Charles-Émile Freppel, French bishop and politician, was born at Obernai. He was ordained priest in 1849 and for a short time taught history at the seminary of Strasbourg, where he had received his clerical training. In 1854, he was appointed professor of theology at the Sorbonne, became known as a successful preacher, he went to Rome in 1869, at the instance of Pius IX, to assist in the steps preparatory to the promulgation of the dogma of papal infallibility. He was consecrated bishop of Angers in 1870. During the Franco-German war, Freppel organized a body of priests to minister to the French prisoners in Germany, penned an eloquent protest to the emperor William I. against the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine. In 1880 he continued to represent it until his death. Being the only priest in the Chamber of Deputies since the death of Dupanloup, he became the chief parliamentary champion of the Church, though no orator, was a frequent speaker. On all ecclesiastical affairs Freppel voted with the Royalist and Catholic party, yet on questions in which French colonial prestige was involved, such as the expedition to Tunis, Tong-King, Madagascar, he supported the government of the day.
He always remained a staunch Royalist and went so far as to oppose Leo XIII's policy of conciliating the Republic. He died at Angers on 12 December 1891. Freppel's historical and theological works form 30 vols, the best known of which are: Les Pères apostoliques et leur époque Les Apologistes chrétiens au IIe siècle Saint Irénée et l'éloquence chrétienne dans la Gaule pendant les deux premiers siècles Tertullien Saint Cyprien et l'Eglise d'Afrique Clément d'Alexandrie Origène There are interesting lives by E Cornut and F Charpentier. Listing of the works of Alexandre Falguière This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Freppel, Charles Émile". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 205–206. Catholiques entre monarchie et république: monsieur Freppel en son temps. Publ. sous la responsabilité de Bernard Plongeron. Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1995. ISBN 2-7063-0197-X
René Schickele was a German-French writer and translator. Schickele was born in Obernai, the son of a German vineyard owner and police officer and a French mother, he studied literature, history and philosophy. Together with Otto Flake and Ernst Stadler he published several magazines as well as poetry, his work as a writer is characterized by tension between German culture in Alsace. After the First World War, he moved to Badenweiler, remaining passionately committed to the understanding between Germany and France. In Badenweiler he met Emil Bizer; as early as 1932 he became aware of the risk of being arrested by the Nazis and emigrated to Sanary-sur-Mer in the South of France. He only wrote one book in French Le Retour, expressing his disappointment over the failure of reconciliation between Germany and France and establish his painful decision for the Democratic France, he died of heart failure in Vence a few months before the invasion of the German army. Schickele was the grandfather of the American composer Peter Schickele.
Schickele's most famous work is the novel trilogy Das Erbe am Rhein: Maria Capponi, Blick auf die Vogesen and Der Wolf in der Hürde. Sommernächte. Straßburg 1902. Pan. Sonnenopfer der Jugend. Straßburg 1902. Mon Repos. Berlin, Leipzig 1905. Voltaire u. seine Zeit. Berlin, Leipzig 1905. Der Ritt ins Leben. Stuttgart, Leipzig, 1906. Der Fremde. Berlin 1909. Weiß u. Rot. Berlin, 1910. Meine Freundin Lo. Berlin 1911. Schreie auf dem Boulevard. Berlin 1913. Benkal der Frauentröster. Leipzig 1914. Die Leibwache. Leipzig 1914. Mein Herz mein Land. Leipzig 1915. Das Glück. Rudolstadt 1919. Der neunte November. Berlin 1919. Die Genfer Reise. Berlin 1919 Wir wollen nicht sterben! München 1922. Ein Erbe am Rhein. Berlin 1925. Symphonie für Jazz. Berlin 1925. Blick auf die Vogesen. Berlin 1927. Der Wolf in der Hürde. Berlin 1931 Die Witwe Bosca. Berlin 1933. Liebe und Ärgernis des D. H. Lawrence. 1935 Die Flaschenpost. Amsterdam 1936. Le Retour. 1938. Werke in 3 Bänden, herausgegeben von Hermann Kesten. Köln, Berlin 1959. Überwindung der Grenze.
