Objectivism is a philosophical system developed by Russian-American writer Ayn Rand. Rand first expressed Objectivism in her fiction, most notably The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged, in non-fiction essays and books. Leonard Peikoff, a professional philosopher and Rand's designated intellectual heir gave it a more formal structure. Rand described Objectivism as "the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, reason as his only absolute". Peikoff characterizes Objectivism as a "closed system" insofar as its "fundamental principles" were set out by Rand and are not subject to change. However, he stated that "new implications and integrations can always be discovered". Objectivism's main tenets are that reality exists independently of consciousness, that human beings have direct contact with reality through sense perception, that one can attain objective knowledge from perception through the process of concept formation and inductive logic, that the proper moral purpose of one's life is the pursuit of one's own happiness, that the only social system consistent with this morality is one that displays full respect for individual rights embodied in laissez-faire capitalism, that the role of art in human life is to transform humans' metaphysical ideas by selective reproduction of reality into a physical form—a work of art—that one can comprehend and to which one can respond emotionally.
Academic philosophers have ignored or rejected Rand's philosophy. Nonetheless, Objectivism has been a significant influence among libertarians and American conservatives; the Objectivist movement, which Rand founded, attempts to spread her ideas to the public and in academic settings. Rand expressed her philosophical ideas in her novels, most notably, The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged, she further elaborated on them in her periodicals The Objectivist Newsletter, The Objectivist, The Ayn Rand Letter, in non-fiction books such as Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology and The Virtue of Selfishness. The name "Objectivism" derives from the idea that human knowledge and values are objective: they exist and are determined by the nature of reality, to be discovered by one's mind, are not created by the thoughts one has. Rand stated that she chose the name because her preferred term for a philosophy based on the primacy of existence—"existentialism"—had been taken. Rand characterized Objectivism as "a philosophy for living on earth", based on reality, intended as a method of defining human nature and the nature of the world in which we live.
My philosophy, in essence, is the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, reason as his only absolute. Rand's philosophy begins with three axioms: existence and identity. Rand defined an axiom as "a statement that identifies the base of knowledge and of any further statement pertaining to that knowledge, a statement contained in all others whether any particular speaker chooses to identify it or not. An axiom is a proposition that defeats its opponents by the fact that they have to accept it and use it in the process of any attempt to deny it." As Objectivist philosopher Leonard Peikoff argued, Rand's argument for axioms "is not a proof that the axioms of existence and identity are true. It is proof that they are axioms, that they are at the base of knowledge and thus inescapable."Rand said that existence is the perceptually self-evident fact at the base of all other knowledge, i.e. that "existence exists".
She further said that to be is to be something, that "existence is identity". That is, to be is to be "an entity of a specific nature made of specific attributes"; that which has no nature or attributes can not exist. The axiom of existence is conceptualized as differentiating something from nothing, while the law of identity is conceptualized as differentiating one thing from another, i.e. one's first awareness of the law of non-contradiction, another crucial base for the rest of knowledge. As Rand wrote, "A leaf... cannot be all red and green at the same time, it cannot freeze and burn at the same time... A is A.". Rand argued that consciousness is "the faculty of perceiving that which exists"; as she put it, "to be conscious is to be conscious of something", consciousness itself cannot be distinguished or conceptualized except in relation to an independent reality. "It cannot be aware only of itself—there is no'itself' until it is aware of something." Thus, Objectivism posits that the mind does not create reality, but rather, it is a means of discovering reality.
Expressed differently, existence has "primacy" over consciousness. Any other type of argument Rand termed "the primacy of consciousness", including any variant of metaphysical subjectivism or theism. Objectivist philosophy derives its explanations of action and causation from the axiom of identity, referring to causation as "the law of identity applied to action". According to Rand, it is entities that act, every action is the action of an entity; the way entities act is caused by the specific nature of those entities. As with the other axioms, an implicit understanding of causation is derived from one's primary observations of causal connections among entities before it is verbally identified, serves as the basis of further knowledge. According to Rand, attaining knowledge beyond what is given by perception requires both vol
Kulada Charan Das Gupta was the Chief Justice of Calcutta High Court and Judge of The Supreme Court of India. Kulada Charan Das Gupta was born in a Bengali middle class family of Kalia village in British India, his father Annada Charan was a government servant. He studied from Hindu School and passed B. A from the Presidency College, Kolkata in 1920 with first class in Economics, he went to Magdalene College under Cambridge University and received Economics Tripos in 1923. After passing the Indian Civil Service in 1925 he choose judicial service and joined as Assistant Magistrate and collector in Bengal under British Government, he took leave for higher study in Law. In 1938 Das Gupta was called to the Bar from Gray's Inn, he became the judge of Calcutta High Court since 1948 and elevated to the post Chief Justice in 1958. After retirement of Justice Phani Bhusan Chakravartti he took over the charge of Chief Justice 1948 to 1959. In October, 1958 Das Gupta became the Chairman, Commission to enquire into Monopolies and Concentration of Wealth.
