The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht was the High Command of the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany. Created in 1938, the OKW replaced the Reich War Ministry and had nominal oversight over the German Army, the Kriegsmarine, the Luftwaffe. Rivalry with the armed services branch commands with the Army High Command, prevented the OKW from becoming a unified German General Staff in an effective chain of command, it did help coordinate operations between the three services. During the war, the OKW, subordinate to Adolf Hitler as Supreme Commander of the Wehrmacht, acquired more and more operational powers. By 1942, OKW had responsibility for all theatres except for the Eastern Front against the Soviet Union. However, Hitler manipulated the system in order to prevent any one command from taking a dominant role in decision making; this "divide and conquer" method helped put most military decisions in Hitler's own hands, which at times included those affecting engagements at the battalion level. The OKW was established by decree of 4 February 1938 in the aftermath of the Blomberg-Fritsch Affair, which had led to the dismissal of the head of the Reich War Ministry and Commander-in-chief of the Wehrmacht, Generalfeldmarschall Werner von Blomberg.
Hitler took the chance to get rid of his critics within the armed forces. The Ministry was dissolved and replaced with the OKW led by General Wilhelm Keitel in the rank of a Reich Minister, with Alfred Jodl as Chief of the Operations Staff. All Supreme Commanders of the armed service branches, like OKH Chief General Walther von Brauchitsch, had direct access to Hitler and were able to circumvent Keitel's command; the appointments made to the OKW and the motive behind the reorganization are thought to be Hitler's desire to consolidate power and authority around his position as Führer and Reich Chancellor, to the detriment of the military leadership of the Wehrmacht. Furthermore, Hitler did not want to create a tri-service joint command, or appointment of a single joint Chief of Staff, as he feared it would break his image of having the "Midas touch" concerning military strategy. By June 1938, the OKW comprised four departments: Wehrmacht-Führungsamt – operational orders. Chief: Colonel-General Alfred Jodl, 1 September 1939 – 8 May 1945 Abteilung Landesverteidigungsführungsamt a subdepartment through which all details of operational planning were worked out, from which all operational orders were communicated to the OKW.
Chief: Major General Walter Warlimont, 1 September 1939 – 6 September 1944. Commanded by General Hasso von Wedel, the department oversaw the numerous propaganda companies of the Wehrmacht and the Waffen-SS, attached to the fighting troops. At its peak in 1942, the propaganda troops included 15,000 men. Among the propaganda materials produced was the Wehrmachtbericht, the official news communiqué about the military situation of Germany, was intended for both domestic and foreign consumption. Heeresstab – army staff. Chief: General Walther Buhle, 15 February 1942 – 8 May 1945 Inspekteur der Wehrmachtnachrichtenverbände – Chief of Staff, Wehrmacht signal corps Amt Ausland/Abwehr – foreign intelligence. Zentralabteilung – central department. Chief: Major General Hans Oster, 1 September 1939 – January 1944 Abteilung Ausland – foreign. Chief: Admiral Leopold Bürkner, 15 June 1938 - Abteilung I, Nachrichtenbeschaffung – intelligence. Chief: Colonel Hans Piepenbrock, 1 September 1939 – March 1943. Chief: Colonel Erwin von Lahousen, 1 September 1939 – July 1943.
Chief: Colonel Franz Eccard von Bentivegni, 1 March 1941 - Auslandsprüfstelle – foreign communications Wirtschafts und Rüstungsamt – supply matters Amtsgruppe Allgemeine Wehrmachtsangelegenheiten – miscellaneous matters. Deutsche Dienststelle – information centre for war casualties and prisoners of warThe WFA replaced the Wehrmachtsamt which had existed between 1935 and 1938 within the Reich War Ministry, headed by General Wilhelm Keitel. Hitler promoted Keitel to Chief of the OKW, i.e. Chief of the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces; as head of the WFA, Keitel appointed Max von Viebahn although after two months he was removed from command, this post was not refilled until the promotion of Alfred Jodl. To replace Jodl at Abteilung Landesverteidigungsführungsamt, Walther Warlimont was appointed. In December 1941 further changes took place with Abteilung Landesverteidigungsführungsamt being merged into the Wehrmacht-Führungsamt and losing its role as a subordinate organization; these changes were cosmetic however as key staff remained in post and continued to fulfill the same duties.