Essays zur deutsch-französischen Verständigung. Herausgegeben von Adrien Finck. Kehl, Straßburg, Basel 1987. ISBN 3-88571-166-4 Großstadtvolk Jahr: k. A. Friedrich Bentmann: René Schickele. Leben und Werk in Dokumenten. 2. Aufl. Carl-Verlag, Nürnberg 1976, ISBN 3-418-00553-5. Albert M. Debrunner: Freunde es war eine elende Zeit! René Schickele in der Schweiz 1915–1919. Huber, Frauenfeld 2004, ISBN 3-7193-1315-8. Hanns Heinz Ewers, Victor Hadwiger, Erich Mühsam, René Schickele: Führer durch die moderne Literatur. 300 Würdigungen der hervorragendsten Schriftsteller unserer Zeit. Revonnah Verlag, Hannover 2006, ISBN 3-934818-23-4. Jahre des Unmuts. Thomas Manns Briefwechsel mit René Schickele 1930–1940, hrsg. von Hans Wysling und Cornelia Bernini, Vittorio Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 1992, ISBN 978-3-465-02517-7 Annemarie Post-Martens: Rene Schickele. Die blauen Hefte. Edition und Kommentar. Stroemfeld Verlag, Frankfurt/M. 2002, ISBN 3-87877-871-6. Holger Seubert: Deutsch-französische Verständigung: René Schickele.
Verlag Eberhard, München 1993, ISBN 3-926777-32-X. Hans Wagener: Rene Schickele. Europäer in neun Monaten. Bleicher, Gerlingen 2000, ISBN 3-88350-667-2. René Schickele in the German National Library catalogue René Schickele im Zentralen Verzeichnis digitalisierter Drucke "René Schickele". Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. René-Schickele-Gesellschaft René Schickele in Sanary-sur-Me Works by René Schickele at Project Gutenberg Works by or about René Schickele at Internet Archive
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
Klevener de Heiligenstein
Klevener de Heiligenstein known in English by its German name, Heiligensteiner Klevener, is a designation used on Alsace wine made from pink-skinned Savagnin rose grapes, a variety in the Traminer family, but, less aromatic than Gewürztraminer, planted in Alsace. The designation may be allowed for selected vineyards in the villages Bourgheim, Goxwiller and Obernai but, under current appellation rules, the designation may be used until 2021 for specified existing vineyards outside the designation area. Since Savagnin rose is not a permitted variety for other Alsace wines, its replanting outside this area is not allowed. Since most Alsace wines are varietally labeled, it is a common misunderstanding to believe "Klevener de Heiligenstein" to be a local variety. In fact, it is the only geographical designation within the Appellation d'origine contrôlée Alsace; the Savagnin vine was introduced to the Alsace region in 1740 by Erhard Wantz, mayor of the village of Heiligenstein. Ampelographers believe that the cuttings that Wantz brought originated from vineyards planted in the Italian Alps near Chiavenna in Lombardy.
In 1971, the Klevener de Heiligenstein designation was included in the AOC regulations for Alsace. It is not a separate appellation, but rather a designation within Alsace AOC, defined both in terms of the grape variety and location within Alsace; this differs Klevener de Heiligenstein from the other varietal designations of Alsace AOC, which may be used in the entire region. Savagnin rose grape is the only Alsatian grape variety, restricted to a specific subregion of Alsace, i.e. to Heiligenstein and the specified areas of the surrounding villages cited above. The vines of the Savagnin rose variety planted in Alsace bear striking similarities, morphologically, to Gewürztraminer vines and are indistinguishable on inspection. Outside of DNA testing and analysis of the wine that both grapes produce, the only noticeable difference is that just prior to veraison the grapes of Savagnin rose turn translucent while the skins of Gewürztraminer grapes are more opaque. While Gewürztraminer was present in Alsace since the Middle Ages, the 18th century introduction of Savagnin rose did cause some confusion among vineyards as to which variety they had planted.
