclaim for her performance.
Asha Bhosle was born in the small hamlet of Goar in Sangli in the salute princely state of Sangli, into the musical family of Master Deenanath Mangeshkar, who belongs to the Marathi-speaking Gomantak Maratha Samaj. Her father was an actor and classical singer on Marathi Musical stage; when she was nine years old, her father died. The family moved from Pune to Kolhapur and to Mumbai, she and her elder sister Lata Mangeshkar began acting in films to support their family. She sang her first film song'"Chala Chala Nav Bala" for the Marathi film Majha Bal; the music for the film was composed by Datta Davjekar. She made her Hindi film debut, her first solo Hindi film song was for the movie Raat Ki Raani. At the age of 16, she eloped with 31-year-old Ganpatrao Bhosle, marrying him against her family's wishes. In the early 1960s, prominent playback singers like Geeta Dutt, Shamshad Begum, Lata Mangeshkar dominated the singing for the female lead and the big films. Asha used to get the assignments they refused: singing for the bad girls and vamps, or songs in the second-grade movies.
In the 1950s, she sang more songs than most playback singers in Bollywood. Most of these were in low budget B- or C-grade films, her earliest songs were composed by A R Qureshi, Sajjad Hussain, Ghulam Mohammed, most of these songs failed to do well. Singing in Sangdil, composed by Sajjad Hussain, she got reasonable recognition. Film director Bimal Roy gave her a chance to sing in Parineeta. Raj Kapoor signed her to sing "Nanhe Munne Bachche" with Mohammed Rafi in Boot Polish, which gained popularity. O. P. Nayyar gave Asha a break in CID, she first achieved success in B. R. Chopra's Naya Daur, composed by him, her duets with Rafi like "Maang Ke Saath Tumhara", "Saathi Haath Badhana" and "Uden Jab Jab Zulfein Teri", penned by Sahir Ludhianvi, earned her recognition. It was the first time. Chopra approached her for several of his productions, including Gumrah, Hamraaz, Aadmi Aur Insaan and Dhund. Nayyar's future collaboration with Bhosle resulted in success, she established her status and received the patronage of such composers as Sachin Dev Burman and Ravi.
Bhosle and Nayyar had a personal parting of ways in the 1970s. In 1966, Bhosle's performances in the duets from one of music director R. D. Burman's first soundtracks, for the movie Teesri Manzil, won popular acclaim; when she first heard the dance number "Aaja Aaja", she felt she would not be able to sing this westernised tune. While Burman offered to change the music, she refused, she completed the song after ten days of rehearsals, "Aaja Aaja", along with such other songs as "O Haseena Zulfonwali" and "O Mere Sona Re", became successful. Shammi Kapoor, the film's leading actor, was once quoted as saying– "If I did not have Mohammad Rafi to sing for me, I would have got Asha Bhosle to do the job". Bhosle's collaboration with Burman resulted in a marriage. During the 1960-70s, she was the voice of Bollywood's actress and dancer, Helen, on whom "O Haseena Zulfon Wali" was picturised, it is said that Helen would attend her recording sessions so that she could understand the song better and plan dance steps accordingly.
Some of their other popular numbers include "Piya Tu Ab To Aaja" and "Yeh Mera Dil", among others. By the 1980s, although regarded for her abilities and versatility, had sometimes been stereotyped as a "cabaret singer" and a "pop crooner". In 1981 she attempted a different genre by singing several ghazals for the Rekha-starrer Umrao Jaan, including "Dil Cheez Kya Hai", "In Aankhon Ki Masti Ke", "Yeh Kya Jagah Hai Doston" and "Justaju Jiski Thi"; the film's music director Khayyam, had lowered her pitch by half a note. Bhosle herself expressed surprise; the ghazals won her the first National Film Award of her career. A few years she won another National Award for the song "Mera Kuchh Saamaan" from Ijaazat. In 1995, 62-year-old Bhosle sang for actress Urmila Matondkar in the movie Rangeela; the soundtrack featured songs like "Tanha Tanha" and "Rangeela Re" sung by her, composed by music director A. R. Rahman, who would go on to record several songs with her. During the 2000s, several of Bhosle's numbers became chartbusters, including "Radha Kaise Na Jale" from Lagaan, "Kambakht
Clare Hall, Cambridge
Clare Hall is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. Founded in 1966 by Clare College, Clare Hall is a college for advanced study, admitting only postgraduate students alongside postdoctoral researchers and fellows, it was established to serve as an Institute of Advanced Studies and has grown and developed into a full constituent college. Clare Hall is one of the smallest colleges with 200 graduate students, but around 125 Fellows, making it the highest Fellow to Student ratio at Cambridge University. Clare Hall maintains many Cambridge traditions including the tutorial system. Clare Hall was founded by Clare College as a centre for advanced study, but was intended to become a social group of men and women with their families that would include graduate students studying for higher degrees in the university, research fellows working at post-doctoral level, permanent fellows holding faculty or research posts in the university, visiting fellows on leave from universities around the world.
