In philosophy, panpsychism is the view that consciousness, mind, or soul is a universal and primordial feature of all things. Panpsychists see themselves as minds in a world of mind. Panpsychism is one of the oldest philosophical theories, has been ascribed to philosophers like Thales, Plato, Spinoza and William James. Panpsychism can be seen in ancient philosophies such as Stoicism, Taoism and Mahayana Buddhism. During the 19th century, panpsychism was the default theory in philosophy of mind, but it saw a decline during the middle years of the 20th century with the rise of logical positivism; the recent interest in the hard problem of consciousness has revived interest in panpsychism. The term "panpsychism" has its origins with the Greek term pan and psyche as the unifying center of the mental life of us humans and other living creatures." Psyche comes from the Greek word ψύχω and can mean life, mind, heart and'life-breath'. The use of psyche is controversial due to it being synonymous with soul, a term taken to have some sort of supernatural quality.
Panpsychists like David Chalmers subscribe to a distinction between microphenomenal experiences, the experiences of microphysical entities and macrophenomenal, the experiences other entities like humans. Early forms of panpsychism can be found in pre-modern animistic beliefs in religions such as Shinto, Taoism and shamanism. Panpsychist views are a staple theme in pre-Socratic Greek philosophy. According to Aristotle, Thales the first Greek philosopher, posited a theory which held "that everything is full of gods." Thales believed. This has been interpreted as a panpsychist doctrine. Other Greek thinkers that have been associated with Panpsychism include Anaxagoras and Heraclitus. Plato argues for Panpsychism in his Sophist, in which he writes that all things participate in the form of Being and that it must have a psychic aspect of mind and soul. In the Philebus and Timaeus, Plato argues for the idea of a world anima mundi. According to Plato: This world is indeed a living being endowed with a soul and intelligence... a single visible living entity containing all other living entities, which by their nature are all related.
Stoicism developed a cosmology which held that the natural world was infused with a divine fiery essence called Pneuma, directed by a universal intelligence called Logos. The relationship of the individual Logos of beings with the universal Logos was a central concern of the Roman Stoic Marcus Aurelius; the Metaphysics of Stoicism was based on Hellenistic philosophies such as Neoplatonism and Gnosticism made use of the Platonic idea of the Anima mundi. After the closing of Plato's Academy by the Emperor Justinian in 529 CE, Neoplatonism declined. Though there were mediaeval Christian thinkers who ventured what might be called panpsychist ideas, it was not a dominant strain in Christian thought. In the Italian Renaissance, Panpsychism enjoyed something of an intellectual revival, in the thought of figures such as Gerolamo Cardano, Bernardino Telesio, Francesco Patrizi, Giordano Bruno, Tommaso Campanella. Cardano argued for the view that soul or anima was a fundamental part of the world and Patrizi introduced the actual term "panpsychism" into the philosophical vocabulary.
According to Giordano Bruno: "There is nothing that does not possess a soul and that has no vital principle." Platonist ideas like the anima mundi resurfaced in the work of esoteric thinkers like Paracelsus, Robert Fludd and Cornelius Agrippa. In the 17th century, two rationalists can be said to be panpsychists, Baruch Spinoza and Gottfried Leibniz. In Spinoza's monism, the one single infinite and eternal substance is "God, or Nature" which has the aspects of mind and matter. Leibniz' view is that there are an infinite number of simple mental substances called monads which make up the fundamental structure of the universe. While it has been argued online that the Idealist philosophy of George Berkeley is a form of pure panpsychism and that "technically all idealists can be said to be panspychists be default", such arguments conflate mentally-constructed phenomena with minds themselves. Berkeley rejected panpsychism and posited that the physical world exists only in the experiences minds have of it, while restricting minds to humans and certain other specific agents.