The most obvious way to distinguish the two was to compare the type of wines that each produces with Gewürztraminer wine being much more aromatic. Until the 1970s, winemakers would label wines of better quality "Gewürztraminer" and wines of lesser quality "Traminer" or "Klevener de Heiligenstein", regardless of the final composition of Gewürztraminer, Savagnin rose and/or Traminer in the wine. In 1973, the names Traminer and Savagnin Rose was discontinued from use on Alsatian wine labels. Due to the significant and early plantings of Savagnin rose in Heiligenstein and the villages around it, the wine style of "Klevener de Heiligenstein" was granted its place however. Klevener de Heiligenstein does have some similarities to wines made from its cousin grape, Gewürztraminer. Both can produce dry wines with a slight spicy flavor that has the potential to age well in favorable vintages, it is less aromatic than Gewürztraminer with lower alcohol levels. Some styles can show a slight buttery flavor.
Outside of exceptional vintages, Klevener de Heiligenstein has delicate fruit flavors that start to fade after 2–4 years. The wine is not to be confused with other wine made from grape varieties named Klevner, such as Pinot blanc which have been called Klevner in Alsace, although this use seems on the decline
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand I was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, king of Croatia from 1527 until his death in 1564. Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, he served as Charles' representative in Germany and developed encouraging relationships with German princes. The key events during his reign were the contest with the Ottoman Empire, which in the 1520s began a great advance into Central Europe, the Protestant Reformation, which resulted in several wars of religion. Ferdinand was able to defend his realm and make it somewhat more cohesive, but he could not conquer the major part of Hungary, his flexible approach to Imperial problems religious brought more result than the more confrontational attitude of his brother. Ferdinand's motto was Fiat iustitia, et pereat mundus: "Let justice be done, though the world perish". Ferdinand was born in Alcalá de Henares, the son of Queen Joanna I of Castile from the House of Trastámara and Habsburg Archduke Philip the Handsome, heir to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Ferdinand shared his customs and his birthday with his maternal grandfather Ferdinand II of Aragon. He was born and educated in Spain, did not learn German when he was young. In the summer of 1518 Ferdinand was sent to Flanders following his brother Charles's arrival in Spain as newly appointed King Charles I the previous autumn. Ferdinand returned in command of his brother's fleet but en route was blown off-course and spent four days in Kinsale in Ireland before reaching his destination. With the death of his grandfather Maximilian I and the accession of his now 19-year-old brother, Charles V, to title of Holy Roman Emperor in 1519, Ferdinand was entrusted with the government of the Austrian hereditary lands modern-day Austria and Slovenia, he was Archduke of Austria from 1521 to 1564. Though he supported his brother, Ferdinand managed to strengthen his own realm. By adopting the German language and culture late in his life, he grew close to the German territorial princes. After the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, Ferdinand ruled as King of Hungary.
Ferdinand served as his brother's deputy in the Holy Roman Empire during his brother's many absences, in 1531 was elected King of the Romans, making him Charles's designated heir in the empire. Charles abdicated in 1556 and Ferdinand adopted the title "Emperor elect" in 1558, while Spain, the Spanish Empire, Sicily, the Netherlands, Franche-Comté went to Philip, son of Charles. According to the terms set at the First Congress of Vienna in 1515, Ferdinand married Anne Jagiellonica, daughter of King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary on 22 July 1515. Both Hungary and Bohemia were elective monarchies, where the parliaments had the sovereign right to decide about the person of the king. Therefore, after the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, King of Bohemia and of Hungary, at the battle of Mohács on 29 August 1526, Ferdinand applied to the parliaments of Hungary and Bohemia to participate as a candidate in the king elections. On 24 October 1526 the Bohemian Diet, acting under the influence of chancellor Adam of Hradce, elected Ferdinand King of Bohemia under conditions of confirming traditional privileges of the estates and moving the Habsburg court to Prague.
