A military artillery observer or spotter or FO is responsible for directing artillery and mortar fire onto a target, may be a Forward Air Controller for close air support and spotter for naval gunfire support. Known as "Fire Support Specialist" or "FISTer", an observer accompanies a tank or infantry manoeuvre unit. More a mission controller for an Army Unmanned Air System may perform this function, some armies use special artillery patrols behind the enemy's forward elements. Spotters ensure that indirect fire hits targets which the troops at the fire support base cannot see. Broadly, there are two different approaches to artillery observation. Either the observer has command authority and orders fire, including the type and amount of ammunition to be fired, to batteries. Or the observer requests fire from an artillery headquarters at some level, which decides if fire will be provided, by which batteries, the type and amount of ammunition to be provided; the first is characterised by the second by the United States.
In World War II both Germany and the Soviet Union tended towards the British method. Because artillery is an indirect fire weapon system, the guns are in line-of-sight of their target located miles away; the observer serves as the eyes of the guns, by sending target locations and if necessary corrections to the fall of shot by radio. In the US System the observer sends a request for fire to his battalion or battery Fire Direction Center; the FDC decides how much fire to permit and may request additional fire from a higher artillery headquarters. FDC convert the observer's target information into firing data for the battery's weapons. In the British system the observer sends a fire order to his own and any other batteries authorised to them, may request fire from additional batteries; each battery command post converts the fire orders into firing data for its own guns. Until post-World War II the observer would order actual firing data to the guns of his own troop, this was enabled by the use of calibrating sights on the guns.
On land, artillery observers are considered high-priority targets by enemy forces, as they control a great amount of firepower, are within visual range of the enemy, may be located within enemy territory. In the U. S. Army, a Light, Heavy, or Stryker Infantry company Fire Support Team consists of a Fire Support Officer, a Fire Support Sergeant, three Forward Observers, two Fire Support Specialists and three Radio Telephone Operators. Armored/Cavalry FIST teams consist of just one FSO and three enlisted personnel. Brigade COLT teams operate in groups of two individuals, a Fire support specialist in the grade of E-1 to E-4 and a Fire Support Sergeant in the grade of E-5. In unit training is beginning to incorporate more close air support and close combat attack missions into the field artillery team's mission. In the U. S. Marine Corps, scout observers act as naval gunfire spotters and call for and adjust artillery and naval gunfire support, coordinate fire support assets to include mortars, artillery, NSFS and CAS/CIFS.
A rifle company Fire Support Team consists of a Fire Support Officer, Forward Air Controller or Joint Terminal Attack Controller, two scout observers, two radio operators. In Weapons Company, the Fire Support Coordination Center determines fire support asset allocation to each rifle company FiST, supervises the planning and execution of each FiST's fire support plan. Key players in the FSCC include the Fire Support Coordinator, Battalion Fire Support Officer, Battalion Air Officer. For centuries the Battery Commander had been responsible for controlling the fire of his battery; this continued with the introduction of indirect fire in the early years of the 20th Century. However, the First World War introduced seven days a week fighting. Furthermore indirect fire had increased the distance between the guns and their targets, between the observers and their guns; this led to the use of observing officers to act on behalf of the battery commander. In the 1938 re-organisation of the Royal Artillery batteries were divided into troops, with the troop commanders as observing officers at an.
These officers and their parties could operate as either as an Observation Post or accompany the supported arm as Forward Observation Officers. During World War II it became the practice for close support battery commanders to become part of the tank regiment or infantry battalion headquarters they were supporting, they started using'quick fireplans' limited to their own regiment, to support fast moving limited battalion actions. FOOs were assigned to a company or squadron of a battalion or regiment that their battery was supporting. In the British artillery system FOOs were always authorised to order fire commands to their own troop or battery, based on their assessment of the tactical situation and if necessary liaison with the supported arm commander. From mid World War II some artillery observers were authorised to order fire to all batteries of their regiment, it became the practice for some observers to be designated'Commander's Representative' able to order fire to a divisional or corps artillery.