In the 19th century, Panpsychism was at its zenith. Philosophers like Arthur Schopenhauer, C. S Peirce, Josiah Royce, William James, Eduard von Hartmann, F. C. S. Schiller, Ernst Haeckel and William Kingdon Clifford as well as psychologists like Gustav Fechner, Wilhelm Wundt and Rudolf Hermann Lotze all promoted Panpsychist ideas. Arthur Schopenhauer argued for a two-sided view of reality, both Will and Representation. According to Schopenhauer: "All ostensible mind can be attributed to matter, but all matter can be attributed to mind". Josiah Royce, the leading American absolute idealist held that reality was a "world self", a conscious being that comprised everything, though he didn't attribute mental properties to the smallest constituents of mentalistic "systems"; the American Pragmatist philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce espoused a sort of Psycho-physical Monism in which the universe was suffused with mind which he asso
Buddhist philosophy refers to the philosophical investigations and systems of inquiry that developed among various Buddhist schools in India following the death of the Buddha and spread throughout Asia. The Buddhist path combines meditation; the Buddhist traditions present a multitude of Buddhist paths to liberation, Buddhist thinkers in India and subsequently in East Asia have covered topics as varied as phenomenology, ontology, epistemology and philosophy of time in their analysis of these paths. Early Buddhism was based on empirical evidence gained by the sense organs and the Buddha seems to have retained a skeptical distance from certain metaphysical questions, refusing to answer them because they were not conducive to liberation but led instead to further speculation. A recurrent theme in Buddhist philosophy has been the reification of concepts, the subsequent return to the Buddhist Middle Way. Particular points of Buddhist philosophy have been the subject of disputes between different schools of Buddhism.
These elaborations and disputes gave rise to various schools in early Buddhism of Abhidharma, to the Mahayana traditions and schools of the prajnaparamita, Buddha-nature and Yogacara. Edward Conze splits the development of Indian Buddhist philosophy into three phases; the first phase concerns questions of the original doctrines derived from oral traditions that originated during the life of the Buddha, are common to all sects of Buddhism. The second phase concerns Hinayana "scholastic" Buddhism, as evident in the Abhidharma texts beginning in the third century BCE that feature scholastic reworking and schematic classification of material in the sutras; the third phase of development of Indian Buddhist philosophy concerns Mahayana "metaphysical" Buddhism, beginning in the late first century CE, which emphasizes monastic life and the path of a bodhisattva. Various elements of these three phases are incorporated and/or further developed in the philosophy and world view of the various sects of Buddhism that emerged.
Philosophy in India was aimed at spiritual liberation and had soteriological goals. In his study of Mādhyamaka Buddhist philosophy in India, Peter Deller Santina writes: Attention must first of all be drawn to the fact that philosophical systems in India were if purely speculative or descriptive. All the great philosophical systems of India: Sāṅkhya, Advaitavedānta, Mādhyamaka and so forth, were preeminently concerned with providing a means to liberation or salvation, it was a tacit assumption with these systems that if their philosophy were understood and assimilated, an unconditioned state free of suffering and limitation could be achieved. If this fact is overlooked, as happens as a result of the propensity engendered by formal Occidental philosophy to consider the philosophical enterprise as a purely descriptive one, the real significance of Indian and Buddhist philosophy will be missed. For the Indian Buddhist philosophers, the teachings of the Buddha were not meant to be taken on faith alone, but to be confirmed by logical analysis of the world.
The early Buddhist texts mention that a person becomes a follower of the Buddha's teachings after having pondered them over with wisdom and the gradual training requires that a disciple “investigate” and “scrutinize” the teachings. The Buddha expected his disciples to approach him as a teacher in a critical fashion and scrutinize his actions and words, as shown in the Vīmaṃsaka Sutta. Scholarly opinion varies; the Buddha was a north Indian sramana from Magadha. He cultivated various yogic techniques and ascetic practices and taught throughout north India, where his teachings took hold; these teachings are preserved in the Pali Nikayas and in the Agamas as well as in other surviving fragmentary textual collections. Dating these texts is difficult, there is disagreement on how much of this material goes back to a single religious founder. While the focus of the Buddha's teachings are about attaining the highest good of nirvana, they contain an analysis of the source of human suffering, the nature of personal identity, the process of acquiring knowledge about the world.
The Buddha defined his teaching as "the middle way". In the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, this is used to refer to the fact that his teachings steer a middle course between the extremes of asceticism and bodily denial and sensual hedonism or indulgence. Many sramanas of the Buddha's time placed much emphasis on a denial of the body, using practices such as fasting, to liberate the mind from the body; the Buddha however, realized that the mind was embodied and causally dependent on the body, therefore that a malnourished body did not allow the mind to be trained and developed. Thus, Buddhism's main concern is not with luxury or poverty, but instead with the human response to circumstances. Certain basic teachings appear in many places throughout these early texts, so older studies by various scholars conclude that the Buddha must at least have taught some of these key teachings: The Middle Way The four noble truths The Noble Eightfold Path Three marks of existence Five aggregates Dependent arising Karma and rebirth NirvanaCritical studies by Schmithausen, Bronkhorst and others have adjusted this list of basic teachings, revealed a more nuanced genesis of the Buddhist teachings.