The OKW directed the operations of the German Armed Forces during World War II. The OKW was always represented at daily situation conferences by Jodl and the officer serving as Hitler's adjutant. During these conferences situation reports prepared by the head of WFA/L would be delivered to Hitler and discussed. Following these discussions, Hitler would issue further operational orders; these orders were relayed back to WFA/L by Jodl along w
The Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission is a future satellite jointly developed by NASA and CNES, the French space agency, in partnership with the Canadian Space Agency and UK Space Agency. The objectives of the mission are to make the first global survey of the Earth's surface water, to observe the fine details of the ocean surface topography, to measure how terrestrial surface water bodies change over time. While past satellite missions like the Jason series altimeters have provided variation in river and lake water surface elevations at select locations, SWOT will provide the first global observations of changing water levels and inundation extents in rivers and floodplains. In the world's oceans, SWOT will observe ocean circulation at unprecedented scales of 15-25 km an order of magnitude finer than current satellites; because it uses wide-swath altimetry technology, SWOT will completely observe the world's oceans and freshwater bodies with repeated high-resolution elevation measurements, allowing observations of variations.
SWOT builds on a long-standing partnership between NASA and CNES to measure the surface of the ocean using radar altimetry. This partnership began with the TOPEX/Poseidon mission, continued with the Jason series. SWOT brings together the hydrology and oceanography communities, will extend the precise, high-resolution surface topography observations into the coastal and estuarine regions; the mission's science goals are to: Provide sea surface heights and terrestrial water heights over a 120-kilometer wide swath with a ±10-kilometer gap at the nadir track. Over the deep oceans, provide sea surface heights within each swath with a posting every two x two kilometers, a precision not to exceed 2.7 cm at 1 x 1 km, or 1.35 cm at 2 x 2 km when averaged over the area. Over land, download the raw data for ground processing and produce a water mask able to resolve 100-meter wide rivers and lakes and reservoirs. Associated with this mask will be water level elevations with an accuracy of 10 cm for water bodies whose non-vegetated surface area exceeds 1 km2.
The slope accuracy is 1.7 cm/km over a maximum 10 km of flow distance. The satellite will overfly Earth from 78° S to 78° N, covering at least 90% of the globe. SWOT is designed for the study and monitoring of inland waters and the oceans, such as: The sharing of river water causes friction between neighboring states when there is no common technology for verification. SWOT will provide global information as input for systems monitoring transboundary river basins, including measurements of variations in reservoir water storage and estimates of river discharge. SWOT will enable more accurate weather and climate forecasting seasonally; the quality of weather and climate forecasting depends on numerical modeling that uses the state of the ocean surface and the hydrological conditions of catchment areas in their initial and boundary conditions. Accurate knowledge of sources of available water is a key factor in decision-making for organizations involved in the distribution of water for agricultural and industrial needs.
Data from SWOT will contribute at a global level by providing water supply services and distribution companies with information about major reservoirs and the largest rivers and catchment areas, thus enabling them to plan the management of water stocks further into the future. Flooding, whether from rivers overflowing their banks or in coastal regions, is among the most costly natural disasters. Altimetry data from the SWOT mission will make it possible to measure the 3-dimensional shape of flood waves, track floodwater levels, improve measurements of local topographic details in floodplains. All of these will improve prediction capabilities for future floods. Coastal ocean dynamics are important for many societal applications, they have smaller spatial and temporal scales than the dynamics of the open ocean and require finer-scale monitoring. SWOT will provide global, high-resolution observations in coastal regions for observing coastal currents and storm surges. While SWOT is not designed to monitor the fast temporal changes of the coastal processes, the swath coverage will allow us to characterize the spatial structure of their dynamics when they occur within the swath.
More SWOT will help improve our knowledge of Earth's water cycle and ocean circulation, enhance our observation capacity by collecting unique data on water storage and fluxes and making them available, help us better understand the physics that drives surface water and ocean dynamics. Water resources, natural risks, health, the agricultural sector, territorial development; the primary instrument on SWOT is the Ka-band Radar Interferometer, which uses radar interferometry and synthetic aperture technology. Because SWOT operates at short wavelengths and at near-nadir incidence angles, it is designed to be uniquely appropriate for measuring water surface elevations and inundation extents; the satellite will fly two radar antennae at either end of a 10-meter mast, allowing it to measure the elevation of the surface across a 120 km wide swath. The new radar system is smaller but similar to the one that flew on NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which made high-resolution measurements of Earth's land surface in 2000.