After Clare College decided to establish this new centre in January 1964, the initial planning was carried through by a small group of fellows of the college chaired by the Master, Sir Eric Ashby. It was soon agreed that the new centre would be called Clare Hall, the ancient name by which the college itself had been known for more than five hundred years until the mid-19th century. Clare Hall maintains close ties with Clare College, sharing annual events; the Institute of Advanced Studies at the University of Bologna is so far the only institution abroad explicitly modelled upon Clare Hall. The architect Ralph Erskine was appointed to design the buildings for Clare Hall, which were to include common rooms and dining facilities, a house for the President, twenty apartments for visiting fellows. A neighbouring house, Elmside in Grange Road, provided rooms for the small number of graduate students. Sir Eric Ashby Master of Clare College and Vice-Chancellor of the University, formally opened Clare Hall in September 1969.
Brian Pippard, the first President of Clare Hall, had moved into the President's house with his family, twelve research students were living on the college site in Elmside and a number of visiting fellows with their families were living in the newly built college apartments. Among the early visiting fellows was Ivar Giaever, awarded a Nobel Prize for Physics in 1973. Joseph Brodsky, a visiting fellow and poet in residence at Clare Hall in 1977, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1987. William Nordhaus, a visiting fellow in 1970, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Economics in 2018. Other facilities in the college grounds include a sports complex with a multi-gym and swimming pool and an adjacent tennis court, it has a dining room, used for Formal Hall. The university athletics track is a short run from the main college buildings. In 1978 a second neighbouring house, now called Leslie Barnett House, was obtained for graduate student accommodation; this purchase allowed the Michael Stoker and Brian Pippard Buildings to be built in the college grounds, providing further student rooms.
The Anthony Low Building in the garden of Elmside was completed in 2000, providing further common rooms and the Garden Bar for the graduates on the main college site. In the summer of 1996, the college purchased a substantial property the Cambridge family home of Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild, about five minutes' walk from the college at the western end of Herschel Road, it was renamed Clare Hall West Court and, after conversion and some major building works, now provides public rooms, apartments, study bedrooms, a fitness centre and a swimming pool. Unlike other colleges in the university, Clare Hall does not have a High Table at meals or a Senior Common Room, it is a single society for all social functions and in the use of the various college common rooms and other facilities; this encourages interaction between graduate students, distinguished visiting fellows and other senior members, aided by the wide variety of national backgrounds and research interests of the members. The interaction between members of Clare Hall is encouraged by college seminars, lunchtime discussions and formal lecture series.
The latter includes the annual series of lectures relating to human values, given by a distinguished international scholar and sponsored by the Tanner Foundation. They include the annual Ashby lecture, given by a visiting fellow, the more frequent ASH seminar that were initiated by some of the visiting life members. Other events include art exhibitions and small concerts which supplement the wealth of music available in the university; the President's term of office is fixed at seven years. Previous presidents include, Brian Pippard, Robert Honeycombe, Goldsmiths Professor and Head of the Department of Metallurgy. In February 2013, it was announced that David Ibbetson, Regius Professor of Civil Law would succeed Harris after the summer; the late Lord Ashby was elected as the first honorary fellow of Clare Hall in 1975, on his retirement from the Mastership of Clare College. Present honorary fellows include two former visitin
Homi J. Bhabha
Homi Jehangir Bhabha was an Indian nuclear physicist, founding director, professor of physics at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. Colloquially known as "father of the Indian nuclear programme", Bhabha was the founding director of the Atomic Energy Establishment, Trombay, now named the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in his honor. TIFR and AEET were the cornerstone of Indian development of nuclear weapons which Bhabha supervised as director. Bhabha was awarded the Adams Padma Bhushan, he was nominated for the Nobel Prize for Physics in the years 1951 and 1953–1956. Homi Jehangir Bhabha was born into a wealthy and prominent industrial family, through which he was related to businessmen Dinshaw Maneckji Petit, Dorabji Tata, he was born on 30 October 1909, in an illustrious family with a long tradition of learning and service to the country. His father was Jehangir Hormusji Bhabha, a well known Parsi lawyer and his mother was Meheren, he received his early studies at Bombay's Cathedral and John Connon School and entered Elphinstone College at age 15 after passing his Senior Cambridge Examination with Honors.