The success was only partial, as the Diet refused to recognise Ferdinand as hereditary lord of the Kingdom. The throne of Hungary became the subject of a dynastic dispute between Ferdinand and John Zápolya, Voivode of Transylvania, they were supported by different factions of the nobility in the Hungarian kingdom. Ferdinand had the support of his brother, the Emperor Charles V. On 10 November 1526, John Zápolya was proclaimed king by a Diet at Székesfehérvár, John Zápolya was elected in the parliament by the untitled lesser nobility. Nicolaus Olahus, secretary of Louis, attached himself to the party of Ferdinand but retained his position with his sister, Queen Dowager Mary. Ferdinand was elected King of Hungary, Croatia, Slavonia etc. by the higher aristocracy and the Hungarian Catholic clergy in a rump Diet in Pozsony on 17 December 1526. Ferdinand was crowned as King of Hungary in the Székesfehérvár Basilica on 3 November 1527; the Croatian nobles unanimously accepted the Pozsony election of Ferdinand I, receiving him as their king in the 1527 election in Cetin, confirming the succession to him and his heirs.
In return for the throne, Archduke Ferdinand promised to respect the historic rights, freedoms and customs of the Croats when they united with the Hungarian kingdom and to defend Croatia from Ottoman invasion. The Austrian lands were in miserable economic and financial conditions, thus Ferdinand introduced the so-called Turkish Tax. In spite of the huge Austrian sacrifices, he was not able to collect enough money to pay for the expenses of the defence costs of Austrian lands, his annual revenues only allowed him to hire 5,000 mercenaries for two months, thus Ferdinand asked for help from his brother, Emperor Charles V, started to borrow money from rich bankers like the Fugger family. Ferdinand defeated Zápolya at the Battle of Tarcal in September 1527 and again in the Battle of Szina in March 1528. Zápolya fled the country and applied to Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent for support, making Hungary an Ottoman vassal state; this led to the most dangerous moment of Ferdinand's career, in 1529, when Suleiman took advantage of this Hungarian support for
Bas-Rhin is a department in Alsace, a part of the Grand Est super-region of France. The name means "Lower Rhine", geographically speaking it belongs to the Upper Rhine region, it is the more populous and densely populated of the two departments of the traditional Alsace region, with 1,121,407 inhabitants in 2016. The prefecture and the General Council are based in Strasbourg; the INSEE and Post Code is 67. The inhabitants of the department are known as Bas-Rhinoises; the Rhine has always been of great historical and economic importance to the area, it forms the eastern border of Bas-Rhin. The area is home to some of the foothills of the Vosges Mountains. To the north of Bas-Rhin lies the Palatinate forest in the German State of Rhineland-Palatinate, the German State of Baden-Württemberg lies to the east. To the south lies the department of Haut-Rhin, the town of Colmar and southern Alsace, to the west the department of Moselle. On its south-western corner, Bas-Rhin joins the department of Vosges.
The Bas-Rhin has a continental-type climate, characterised by cold, dry winters and hot, stormy summers, due to the western protection provided by the Vosges. The average annual temperature is 7 °C on high ground; the annual maximum temperature is high. The average rainfall is 700 mm per year. Established according to data from the Infoclimat station at Strasbourg-Entzheim, over the period from 1961 to 1990; this is the last French department to have kept the term Bas meaning "Lower" in its name. Other departments using this prefix preferred to change their names - e.g.: Basses-Pyrenees in 1969 became Pyrénées-Atlantiques and Basses-Alpes in 1970 became the department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence. The same phenomenon was observed for the inférieur departments such as Charente-Inférieure, Seine-Inférieure, Loire-Inférieure. Bas-Rhin is one of the original 83 departments created on 4 March 1790, during the French Revolution. On 14 January 1790 the National Constituent Assembly decreed: "- That Alsace be divided into two departments with Strasbourg and Colmar as their capitals.
In 1871 Bas-Rhin was annexed by Germany and became Bezirk Unterelsass in Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen. Strasbourg, the chef lieu of Bas-Rhin is the official seat of the European Parliament as well as of the Council of Europe; the demography of Bas-Rhin is characterized by high density and high population growth since the 1950s. In January 2014 Bas-Rhin had 1,112,815 inhabitants and was 18th by population at the national level. In fifteen years, from 1999 to 2014, its population grew by more than 86,000 people, or about 5,800 people per year, but this variation is differentiated among the 517 communes. The population density of Bas-Rhin is 234 inhabitants per square kilometre in 2014, more than twice the average in France, 112 in 2009; the first census was conducted in 1801 and this count, renewed every five years from 1821, provides precise information on the evolution of population in the department. With 540,213 inhabitants in 1831, the department represented 1.66% of the total French population, 32,569,000 inhabitants.