Unauthorised officers could request fire from more than their own battery. During that war it became the practice that FOOs arranged quick fireplans comprising several coordinated targets engaged by guns and mortars to support short offensive actions by the squadron or company they were with. In World War II OP/FOO parties were mounted in an armoured
Alertness is the state of active attention by high sensory awareness such as being watchful and prompt to meet danger or emergency, or being quick to perceive and act. It is related to psychology as well as to physiology. A lack of alertness is a symptom of a number of conditions, including narcolepsy, attention deficit disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, Addison's disease, or sleep deprivation. Pronounced lack of alertness can be graded as an altered level of consciousness; the word is formed from "alert", which comes from the Italian "all'erta" People who have to be alert during their jobs, such as air traffic controllers or pilots face challenges maintaining their alertness. Research shows that for people "...engaged in attention-intensive and monotonous tasks, retaining a constant level of alertness is rare if not impossible." If people employed in safety-related or transportation jobs have lapses in alertness, this "may lead to severe consequences in occupations ranging from air traffic control to monitoring of nuclear power plants."
During the Second World War, US soldiers and aviators were given benzedrine, an amphetamine drug, to increase their alertness during long periods on duty. While air force pilots are able to use the drug to remain awake during combat flights, the use of amphetamines by commercial airline pilots is forbidden. British troops used 72 million amphetamine tablets in the second world war and the RAF used so many that "Methedrine won the Battle of Britain" according to one report. American bomber pilots use amphetamines to stay awake during long missions; the Tarnak Farm incident, in which an American F-16 pilot killed several friendly Canadian soldiers on the ground, was blamed by the pilot on his use of amphetamine. A nonjudicial hearing rejected the pilot's claim. Amphetamines are used by high-school students as a study and test-taking aid. Amphetamine increases energy levels and motivation, allowing students to study for an extended period of time; these drugs are acquired through ADHD prescriptions to students and peers, rather than illicitly produced drugs.
Cocaine is used to increase alertness. Eugeroics including Modafinil have gained popularity with the US Military. Vigilance is an important trait for animals. A reduction in alertness is observed for animals that live in larger groups. Studies on vigilance have been conducted on various animals including the scaly-breasted munia
A bunker is a defensive military fortification designed to protect people and valued materials from falling bombs or other attacks. Bunkers are underground, in contrast to blockhouses which are above ground, they were used extensively in World War I, World War II, the Cold War for weapons facilities and control centers, storage facilities. Bunkers can be used as protection from tornadoes. Trench bunkers are small concrete structures dug into the ground. Many artillery installations for coastal artillery, have been protected by extensive bunker systems. Typical industrial bunkers include mining sites, food storage areas, dumps for materials, data storage, sometimes living quarters; when a house is purpose-built with a bunker, the normal location is a reinforced below-ground bathroom with fibre-reinforced plastic shells. Bunkers deflect the blast wave from nearby explosions to prevent ear and internal injuries to people sheltering in the bunker. Nuclear bunkers must cope with the underpressure that lasts for several seconds after the shock wave passes, block radiation.
A bunker's door must be at least as strong as the walls. In bunkers inhabited for prolonged periods, large amounts of ventilation or air conditioning must be provided. Bunkers can be destroyed with bunker-busting warheads; the word bunker originates as a Scots word for "bench, seat" recorded 1758, alongside shortened bunk "sleeping berth". The word has a Scandinavian origin: Old Swedish bunke means "boards used to protect the cargo of a ship". In the 19th century the word came to describe a coal store below decks in a ship, it was used for a sand-filled depression installed on a golf course as a hazard. In the First World War as the belligerents built underground shelters called dugouts in English, while the Germans used the term bunker: By the Second World War the term came to be used by the Germans to describe permanent structures both large; the military sense of the word was imported into English during World War II, at first in reference to German dug-outs. All the early references to its usage in the Oxford English Dictionary are to German fortifications.
However in the Far East the term was applied to the earth and log positions built by the Japanese, the term appearing in a 1943 instruction manual issued by the British Indian Army and gaining wide currency. By 1947 the word was familiar enough in English that Hugh Trevor-Roper in The Last Days of Hitler was describing Hitler's underground complex near the Reich Chancellery as "Hitler's own bunker" without quotes around the word bunker; this type of bunker is a small concrete structure dug into the ground, a part of a trench system. Such bunkers give the defending soldiers better protection than the open trench and include top protection against aerial attack, they provide shelter against the weather. Some bunkers may have open tops to allow weapons to be discharged with the muzzle pointing upwards. Many artillery installations for coastal artillery, have been protected by extensive bunker systems; these housed the crews serving the weapons, protected the ammunition against counter-battery fire, in numerous examples protected the guns themselves, though this was a trade-off reducing their fields of fire.