According to Vetter, the description of the Buddhist path may have been as simple as the term "the middle way". In time, this short description was elaborated, resulting
"Pragmaticism" is a term used by Charles Sanders Peirce for his pragmatic philosophy starting in 1905, in order to distance himself and it from pragmatism, the original name, used in a manner he did not approve of in the "literary journals". Peirce in 1905 announced his coinage "pragmaticism", saying that it was "ugly enough to be safe from kidnappers". Today, outside of philosophy, "pragmatism" is taken to refer to a compromise of aims or principles a ruthless search for mercenary advantage. Peirce gave other or more specific reasons for the distinction in a surviving draft letter that year and in writings. Peirce's pragmatism, that is, differed in Peirce's view from other pragmatisms by its commitments to the spirit of strict logic, the immutability of truth, the reality of infinity, the difference between willing to control thought, to doubt, to weigh reasons, willing not to exert the will, willing to believe. In his view his pragmatism is speaking, not itself a whole philosophy, but instead a general method for the clarification of ideas.
He first publicly formulated his pragmatism as an aspect of scientific logic along with principles of statistics and modes of inference in his "Illustrations of the Logic of Science" series of articles in 1877-8. Whether one chooses to call it "pragmatism" or "pragmaticism"—and Peirce himself was not always consistent about it after the notorious renaming—his conception of pragmatic philosophy is based on one or another version of the so-called "pragmatic maxim". Here is one of his more emphatic statements of it: Pragmaticism was enounced in the form of a maxim, as follows: Consider what effects, that might conceivably have practical bearings, you conceive the objects of your conception to have. Your conception of those effects is the whole of your conception of the object. In the 1909 Century Dictionary Supplement, the entry for pragmaticism, written, it now appears, by John Dewey, was pragmaticism, n. A special and limited form of pragmatism, in which the pragmatism is restricted to the determining of the meaning of concepts by consideration of the experimental differences in the conduct of life which would conceivably result from the affirmation or denial of the meaning in question.
He framed the theory that a conception, that is, the rational purport of a word or other expression, lies in its conceivable bearing upon the conduct of life.... To serve the precise purpose of expressing the original definition, he begs to announce the birth of the word "pragmaticism." C. S. Peirce, in The Monist, April, 1905, p. 166. Pragmatism as a philosophical movement originated in 1872 in discussions in The Metaphysical Club among Peirce, William James, Chauncey Wright, John Fiske, Francis Ellingwood Abbot, Nicholas St. John Green, Joseph Bangs Warner; the first use in print of the name pragmatism appears to have been in 1898 by James, who credited Peirce with having coined the name during the early 1870s. James, among others, regarded Peirce's 1877-8 "Illustrations of the Logic of Science" series "How to Make Our Ideas Clear" as pragmatism's foundation. Peirce, like James saw pragmatism as embodying familiar attitudes, in philosophy and elsewhere, elaborated into a new deliberate method of thinking and resolving dilemmas.
Peirce differed from James and the early John Dewey, in some of their tangential enthusiasms, in being decidedly more rationalistic and realistic, in several senses of those terms, throughout the preponderance of his own philosophical moods. In a 1906 manuscript, Peirce wrote that, in the Metaphysical Club decades earlier, Nicholas St. John Greenoften urged the importance of applying Bain's definition of belief, as "that upon which a man is prepared to act." From this definition, pragmatism is scarce more than a corollary. James and Peirce, inspired by crucial links among belief and disposition, agreed with Green. John Shook has said, "Chauncey Wright deserves considerable credit, for as both Peirce and James recall, it was Wright who demanded a phenomenalist and fallibilist empiricism as a vital alternative to rationalistic speculation."Pragmatism is regarded as a distinctively American philosophy. As advocated by James, John Dewey, F. C. S. Schiller, George Herbert Mead, others, it has proved durable and popular.