From 1831 to 1866, the department gained 48,757 people, an increase of 0.26% on average per year compared to the national average of 0.48% over the same period. Demographic change between the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and the First World War was higher than the national average. Over this period, the population increased by 100,532 inhabitants, an increase of 16.74%, compared to 10% nationally. The population increased by 9.23% between the two world wars from 1921 to 1936 compared to a national growth of 6.9%. Like other French departments, Bas-Rhin experienced a population boom after the Second World War, higher than the national level; the rate of population growth between 1946 and 2007 was 83.83%
Early modern France
The Kingdom of France in the early modern period, from the Renaissance to the Revolution, was a monarchy ruled by the House of Bourbon. This corresponds to the so-called Ancien Régime; the territory of France during this period increased until it included the extent of the modern country, it included the territories of the first French colonial empire overseas. The period is dominated by the figure of the "Sun King", Louis XIV, who managed to eliminate the remnants of medieval feudalism and established a centralized state under an absolute monarch, a system that would endure until the French Revolution and beyond. In the mid 15th century, France was smaller than it is today, numerous border provinces were autonomous or foreign-held. In addition, certain provinces within France were ostensibly personal fiefdoms of noble families; the late 15th, 16th and 17th centuries would see France undergo a massive territorial expansion and an attempt to better integrate its provinces into an administrative whole.
During this period, France expanded to nearly its modern territorial extent through the acquisition of Picardy, Anjou, Provence, Franche-Comté, French Flanders, Roussillon, the Duchy of Lorraine and Corsica. French acquisitions from 1461–1789: under Louis XI – Provence, Dauphiné under Henry II – Calais, Trois-Évêchés under Henry IV – County of Foix under Louis XIII – Béarn and Navarre under Louis XIV Treaty of Westphalia – Alsace Treaty of the Pyrenees – Artois, Northern Catalonia Treaty of Nijmegen – Franche-Comté, Flanders under Louis XV – Lorraine, Corsica Only the Duchy of Savoy, the city of Nice and some other small papal and foreign possessions would be acquired later.. France embarked on exploration and mercantile exchanges with the Americas, the Indian Ocean, the Far East, a few African trading posts. Although Paris was the capital of France, the Valois kings abandoned the city as their primary residence, preferring instead various châteaux of the Loire Valley and Parisian countryside.
Henry IV made Paris his primary residence, but Louis XIV once again withdrew from the city in the last decades of his reign and Versailles became the primary seat of the French monarchy for much of the following century. The administrative and legal system in France in this period is called the Ancien Régime; the Black Death had killed an estimated one-third of the population of France from its appearance in 1348. The concurrent Hundred Years' War slowed recovery, it would be the early 16th century. With an estimated population of 11 million in 1400, 20 million in the 17th century, 28 million in 1789, until 1795 France was the most populated country in Europe and the third most populous country in the world, behind only China and India; these demographic changes led to a massive increase in urban populations, although on the whole France remained a profoundly rural country. Paris was one of the most populated cities in Europe. Other major French cities include Lyon, Bordeaux and Marseille; these centuries saw several periods of epidemics and crop failures due to climatic change.
Between 1693 and 1694, France lost 6% of its population. In the harsh winter of 1709, France lost 3.5% of its population. In the past 300 years, no period has been so proportionally deadly for the French, both World Wars included. Linguistically, the differences in France were extreme. Before the Renaissance, the language spoken in the north of France was a collection of different dialects called Oïl languages whereas the written and administrative language remained Latin. By the 16th century, there had developed a standardised form of French which would be the basis of the standardised "modern" French of the 17th and 18th century which in turn became the lingua franca of the European continent. In 1790, only half of the population spoke or understood standard French; the southern half of the country continued to speak Occitan languages, other inhabitants spoke Breton, Basque and Franco-Provençal. In the north of France, regional dialects of the various langues d'oïl continued to be spoken in rural communities.
During the French revolution, the teaching of French was promoted in all the schools. Th