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Obersturmbannführer was a paramilitary German Nazi Party rank used by both the SA and the SS. It was created in May 1933 to fill the need for an additional rank above Sturmbannführer as the SA expanded, it became an SS rank at the same time. Translated as "senior assault unit leader", Obersturmbannführer was junior to Standartenführer and was the equivalent to Oberstleutnant in the German Army; the insignia for Obersturmbannführer was four silver pips and a stripe, centered on the left collar of an SS/SA uniform. The rank displayed the shoulder boards of an Oberstleutnant and was the highest SS/SA rank to display unit insignia on the opposite collar. Adolf Eichmann was promoted to Obersturmbannführer in 1940 and was still listed as one in the minutes of the Wannsee Conference January 1942. During the Eichmann trial for crimes against humanity in 1962, chief prosecutor Gideon Hausner drew attention to the significance and responsibility of Eichmann's Obersturmbannführer rank when, in response to Eichmann's claim that he was a clerk obeying orders, Hausner asked him, "Were you an Obersturmbannführer or an office girl?"Political theorist Hannah Arendt disputes the notion that Obersturmbannführer was a rank of significance in her 1963 book Eichmann in Jerusalem.

She wrote. Arendt said "... people like Eichmann, who had risen from the ranks, were never permitted to advance beyond a lieutenant colonel except at the front." Table of ranks and insignia of the Waffen-SS

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy is a rare form of muscular dystrophy with symptoms starting when an individual is 40 to 50 years old. It can be autosomal recessive; the most common inheritance of OPMD is autosomal dominant, which means only one copy of the mutated gene needs to be present in each cell. Children of an affected parent have a 50% chance of inheriting the mutant gene. Autosomal dominant inheritance is the most common form of inheritance. Less OPMD can be inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means that two copies of the mutated gene need to be present in each cell, both parents need to be carriers of the mutated gene, show no signs or symptoms; the PABPN1 mutation contains a GCG trinucleotide repeat at the 5' end of the coding region, expansion of this repeat which leads to autosomal dominant oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy disease. In terms of the signs of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy would be consistent with the following: PtosisWeakness of the extraocular musclesDysphagiaAspiration pneumonia Proximal limb weaknessThough the aforementioned signs/symptoms are the most common, there have been cases though rare, where the peripheral nervous system has had involvement with significant reduction of myelinated fibers In homozygous cases, this muscular dystrophy is severe and starts earlier in the affected individuals life.

The genetics of this type of muscular dystrophy revolve around the PABPN1 gene. This gene suffers mutations that cause the PABPN1 protein to have extra alanine, this manifests itself physically in the symptoms of this MD; the expansion caused by the mutations on the PABPN1 gene interrupts the cellular mechanics of poly RNA. In most cases oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy is inherited via autosomal dominance; the alleles, which are a variant form of a gene involved in this form of MD are: PABPN1, n EXPANSION, 8-13, PABPN1, n EXPANSION, 7 and PABPN1, GLY12ALA. The diagnosis of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy can be done via two methods, a muscle biopsy or a blood draw with genetic testing for GCG trinucleotide expansions in the PABPN1 gene; the genetic blood testing is more common. Additionally, a distinction between OPMD and myasthenia gravis or mitochondrial myopathy must be made, in regards to the differential diagnosis of this condition. No cure or specific treatment exists to eliminate the symptoms or stop the disease progression.

A consistent diet planned with the help of a dietitian along with exercises taught by a speech therapist can assist with mild symptoms of dysphagia. Surgical intervention can help temporarily manage symptoms related to the ptosis and dysphagia. Cutting one of the throat muscles internally, an operation called cricopharyngeal myotomy, can be one way to ease symptoms in more severe cases. However, for a majority of people, the benefits from such treatments are only temporary. There is no treatment available to address the proximal limb weakness. Many of those affected with the proximal limb weakness will require assistive devices such as canes, braces or a wheelchair; as with all surgical procedures, they come with many risk factors. As the dysphagia becomes more severe, patients become malnourished, lose significant weight, become dehydrated and suffer from repeated incidents of aspiration pneumonia; these last two are the cause of death. The disease is found across 5 continents and is seen in French Canadians, with a prevalence 1:1000.

