An obscenity is any utterance or act that offends the prevalent morality of the time. It is derived from obscaenus, "boding ill; the word can be used to indicate a strong moral repugnance, in expressions such as "obscene profits" or "the obscenity of war". As a legal term, it refers to graphic depictions of people engaged in sexual and excretory activity. In the United States of America, issues of obscenity raise issues of limitations on the freedom of speech and of the press, which are otherwise protected by the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. Federal obscenity law in the U. S. is unusual in. Former Justice Potter Stewart of the Supreme Court of the United States, in attempting to classify what material constituted "what is obscene," famously wrote, "I shall not today attempt further to define the kinds of material I understand to be embraced... ut I know it when I see it...." In the United States, the 1973 ruling of the Supreme Court of the United States in Miller v. California established a three-tiered test to determine what was obscene—and thus not protected, versus what was erotic and thus protected by the First Amendment.
Delivering the opinion of the court, Chief Justice Warren Burger wrote: The basic guidelines for the trier of fact must be: whether the average person, applying contemporary community standards would find that the work, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest, whether the work depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct defined by the applicable state law. While most recent obscenity cases in the United States have revolved around images and films, the first obscenity cases dealt with textual works; the classification of "obscene" and thus illegal for production and distribution has been judged on printed text-only stories starting with "Dunlop v. U. S. 165 U. S. 486", which upheld a conviction for mailing and delivery of a newspaper called the'Chicago Dispatch,' containing "obscene, lewd and indecent materials", upheld in several cases. One of these was "A Book Named John Cleland's Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure" v. Attorney General of Com. of Massachusetts, "383 U.
S. 413" written by John Cleland c. 1760, was judged to be obscene in a proceeding that put the book itself on trial rather than its publisher. Another was "Kaplan v. California, 413 U. S. 115" whereby the court most famously determined that "Obscene material in book form is not entitled to any First Amendment protection because it has no pictorial content." In 2005, the U. S. Department of Justice formed the Obscenity Prosecution Task Force in a push to prosecute obscenity cases. Red Rose Stories, a site dedicated to text-only fantasy stories, became one of many sites targeted by the FBI for shutdown; the government alleged. The publisher pleaded guilty. Extreme pornographer Max Hardcore served 30 months of a 46-month prison sentence for obscenity. Many U. S. states have had bans on the sale of sex toys, regulating them as obscene devices. Some states have seen their sex toy bans ruled unconstitutional in the courts; that ruling leaves only Mississippi and Virginia with current bans on the sale of obscene devices.
Literature communicating contraceptive information was prohibited by several states. The last such prohibition, in Connecticut, was overturned judicially in 1965. In 1957, two associates of acclaimed poet Allen Ginsberg were arrested and jailed for selling his book "Howl and Other Poems" to undercover police officers at a beatnik bookstore in San Francisco; the California Supreme Court declared the literature to be of "redeeming social value" and therefore not classifiable as "obscene". Because the poem "Howl" contains pornographic slang and overt references to drugs and homosexuality, the poem was censored and confiscated. FCC v. Pacifica better known as the landmark "seven dirty words" case. In that ruling, the Court found that only "repetitive and frequent" use of the words in a time or place when a minor could hear can be punished. In State v. Henry, the Oregon Supreme Court ruled that the Oregon state law that criminalized obscenity was an unconstitutional restriction of free speech under the free speech provision of the Oregon Constitution, with the ruling making Oregon the "first state in the nation to abolish the offense of obscenity."
In Reno v. ACLU, the Supreme Court struck down indecency laws applying to the Internet. In Miller v. California - the currently-binding Supreme Court precedent on the issue - the Court ruled materials were obscene if they appealed, "to a prurient interest", showed "patently offensive sexual conduct", defined by a state obscenity law, "lacked serious artistic, political, or scientific value." Decisions regarding whether material was obscene should be based on local, not national, standards. Standards superseded by the Miller Test include: Wepplo: If material has a substantial tendency to deprave or corrupt its readers by inciting lascivious thoughts or arousing lustful desires.. Hicklin test: the effect of isolated passages upon the most susceptible persons. (British common law, cited in Regina v. Hicklin, 1868. LR 3 QB 360 - overturned when Michigan tried to outlaw all printed matter that would'corrupt the morals of youth' in Butler v. St
FK Napredok is a football club from Kičevo, North Macedonia. They are competing in the Macedonian Third League; the club was founded under the name Jadran. After World War II, it had the name Jančica until 1952. Team colors are blue and white, while its biggest accomplishment was finalist in the 2003–04 Macedonian Cup. FK Napredok supporters are called the Gjaoli. Macedonian Second League: Winners: 1998–99 Runners-up: 1995–96, 2000–01, 2005–06 Macedonian Football Cup: Runners-up: 2003–04 FK Napredok on Facebook Club info at MacedonianFootball Football Federation of Macedonia
Union Sportive Apt XIII are a French Rugby league club based in Vaucluse in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region. The club plays in the French National Division 2 Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur regional league. Founded during the early 1950s US Apt XIII reached their first final in season 57/58. Not only did they reach the old 2nd Division nowadays called the National Division 1 3rd tier competition final but they won against AS Clairac XIII 18-8; the club had to wait until 1983 before another final appearance, this time victory came in the Coupe Falcou. Season 91/92 brought their next tilt at success but this time they were runners-up to Le Barcares XIII in the Federal Division now known as the National Division 2 losing 6-19. National Division 1: 1957-58 Coupe Falcou: 1983 President: Christian Amic Club Address: Les Cobras d'Apt XIII, ZAC la Peyroliere, 84400 Apt Fax: 04 90 74 30 02 Contacts: Christian Amic - Michel Durand Email: firstname.lastname@example.org National Division 2 Club Website