But Peirce did not seize on this fact to enhance his reputation, coined the word "pragmaticism" to distinguish his philosophical position. Pragmatism starts with the idea. Peirce's pragmatism is about conceptions of objects, his pragmatism is a method for fruitfully sorting out conceptual confusions caused, for example, by distinctions that make formal yet not practical differences. It equates any conception of an object with a conception of that object's effects to a general extent of those conceived effects' conceivable implications for informed practice; those conceivable practical implications are the conception's meaning. The meaning is the consequent form of conduct or practice that would be implied by accepting the conception as true. Peirce's pragmaticism, in the strict sense, is about the conceptual elucidation of conceptions into such meanings — about how to make our ideas clear. Making them true, in the sense of proving and bearing them out in fruitful practice, goes beyond that. A conception's truth is its correspondence to the real, to that which would be found by investigation taken far enough.
A conception's actual confirmation is neither its
In philosophy of mind, naïve realism known as direct realism, common sense realism or perceptual realism, is the idea that the senses provide us with direct awareness of objects as they are. Objects obey the laws of physics and retain all their properties whether or not there is anyone to observe them, they are composed of matter, occupy space and have properties, such as size, texture, smell and colour, that are perceived correctly. In contrast, some forms of idealism claim that no world exists apart from mind-dependent ideas, some forms of skepticism say we cannot trust our senses. Naïve realism is known as direct as against indirect or representational realism when its arguments are developed to counter the latter position known as epistemological dualism. For a history of direct realist theories, see Direct and indirect realism § History; the naïve realist theory may be characterized as the acceptance of the following five beliefs: There exists a world of material objects Some statements about these objects can be known to be true through sense-experience These objects exist not only when they are being perceived but when they are not perceived.
The objects of perception are perception-independent. These objects are able to retain properties of the types we perceive them as having when they are not being perceived, their properties are perception-independent. By means of our senses, we perceive the world directly, pretty much as it is. In the main, our claims to have knowledge of it are justified."In the area of visual perception in psychology, the leading direct realist theorist was J. J. Gibson. Other psychologists were influenced by this approach, including William Mace, Claire Michaels, Edward Reed, Robert Shaw, Michael Turvey. More Carol Fowler has promoted a direct realist approach to speech perception. Among contemporary analytic philosophers who defended direct realism one might refer to, for example, Hilary Putnam, John McDowell, Galen Strawson, John R. Searle, John L. Pollock. Searle, for instance, addresses the popular but mistaken assumption that we can only directly perceive our own subjective experiences, but never objects and states of affairs in the world themselves.
According to Searle, it has influenced many thinkers to reject direct realism. But Searle contends that the rejection of direct realism is based on a bad argument: the Argument from illusion, which in turn relies on vague assumptions on the nature or existence of "sense data". Various sense data theories were deconstructed in 1962 by the British philosopher J. L. Austin in a book titled Sense and Sensibilia. Talk of sense data has been replaced by talk of representational perception in a broader sense, scientific realists assume representational perception, but the assumption is philosophical, arguably little prevents scientific realists from assuming direct perception, as in direct or "naïve" realism. In a blog-post on "Naive realism and color realism" Putnam sums up with the following words: "... Being an apple is not a natural kind in physics. Being complex and of no interest to fundamental physics isn't a failure to be "real". I think green is as real as applehood.". Simon Blackburn has argued that whatever positions they may take in books, articles or lectures, naive realism is the view of "philosophers when they are off-duty."
It is not uncommon to think of naïve realism as distinct from scientific realism, which states that the universe contains just those properties that feature in a scientific description of it, not properties like colour per se but objects that reflect certain wavelengths owing to their microscopic surface texture. This lack of supervenience of experience on the physical world has influenced many thinkers to reject naïve realism as a physical theory. One should add, that naïve realism does not claim that reality is only what we see, etc. Scientific realism does not claim that reality is only what can be described by fundamental physics, it follows that the relevant distinction to make is not between naïve and scientific realism but between direct and indirect realism. The direct realist claims that the experience of a sunset, for instance, is the real sunset that we directly experience; the indirect realist claims that our relation to reality is indirect, so the experience of a sunset is a subjective copy of what is radiation as described by physics.