He was promoted as a Justice of the Supreme Court of India on 24 August 1959 after retirement of Hon'ble Justice N. H. Bhagwati. Apart from law Das Gupta was a scholar of Economics and Sanskrit Literature
Gerhard Nebel was a German author and conservative cultural critic. Nebel studied philosophy and classical philology in Freiburg and Heidelberg from 1923 to 1927, under Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers, he worked as a teacher in the Ruhr for a short time but was suspended for "socialist agitation", being a member of the Socialist Workers' Party of Germany. He resumed teaching in 1933, was again suspended within a year, he travelled to Egypt, where he worked as a private tutor, intermittently working in Germany in 1937 before travelling in East Africa during 1938/9. Nebel was drafted into the Luftwaffe and worked as a translator in Paris in 1941, where he met Ernst Jünger. After comparing fighter airplanes with insects in an essay, he was demoted and transferred as a construction soldier to Alderney. After the war, he worked again as a teacher, he published his diaries, the essay collections Von den Elementen and Tyrannis und Freiheit. He retired in 1955, working as an independent author, his last book Hamann appearing in 1973.
Nebel switched his ideological alignment several times during his life. His temper was choleric, his style polemic and zealous. Feuer und Wasser. Hamburg 1939. Vom Geist der Savanne. Hamburg 1941. Von den Elementen. Essays. Marées, Wuppertal 1947. Tyrannis und Freiheit. Drei Eulen, Düsseldorf 1947. Bei den nördlichen Hesperiden. Tagebuch aus dem Jahre 1942. Marées, Wuppertal 1948. Ernst Jünger und das Schicksal des Menschen. Marées, Wuppertal 1948. Ernst Jünger. Abenteuer des Geistes. Marées, Wuppertal 1949. Auf ausonischer Erde. Italienisches Tagebuch 1943/44. Marées, Wuppertal 1949. Unter Partisanen und Kreuzfahrern. Klett, Stuttgart 1950. Weltangst und Götterzorn. Eine Deutung der griechischen Tragödie. Klett, Stuttgart 1951. Die Reise nach Tuggurt. Klett, Stuttgart 1952. Das Ereignis des Schönen. Klett, Stuttgart 1953. Phäakische Inseln. Eine Reise zum kanarischen Archipel. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1954. Feuer und Wasser. Ostafrikanische Bilder und Erinnerungen. Stuttgart 1955. Die Not der Götter. Welt und Mythos der Germanen.
Hoffmann und Campe. Hamburg 1957. An den Säulen des Herakles. Andalusische und marokkanische Begegnungen. Klett, Hamburg 1957. Homer. Klett, Stuttgart 1959. Pindar und die Delphik. Klett, Stuttgart 1961. Orte und Feste. Zwischen Elm und Esterel. Hoffmann und Campe, Hamburg 1962. Hinter dem Walde. 16 Lektionen für Zeitgenossen. Hoffmann und Campe, Hamburg 1964. Zeit und Zeiten. Klett, Stuttgart 1965. Portugiesische Tage. Hoffmann und Campe, Hamburg 1966. Die Geburt der Philosophie. Klett, Stuttgart 1967. Meergeborenes Land. Griechische Reisen. Hoffmann und Campe, Hamburg 1968. Sokrates. Klett, Stuttgart 1969. Sprung von des Tigers Rücken. Klett, Stuttgart 1970. Hamann. Klett, Stuttgart 1973, ISBN 3-12-906060-X. Schmerz des Vermissens. Essays.ed. Gerald Zschorsch, Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-608-93458-8. „alles Gefühl ist leiblich“. Ein Stück Autobiographie, ed. Nicolai Riedel, Marbach 2003, ISBN 3-933679-91-5. Ernst Jünger, Gerhard Nebel: Briefe, ed. Ulrich Fröschle und Michael Neumann. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-608-93626-2.
Zwischen den Fronten. Kriegstagebücher 1942–1945. Ed. Michael Zeller, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-937989-69-3. Franz Lennartz: Gerhard Nebel. In: Deutsche Schriftsteller des 20. Jahrhunderts im Spiegel der Kritik. Band 2. Kröner, Stuttgart 1984, ISBN 3-520-82101-X, S. 1273-1276. Lutz Hagestedt: Januskopf, Bezauberer und Epigone. Der Essayist Gerhard Nebel in einer Auswahl seiner Essays. In: literaturkritik.de. Nr. 1. Januar 2001. Erik Lehnert. "Gerhard Nebel". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 22. Nordhausen: Bautz. Cols. 887–890. ISBN 3-88309-133-2. Hans Dieter Haller: Gerhard Nebel in: Pegasus auf dem Land - Schriftsteller in Hohenlohe, Crailsheim 2006, S. 94–99, ISBN 978-3-929233-62-9. François Poncet: Gerhard Nebel. „Ein gewaltiger Verhöhner des Zeitgeistes“. Fink, München 2013. ISBN 978-3-7705-5287-0