He attended the Royal Institute of Science in 1927 before joining Caius College of Cambridge University. This was due to the insistence of his father and his uncle Dorab Tata, who planned for Bhabha to obtain a degree in mechanical engineering from Cambridge and return to India, where he would join the Tata Steel or Tata Steel Mills in Jamshedpur as a metallurgist. Bhabha's father understood his son's predicament, he agreed to finance his studies in mathematics provided that he obtain first class on his Mechanical Sciences Tripos exam. Bhabha passed with first class. Afterwards, he excelled in his mathematical studies under Paul Dirac to complete the Mathematics Tripos. Meanwhile, he worked at the Cavendish Laboratory while working towards his doctorate in theoretical physics. At the time, the laboratory was the center of a number of scientific breakthroughs. James Chadwick had discovered the neutron, John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton transmuted lithium with high-energy protons, Patrick Blackett and Giuseppe Occhialini used cloud chambers to demonstrate the production of electron pairs and showers by gamma radiation.
During the 1931–1932 academic year, Bhabha was awarded the Salomons Studentship in Engineering. In 1932, he obtained first class on his Mathematical Tripos and was awarded the Rouse Ball traveling studentship in mathematics. During this time, nuclear physics was attracting the greatest minds and it was one of the most emerging fields as compared to theoretical physics, the opposition towards theoretical physics attacked the field because it was lenient towards theories rather than proving natural phenomenon through experiments. Conducting experiments on particles which released enormous amounts of radiation, was a lifelong passion of Bhabha, his leading edge research and experiments brought great laurels to Indian physicists who switched their fields to nuclear physics, one of the most notable being Piara Singh Gill. In January 1933, Bhabha received his doctorate in nuclear physics after publishing his first scientific paper, "The Absorption of Cosmic radiation". In the publication, Bhabha offered an explanation of the absorption features and electron shower production in cosmic rays.
The paper helped him win the Isaac Newton Studentship in 1934, which he held for the next three years. The following year, he completed his doctoral studies in theoretical physics under Ralph H. Fowler. During his studentship, he split his time working with Niels Bohr in Copenhagen. In 1935, Bhabha published a paper in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series A, in which he performed the first calculation to determine the cross section of electron-positron scattering. Electron-positron scattering was named Bhabha scattering, in honor of his contributions in the field. In 1936, with Walter Heitler, he co-authored a paper, "The Passage of Fast Electrons and the Theory of Cosmic Showers" in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series A, in which they used their theory to describe how primary cosmic rays from outer space interact with the upper atmosphere to produce particles observed at the ground level. Bhabha and Heitler made numerical estimates of the number of electrons in the cascade process at different altitudes for different electron initiation energies.
The calculations agreed with the experimental observations of cosmic ray showers made by Bruno Rossi and Pierre Victor Auger a few years before. Bhabha concluded that observations of the properties of such particles would lead to the straightforward experimental verification of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity. In 1937, Bhabha was awarded the Senior Studentship of the 1851 exhibition, which helped him continue his work at Cambridge until the outbreak of World War II in 1939. In September 1939, Bhabha was in India for a brief holiday when World War II started, he decided not to return to England for the time being, he accepted an offer to serve as the Reader in the Physics Department of the Indian Institute of Science headed by renowned physicist C. V. Raman, he received a special research grant from the Sir Dorab Tata Trust, which he used to establish the Cosmic Ray Research Unit at the Institute. Bhabha selected a few students, including Harish-Chandra. On 20 March 1941, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
With the help of J. R. D. Tata, he played an instrumental role in the establishment of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai. Starting his nuclear physics career in Britain, Bhabha had returned to India for his annual vacation bef
Nandalal Bose was one of the pioneers of modern Indian art and a key figure of Contextual Modernism. A pupil of Abanindranath Tagore, Bose was known for his "Indian style" of painting, he became the principal of Kala Bhavan, Santiniketan in 1922. He was influenced by the murals of Ajanta. Today, many critics consider his paintings among India's most important modern paintings. In 1976, the Archaeological Survey of India, Department of Culture, Govt. of India declared his works among the "nine artists" whose work, "not being antiquities", were to be henceforth considered "to be art treasures, having regard to their artistic and aesthetic value". He was given the work of illustrating the constitution of India. Nandalal Bose was born on 3 December 1882 in a middle-class Bengali family of Kharagpur, in Munger district of Bihar state, his father, Purna Chandra Bose, was at that time working in the Darbhanga Estate. His mother Khetramoni Devi was a housewife with a skill in improvising toys and dolls for young Nandalal.