But the direct realist does not deny. An example of a scientific realist is John Locke, who held the world only contains the primary qualities that feature in a corpuscularian scientific account of the world, that other properties were subjective, depending for their existence upon some perceiver who can observe the objects."The modern philosopher of science Howard Sankey argues for a form of scientific realism which has commonsense realism as one of its foundations. Realism in physics refers to the fact that physical systems must have definite properties when measured or observed. Physics until the 19th century was implicitly and sometimes explicitly based on philosophical realism. Scientific realism in classical physics has remained compatible with the naïve realism of everyday thinking on the whole, but there is no consistent way to visualize the world underlying quantum theory in terms of ideas of the everyday world. "The general conclusion is that in quantum theory naïve realism, although necessary at the level of observations, fails at the microscopic level."
Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god. Pantheist belief does not recognize a distinct personal anthropomorphic god and instead characterizes a broad range of doctrines differing in forms of relationships between reality and divinity. Pantheistic concepts date back thousands of years, pantheistic elements have been identified in various religious traditions; the term "pantheism" was coined by mathematician Joseph Raphson in 1697 and has since been used to describe the beliefs of a variety of people and organizations. Pantheism was popularized in Western culture as a theology and philosophy based on the work of the 17th-century philosopher Baruch Spinoza his book Ethics. A pantheistic stance was taken in the 16th century by philosopher and cosmologist Giordano Bruno. Pantheism derives from θεός theos; the first known combination of these roots appears in Latin, in Joseph Raphson's 1697 book De Spatio Reali seu Ente Infinito, where he refers to the "pantheismus" of Spinoza and others.
It was subsequently translated into English as "pantheism" in 1702. There are a variety of definitions of pantheism; some consider it a philosophical position concerning God. Pantheism is the view that everything is part of an immanent God. All forms of reality may be considered either modes of that Being, or identical with it; some hold. To them, pantheism is the view that the God are identical. Early traces of pantheist thought can be found within the theology of the ancient Greek religion of Orphism, where pan is made cognate with the creator God Phanes, with Zeus, after the swallowing of Phanes. Pantheistic tendencies existed in a number of early Gnostic groups, with pantheistic thought appearing throughout the Middle Ages; these included a section of Johannes Scotus Eriugena's 9th-century work De divisione naturae and the beliefs of mystics such as Amalric of Bena and Eckhart. The Roman Catholic Church has long regarded pantheistic ideas as heresy. Giordano Bruno, an Italian monk who evangelized about an immanent and infinite God, was burned at the stake in 1600 by the Roman Inquisition.
He has since become known as a celebrated pantheist and martyr of science, an influence on many thinkers. In the West, pantheism was formalized as a separate theology and philosophy based on the work of the 17th-century philosopher Baruch Spinoza. Spinoza was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese descent raised in the Sephardi Jewish community in Amsterdam, he developed controversial ideas regarding the authenticity of the Hebrew Bible and the nature of the Divine, was excluded from Jewish society at age 23, when the local synagogue issued a herem against him. A number of his books were published posthumously, shortly thereafter included in the Catholic Church's Index of Forbidden Books; the breadth and importance of Spinoza's work would not be realized for many years - as the groundwork for the 18th-century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism, including modern conceptions of the self and the universe. In the posthumous Ethics, "Spinoza wrote the last indisputable Latin masterpiece, one in which the refined conceptions of medieval philosophy are turned against themselves and destroyed entirely.".
In particular, he opposed René Descartes' famous mind–body dualism, the theory that the body and spirit are separate. Spinoza held the monist view that the two are the same, monism is a fundamental part of his philosophy, he was described as a "God-intoxicated man," and used the word God to describe the unity of all substance. This view influenced philosophers such as Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, who said, "You are either a Spinozist or not a philosopher at all." Spinoza earned praise as one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy and one of Western philosophy's most important thinkers. Although the term "pantheism" was not coined until after his death, he is regarded as the most celebrated advocate of the concept. Ethics was the major source. Heinrich Heine, in his Concerning the History of Religion and Philosophy in Germany, remarked that "I don't remember now where I read that Herder once exploded peevishly at the constant preoccupation with Spinoza, "If Goethe would only for once pick up some other Latin book than Spinoza!"