OPMD affects males and females and affected individuals have been found in Europe, Jewish Ashkenazi, Spanish Americans. Muscular dystrophy PABPN1 Raz, Yotam. "Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy as a paradigm for muscle aging". Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 6: 317. Doi:10.3389/fnagi.2014.00317. PMC 4226162. PMID 25426070. Hill, M. E.. "Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy". Brain. 124: 522–526. Doi:10.1093/brain/124.3.522. ISSN 0006-8950. PMID 11222452. Retrieved 29 May 2016. Gómez-Torres, Antonio. "Cricopharyngeal Myotomy in the Treatment of Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy". Acta Otorrinolaringologica. 63: 465–469. Doi:10.1016/j.otoeng.2012.11.009. ISSN 2173-5735. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy at NIH's Office of Rare Diseases

John Johnson (Latter Day Saints)

John Johnson, Sr. was an early leader in the Latter Day Saint movement in Ohio. Johnson was born in New Hampshire, he farmed near Pomfret, Vermont. In 1818, he moved to Hiram, where he purchased land and became a prominent member of the Methodist Church, he was married to Mary Elsa Jacobs. Their daughter Marinda married Orson Hyde. In early 1831, Johnson's sons Luke and Lyman were baptized into the Church of Christ, founded by Joseph Smith the previous year. After their sons were baptized and his wife travelled with Methodist preacher Ezra Booth to Kirtland, Ohio to learn more about the church. While in Kirtland, Johnson's wife reported that she experienced a miraculous healing at the hands of Smith: "Elsa Johnson had been afflicted for many years with a rheumatic arm, she experienced so much pain and difficulty in movement that for two years she hadn’t been able to raise her hand to her head. As the Johnsons and others from the Hiram area visited with Joseph Smith in the Newel K. Whitney home, they discussed the gifts of the Spirit as held in the early Church.

Someone asked. After the conversation had turned to another subject, the Prophet walked up to Elsa and said,'Woman, in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ I command thee to be whole,' and he walked out of the room. Elsa was healed, the next day she did her washing'without difficulty or pain.'" As a result, his wife, Booth were converted to Mormonism and became members of the Church of Christ. Johnson was baptized by Smith. Johnson invited Smith and his wife and children to live at the Johnson farm, which served as the headquarters of the church from September 1831 to March 1832. While living at the farm, Smith recorded a number of revelations which are included in the Doctrine and Covenants and continued his translation of the Bible. In 1833, Johnson and his wife moved to Kirtland, where they opened an inn next to the store owned by Newel K. Whitney. Johnson was ordained as an elder in the church on February 17, 1833, as a high priest on June 4, 1833. On February 17, 1834, Johnson was appointed as one of the founding members of the church's first high council in Kirtland.

In 1835, Johnson's sons Luke and Lyman were selected as two of founding members of the Quorum of the Twelve. While in Kirtland, Johnson assisted with the building of the Kirtland Temple and allowed his inn to be used for the display of a number of Egyptian mummies that Smith had purchased. Smith used scrolls. Johnson was a charter member of Smith's Kirtland Safety Society. In 1836 and 1837, Johnson was sued a number of times for non-payment of debts. In the midst of these difficulties, Johnson's presence on the high council was objected to on September 3, 1837, he was dropped from the body; some sources report. A more recent work indicates that the official position of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is that Johnson did not lose his membership. Johnson remained in Kirtland, he died in Kirtland and is buried in the Kirtland Cemetery across the street from the Kirtland Temple. John Johnson at Find a Grave Historic Kirtland Visitors' Center


Pewar its 16 km far from the capital city Parachinar of Kurram Agency, the one of the village near to parachinar Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. Pewar is situated on a neck of Pakistani territory south of Peshawar, that juts into Paktia Province of Afghanistan, it is the closest point in borders on the Tora Bora region of Afghanistan. Turi, Orakzai, Zazai and Para Tsamkani are the major tribes in Pewar,Parachinar. Pewar has four seasons. Pewar is famous for its fresh fruits, fresh vegetables and snowfall; the name Pewar may derive from Pashto word pawar which mean one by one people come to protect that aera, located too near the border to Afghanistan. The previous name, used for pawar was Tutki, still used by some Afghan people; the inhabitants of Tutki were called Tutkiwal. Parachinar originated as a summer residence for nomadic tribes who wintered their livestock at lower altitudes, the district had been a summer residence for Moghul emperors from Delhi; the Pewar region was part of Durrani empire before the Second Afghan War of 1878-79, but was not annexed by the British until 1892.

During the colonial era and 1947, Parachinar became a hill station for people from Peshawar. Because of its proximity to the border of Afghanistan, in recent years, the economy of Parachinar has been adversely affected, with tourism in steep decline. Pewar has a moderate humid subtropical climate with much higher rainfall and sownfall than most areas of Pakistan. Although the city’s southeasterly aspect relative to the valley in which it is situated allows it to receive on occasions significant monsoonal rainfall, the most frequent source of rain is western depressions and related thunderstorms. During the winter, snowfall is common, frosts occur on most mornings. Snow closes the Peiwar Pass, located on the Paktia border just over 20 km west of Parachinar, for up to five months per year. Pewar is 16:km far from parachinar. Parachinar is the main city of kurram agency FATA. Notable schools in Pewar are Government high school Pewar, Government girls high school Pewar, Pewar Children Academy and Community Model high school.