From his early days Nandalal began taking an interest in modelling images and decorating Puja pandals. In 1898, at the age of fifteen, Nandalal moved to Calcutta for his high school studies in the Central Collegiate School. After clearing his examinations in 1902, he continued his college studies at the same institution. In June 1903 he married the daughter of a family friend. Nanadalal wanted to study art. Unable to qualify for promotion in his classes, Nandalal moved to other colleges, joining the Presidency College in 1905 to study commerce. After repeated failures, he persuaded his family to let him study art at Calcutta's School of Art; as a young artist, Nandalal Bose was influenced by the murals of the Ajanta Caves. He had become part of an international circle of artists and writers seeking to revive classical Indian culture. To mark the 1930 occasion of Mahatma Gandhi's arrest for protesting the British tax on salt, Bose created a black on white linocut print of Gandhi walking with a staff.
It became the iconic image for the non-violence movement. His genius and original style were recognised by famous artists and art critics like Gaganendranath Tagore, Ananda Coomaraswamy and O. C. Ganguli; these lovers of art felt that objective criticism was necessary for the development of painting and founded the Indian Society of Oriental Art. He became principal of the Kala Bhavana at Tagore's International University Santiniketan in 1922, he was famously asked by Jawaharlal Nehru to sketch the emblems for the Government of India's awards, including the Bharat Ratna and the Padma Shri. Along with his disciple Rammanohar, Nandalal Bose took up the historic task of beautifying/decorating the original manuscript of the Constitution of India, he died on 16 April 1966 in Calcutta. Today, the National Gallery of Modern Art in Delhi holds 7000 of his works in its collection, including a 1930 black and white linocut of the Dandi March depicting Mahatma Gandhi, a set of seven posters he made at the request of Mahatma Gandhi for the 1938 Haripura Session of the Indian National Congress.
In his introduction for the Christie's catalogue, R. Siva Kumar wrote- Nandalal Bose occupies a place in the history of Modern Indian art that combines those of Raphael and Durer in the history of the Renaissance. Like Raphael Nandalal was a great synthesizer, his originality lay in his ability to marshal discrete ideas drawn from Abanindranath Tagore, Rabindranath Tagore, E. B. Havell, Ananda Coomaraswamy, Okakura Kakuzo and Mahatma Gandhi into a unique and unified programme for the creation of a new art movement in India, and like Durer he combined a passion bordering on devotion with an irrepressible analytical mind that compelled him to prise open different art traditions and unravel their syntactic logic, make them accessible to a new generation of Indian artists. But he did this so and without self-assertive fanfare that the significance of his work is yet to be grasped in India; some of his students were Benode Behari Mukherjee, Ramkinkar Baij, Beohar Rammanohar Sinha, K. G. Subramanyan, A. Ramachandran, Henry Dharmasena, Pratima Thakur, Ramananda Bandopadhyay, Sovon Som, Jahar Dasgupta, Sabita Thakur, Menaja Swagnesh, Yash Bombbut, Satyajit Ray, Dinkar K Kowshik, Amritlal Vegad, Gauranga Charan and Kondapalli Seshagiri Rao.
A. D. Jayathilake was one of his student from Ceylon and had the opportunity to study under Dr. Nandalal Bose in the final batch. Dr. Nandalal Bose's uniquely drawn two paintings. Nandalal Bose, who left a major imprint on Indian art, was the first recipient of a scholarship offered by the Indian Society of Oriental Art, founded in 1907. In 1956, he became the second artist to be elected Fellow of the Lalit Kala Akademi, India's National Academy of Art. In 1954, Nandalal Bose was awarded the Padma Vibhushan. In 1957, the University of Calcutta conferred honorary D. Litt on him. Vishvabharati University honoured him by conferring on him the title of'Deshikottama'; the Academy of Fine Arts in Calcutta honoured Nandalal with the Silver Jubilee Medal. The Tagore Birth Centenary Medal was awarded to Nandalal Bose in 1965 by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Nandalal Bose and Indian painting, by Ramyansu Sekhar Das. Tower Publishers, 1958. Nandalal Bose