But this applies not only to Goethe. In their The Holy Family Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels notes, "Spinozism dominated the eighteenth century both in its French variety, which made matter into substance, in deism, which conferred on matter a more spiritual name.... Spinoza's French school and the supporters of deism were but two sects disputing over the true meaning of his system...." In George Henry Lewes's words, "Pantheism is as old as philosophy. It was taught in the old Greek schools — by Plato, by St. Augustine, by the Jews. Indeed, one may say that Pantheism, under one of its various shapes, is the necessary consequence of all metaphysical inquiry, when pushed to its logical limits; the dreamy contemplative Indian, the quick versatile Greek, the practical Roman, the quibbling Scholastic, th
Teodor Ilyich Oizerman was a Soviet and Russian philosopher and academician. Oizerman was born in Petroverovka village, Tiraspol uyezd, Kherson Governorate, Russian Empire, into a Jewish family, his parents were teachers. During World War II he served in the Red Army. Oizerman was a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences from 1981 until his death, he received a doctorate, honoris causa, from the University of Jena in 1979 and the USSR State Prize in 1983. In 1979 Oizerman was awarded the Plekhanov prize for the monograph The main Trends in Philosophy, he served in the Anti-Zionist Committee of the Soviet Public. Politically, following the 1991 break-up of the Soviet Union Oizerman moved towards social democratic, anti-Leninist positions, as per regarding Lenin's interpretation and application of the ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the Russian Revolution as incorrect, leading Russian history towards oligarchy rather than the victorious establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat.
Oizerman died on 25 March 2017 in Moscow at the age of 102. Oizerman was a prolific author. Below is a partial list of his monographs. Возникновение марксизма — революционный переворот в философии. Moscow, 1948. Католическая философия империалистической реакции. Moscow, 1954. Немецкая классическая философия — один из теоретических источников марксизма. Moscow, 1955. Развитие марксистской теории на опыте революций 1948 г. Moscow, 1955. Философия Гегеля. Moscow, 1956. Обобщение Марксом и Энгельсом опыта революций 1848 г.. Moscow, 1956. Основные этапы развития домарксистской философии. Moscow, 1957. К. Маркс — основоположник диалектического и исторического материализма. Moscow, 1958. Неотомизм — философия современной реакционной буржуазии. Moscow, 1959. Основные черты современной буржуазной философии. Moscow, 1960. Чему учит и кому служит современная буржуазная социология. Moscow, 1960. Формирование философии марксизма. Moscow, 1962. Философия Фихте. Moscow, 1962. Проблемы историко-философской науки. Moscow, 1962. Антикоммунизм — выражение кризиса буржуазной идеологии.
Moscow, 1963. Zur Geschichte der vormarxistischen Philosophie. Berlin, 1963. Die Enstehung der marxistischen Philosophie. Berlin, 1965 и 1980. Проблема отчуждения и буржуазная легенда о марксизме. Moscow, 1965. Entfremdung als historische Kategorie. Berlin, 1966. Марксистско-ленинское понимание свободы. Moscow, 1967. Ленинские принципы научной критики идеализма. Доклад на Научной конференции по теме «Ленинский этап в развитии марксистской философии». Moscow, 1969. Главные философские направления: теоретический анализ историко-философского процесса. Moscow, 1971. Кризис современного идеализма, Moscow, 1972. Der junge Marx im ideologischen Kampf der Gegenwart. Frankfurt am Main, 1972. Философия И. Канта. Moscow, 1974. История диалектики XIV—XVIII вв. Moscow, 1974. Философия Канта и современность. Moscow, 1974. Исторический материализм и идеология «технического пессимизма». Moscow, 1976. Научно-техническая революция и кризис современной буржуазной идеологии. Moscow, 1978. История диалектики. Немецкая классическая философия.
Moscow, 1978. Диалектический материализм и история философии. Moscow, 1979. Oizerman, Theodore. Dialectical Materialism and the History of Philosophy: Essays on the History of Philosophy. Dmitri Beliavsky. Moscow: Progress Publishers First published in Russian as «Диалектический материализм и история философии » Критика буржуазной концепции смерти философии. Moscow, 1980. Историко-философское учение Гегеля. Moscow, 1982. Основы теории историко-философского процесса. Moscow, 1983. Философия эпохи ранних буржуазных революций. Moscow, 1983. Рациональное и иррациональное. Moscow, 1984. El materialismo dialectico у la historia de la filosofia. Havana, 1984. Ленин. Философия. Современность. Moscow, 1985. Критика критического рационализма. Moscow, 1988. Felsefe Tarihinin Sorunları. Istanbul, 1988 и 1998. Маркс. Философия. Современность. Moscow, 1988. Научно-философское воззрение марксизма. Moscow, 1989. Philosophie auf dem Wege zur Wissenschaft. Berlin, 1989. Философия раннего и позднего Шеллинга. Moscow, 1990. Теория познания Канта.