Circuit House Chapri Rest House Malana dam rest house Parachinar Airport List of airports in Pakistan Battle of Tora Bora Kurram Agency War April 2007 Tari Mangal

HMCS Margaret Brooke

HMCS Margaret Brooke is the second Harry DeWolf-class offshore patrol vessel for the Royal Canadian Navy. The class was derived from the Arctic Offshore Patrol Ship project as part of the National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy and is designed for the patrol and support of Canada's Arctic regions. Named after Sub-Lieutenant Margaret Brooke, a Royal Canadian Navy Nursing Sister and who tried to save another person during the sinking of the ferry SS Caribou during World War II; the vessel was ordered in 2011, laid down in 2016 and launched in 2019. The vessel is finishing construction; the Harry DeWolf-class offshore patrol vessels are designed for use in the Arctic regions of Canada for patrol and support within Canada's exclusive economic zone. The vessel is 103.6 m long overall with a beam of 19.0 m. The ship has a displacement of 6,615 metric tons; the ship has an enclosed foredeck that protects work spaces from Arctic climates. The vessel is powered by a diesel-electric system composed of four 3.6-megawatt generators and two diesel engines rated at 4.5 megawatts driving two shafts.

Margaret Brooke is capable of 17 knots in open water and 3 knots while icebreaking in new year ice of 1-metre thickness. The ship is equipped with a bow thruster to aid during manoeuvres and docking procedures without requiring tugboat assistance; the ship has a range of 6,800 nautical miles and an endurance of 85. Margaret Brooke is equipped with fin stabilizers to decrease roll in open water but can be retracted during icebreaking. Margaret Brooke is able to deploy with multiple payloads, including shipping containers, underwater survey equipment or landing craft. Payload operations are aided by a 20-metric-ton crane for unloading; the ship is equipped with a vehicle bay which can hold can pickup trucks, all-terrain vehicles and snowmobiles. The ship has two 8.5-metre multi-role rescue boats capable of over 35 knots. The ship is armed with two M2 Browning machine guns; the patrol ship has an onboard hangar and flight deck for helicopters up to the size of a Sikorsky CH-148 Cyclone. Margaret Brooke has a complement of 65 and accommodation for 85.

The order for the Arctic Offshore Patrol Ships was placed on 19 October 2011 with Irving Shipyards of Halifax, Nova Scotia as part of the National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy. The ship was to be constructed in 62 blocks, which were pieced together into three larger blocks; these three "mega blocks" would be fitted together to form the hull of the ship. On 13 April 2015 the government announced a second ship would be named Margaret Brooke in honour of Margaret Brooke. During World War II, Brooke, a navy nursing sister, was decorated for her actions during the sinking of the passenger ferry SS Caribou; the vessel's keel was laid down on 29 May 2017 and the vessel was launched on 10 November 2019

Scorias spongiosa

Scorias spongiosa is a sooty mould fungus that grows on aphid honeydew. It is a member of the Capnodiaceae family of ascomycete fungi, it is found only on Fagus grandifolia. Scorias spongiosa is a specialist and grows on the honeydew formed by colonies of the beech blight aphid, Grylloprociphilus imbricator; this aphid is found only on one host plant, the American beech tree, Fagus grandifolia, where it congregates on branches and twigs, creating copious amounts of honeydew that drip onto vegetation below. The large quantity of honeydew enables this fungus to grow to a large size, much bigger than other sooty mould fungi, which produce only a thin black layer on the surface of leaves. On tree trunks this fungus has been known to grow into a mass of hyphae as big as a football, but it is more usual for the agglomeration on branches or twigs to reach a diameter of about fifteen centimetres; the aphids accumulate in late autumn, forming large colonies. Spores of Scorias spongiosa are borne by wind and rain and fall on the honeydew secretions found below the aphids.

The first hyphal growth is straw unpigmented. The hyphae adhere to each other for short distances, diverging and re-adhering to form a loose stranded structure. Pigmentation begins to occur on the surfaces of outer strands and the stroma begins to darken; the hyphae coalesce and form mycelial strands which radiate outward and upward from the supporting structure. Flask-shaped, spore-bearing pycnidia appear on the mycelia, which have a waxlike appearance: the matrix turns from brittle to soft as it absorbs moisture; as further quantities of honeydew accumulate, the fungus grows larger until it resembles a gelatinous sponge resting on the branches or leaves of the beech tree. Pigmented strands in the mature stoma produce bowl-shaped pseudothecia and these outermost hyphae cease to grow; the inner strands force their way to the exterior. Asexual conidia are extruded in a slimy matrix in liquid droplets from the pycnidia; as time passes the stroma becomes a spongy black mass and produces sexual spores called ascospores in the pseudothecia, which remain embedded in the stroma