A conventional nadir altimeter will be flo
Lingzhao Xincun is a station on Line 8 of the Shanghai Metro. This station is part of the southern extension of Line 8 and opened on July 5, 2009, it is located in Shanghai's Pudong New Area. 上海市城市规划管理局－建设用地规划许可证－凌兆路站 上海市城市规划管理局－建设工程竣工规划验收合格证－凌兆新村站 东方网上海频道 - 浦东轨交"新四线"2009年底全建成 动迁已基本完成 文新传媒：轨交8号线还要往南延伸到航天公园站
Massimiliano Esposito, is an Italian beach soccer player and coach, a former professional footballer, who played as a playmaking midfielder or as a creative forward. Born in Naples, Esposito started his professional career in Catanzaro in Serie C2, where he was a promising midfielder in the early 1990s; when Reggiana was promoted to Serie A in 1993, they signed Esposito as the team's playmaker, who went on to make his Serie A debut with the club. During his two years in Reggio Emilia, Esposito was one of the clubs' key players, helping to save the club from relegation to Serie B in 1994, although he was unable to prevent the club from being relegated the following season. In the summer of 1995, one of the Italian giants of the time, signed Esposito, he spent one season at the Roman club, but could not earn himself a regular spot in the starting XI, due to heavy competition from players such as Aron Winter and Roberto Di Matteo, for the first time in his career. He was subsequently sold to his hometown club Napoli, where he performed decently during the 1996–97 season, before unexpectedly being sold to Hellas Verona in the midst of the league campaign.
Following his time in Serie B with Verona, he returned to Napoli the following season, although the club had been relegated in 1998. Esposito's second foray at Napoli in Serie B did not result in a promotion, he left for Serie A club Perugia at the end of the season. In the three coming years following his time with Perugia, Esposito spent his last years in Serie A as a player, with Brescia, playing alongside Roberto Baggio, Chievo. Before rounding off his career with several amateur clubs between 2007 and 2012, he played for three Serie B sides between 2002 and 2007: Ternana and Triestina. Following his Esposito's retirement from professional football, he worked as a coach, became a stalwart in the Italian beach soccer national team. Italian WikipediaTuttocalciatori.net Massimiliano Esposito at WorldFootball.net
Dr. Paul Mooney was appointed President of National College of Ireland, based in North Wall, Dublin, in February 2007, he holds a Ph. D, a Graduate Diploma, a National Diploma in Industrial Relations and is a Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Mooney began his working life as a butcher in Dublin. After completing a formal apprenticeship, he moved into production management, he subsequently joined General Electric and held a number of responsible Human Resource positions in manufacturing. After G. E, Mooney worked with Sterling Drug in the start-up of their successful plant in Waterford. Subsequently, as Human Resource Director for the Pacific Rim, he had responsibility for all personnel activity in South East Asia. On his return to Ireland, Mooney established PMA Consulting, a specialised organisation and management development consultancy. Mooney is the author of eight books. One, the "Badger Ruse", is a crime thriller set in Dublin, while the others cover a wide range of topics in the HR area.
The books include: Developing the high performance organisation best practice for managers, ISBN 1-86076-019-8, Published in 1996, Oak Tree Press Developing the High Organisation, Publication Date: 1996 The Effective Consultant, ISBN 978-1-86076-121-8, Publisher: Oak Tree Press Keeping Your Best Staff: The Human Resources Challenge in a Competitive Environment, ISBN 978-1-86076-154-6, Publication Date: 1999, Abebooks.co.uk Turbo-charging the HR Function, ISBN 978-0-85292-896-7, Publication Date: 01 Feb, 2001, Easons Union-Free: Creating a Committed and Productive Workforce, Publication Date: 2005, The Liffey Press The Badger Ruse, ISBN 978-1-4120-2897-4, Publisher: Trafford Publishing, Amazon Desperate Executives, ISBN 978-1-905785-39-1, Publication Date: 2008,The Liffey Press National College of Ireland website
Svečina is a settlement in the western Slovene Hills north of Plač in the Municipality of Kungota in northeastern Slovenia. Svečina was attested in historical sources as Wetschin and Wetsine in 1197. Locally, the settlement is known as Svičina; the name may be derived from the common noun *věťe'council', with the initial s- by association with the related word svet'advice'. In the past it was known as Witschein in German. There is a manor house in the settlement, its foundations date to the 12th century, but the current building is late Renaissance, dating to 1629 with a square floor plan and four corner turrets. It was built by the monks of St. Lambrecht's Abbey in Austria. Since 1936 it has been a secondary school, now belonging to the Agricultural College from Maribor. Notable people that were born or lived in Svečina include: Andreas Perlach, court astrologer and chancellor of the University of Vienna Svečina on Geopedia