Moscow, 1991. Теория познания. В 4-х томах. Институт философии АН СССР. Teodor Oizerman, ed. Moscow, 1991. Феноменология искусства. Moscow, 1996. Философия как история философии. Saint Petersburg, 1999. Марксизм и утопизм. — М.: Прогресс—Традиция, 2003. Оправдание ревизионизма. — M.: Канон+, POOИ «Реабилитация», 2005. Возникновение марксизма. — М.: Канон + РООИ «Реабилитация», 2010. Works available online"Problems of the History of Philosophy" Translated from the Russian by Robert Daglish. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1973; the main Trends in Philosophy. A Theoretical Analysis of the History of Philosophy. Translated by H. Campbell Creighton, M. A.. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1988. ISBN 5-01-000506-9 (The book was in 1979 awarded the Plekhanov prize under the decision of the
Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities. In common parlance, or when contrasted with deism, the term describes the classical conception of God, found in monotheism – or gods found in polytheistic religions—a belief in God or in gods without the rejection of revelation as is characteristic of deism. Atheism is understood as rejection of theism in the broadest sense of theism, i.e. the rejection of belief in God or gods. The claim that the existence of any deity is unknown or unknowable is agnosticism; the term theism derives from the Greek theos or theoi meaning "god". The term theism was first used by Ralph Cudworth. In Cudworth's definition, they are "strictly and properly called Theists, who affirm, that a conscious understanding being, or mind, existing of itself from eternity, was the cause of all other things". Monotheism is the belief in theology; some modern day monotheistic religions include Christianity, Islam, Baha'i Faith, Zoroastrianism and some forms of Hinduism.
There have been many proofs of Monotheism postulated by a multitude of philosophers and academics throughout history. However, many of these proofs have been misinterpreted. Polytheism is the belief. In practice, polytheism is not just the belief. Within polytheism there are hard and soft varieties: Hard polytheism views the gods as being distinct and separate beings. Soft polytheism views the gods as being subsumed into a greater whole; some other forms of Hinduism such as Smartism/Advaita Vedanta serve as examples of soft polytheism. Polytheism is divided according to how the individual deities are regarded: Henotheism: The viewpoint/belief that there may be more than one deity, but only one of them is worshiped. Kathenotheism: The viewpoint/belief that there is more than one deity, but only one deity is worshiped at a time or and another may be worthy of worship at another time or place. If they are worshiped one at a time each is supreme in turn. Monolatrism: The belief that there may be more than one deity, but that only one is worthy of being worshiped.
Most of the modern monotheistic religions may have begun as monolatric ones, although this is disputed. Pantheism: The belief that the physical universe is equivalent to god, that there is no division between a Creator and the substance of its creation. Panentheism: Like Pantheism, the belief that the physical universe is joined to a god or gods. However, it believes that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and extends beyond time and space. Examples include the philosophy of Baruch Spinoza; some find the distinction between these two beliefs ambiguous and unhelpful, while others see it as a significant point of division. Pantheism may be understood a type of Nontheism, where the physical universe takes on some of the roles of a theistic God, other roles of God viewed as unnecessary. Classical Deism is the belief that one God exists and created the world, but that the Creator does/do not alter the original plan for the universe, but presides over it in the form of Providence.
Deism rejects supernatural events prominent in organized religion. Instead, Deism holds that religious beliefs must be founded on human reason and observed features of the natural world, that these sources reveal the existence of a supreme being as creator. Pandeism: The belief that God preceded the universe and created it, but is now equivalent with it. Polydeism: The belief that multiple gods exist, but do not intervene in the universe. Autotheism is the viewpoint that, whether divinity is external or not, it is inherently within'oneself' and that one has the ability to achieve godhood; this can be in a selfless way, a way following the implications of statements attributed to ethical and religious leaders. Autotheism can refer to the belief that one's self is a deity, within the context of subjectivism. Hindus use the term, "aham Brahmāsmi" which means, "I am Brahman". Eutheism is the belief. Dystheism is the belief that a deity is not wholly good, is evil. Maltheism is the belief that a deity is wholly malicious.
Misotheism is active hatred for gods. Āstika and nāstika Theistic evolution