Artillery bunkers are some of the largest individual pre-Cold War bunkers. The walls of the'Batterie Todt' gun installation in northern France were up to 3.5 metres thick, an underground bunker was constructed for the V-3 cannon. Typical industrial bunkers include mining sites, food storage areas, dumps for materials, data storage, sometimes living quarters, they were built by nations like Germany during World War II to protect important industries from aerial bombardment. Industrial bunkers are built for control rooms of dangerous activities, such as tests of rocket engines or explosive experiments, they are built in order to perform dangerous experiments in them or to store radioactive or explosive goods. Such bunkers exist on non-military facilities; when a house is purpose-built with a bunker, the normal location is a reinforced below-ground bathroom with large cabinets. One common design approach uses fibre-reinforced plastic shells. Compressive protection may be provided by inexpensive earth arching.
The overburden is designed to shield from radiation. To prevent the shelter from floating to the surface in high groundwater, some designs have a skirt held-down with the overburden, it may serve the purpose of a safe room. Munitions storage bunkers are designed to securely store explosive ordnance, contain any internal explosions; the most common configuration for high explosives storage is the igloo shaped bunker. They are built into a hillside in order to provide additional containment mass. A specialized version of the munitions bunker called a Gravel Gertie is designed to contain radioactive debris from an explosive accident while assembling or disassembling nuclear warheads, they are installed at all facilities in the United States and United Kingdom which do warhead assembly and disassembly, the largest being the Pantex plant in Amarillo, which has 12 Gravel Gerties. Bunkers deflect the blast wave from nearby explosions to prevent ear and internal injuri
A border outpost, border out post, border observation post or BOP is an outpost maintained by a sovereign state on its border one of a series placed at regular intervals, to watch over and safeguard its border with a neighboring state with whom it may or may not have cordial relations. Such posts are manned by border guards and are at all times connected by radio communication with ongoing border patrols in their region and the force headquarters in the interior of the country for their day-to-day functioning, passing on intelligence and for requesting supplies and any needed reinforcements in emergencies. Depending on the length and breath of a country's borders and geography, are located in a wide variety of terrain, including the inhospitable areas that mark political boundaries. Border outposts, where available, are built on strategic locations which are elevated at the highest points in the local terrain and where possible on hilltops along the border. Depending upon international relations with the neighboring country and local strategic needs, BOPs are sometimes built with an assortment of a few administration and residential buildings or tents, an armory, bunkers, wire obstacles and fortified machine gun positions with a watchtower.
A flagpole flying the country's national flag may be located on the premise along with a Wireless Communication Antenna and a designated clearing as a make-do helipad. Border outposts are manned in peacetime by the border guard to check smuggling, infiltration by spies of untrusted neighboring countries, insurgents bent on smuggling weapons and explosives for terrorist attacks and subversive activities, illegal immigration and human trafficking etc.. They have watchtowers where soldiers are posted day and night on Sentry duty looking for intruders and illegal cross-border activity of any kind. Patrols go out to patrol the international border to check illegal crossings and track any footprints of those who may have crossed over illegally or attempted to. In case intrusion by foreign elements is confirmed, it is the responsibility of the Border guard based on the BOP to trace the intruders by checking the nearby settlements and towns and inform the law enforcement agencies and Police authorities.
During wartime however the Border guard, the special forces tasked with patrolling the border in peacetime, withdraw from the Border outposts and provide assistance in a limited capacity to the country's regular Army which comes and mans all the border outposts at the international border facing the enemy neighboring country. Wartime assistance of the Border guard to the Army is essential as they are familiar with the local terrain having patrolled it on a daily basis during peacetime. During wars these BOPs are reworked into well fortified dug-in positions from where regular Army units can operate to defend the territorial integrity of the country. Border checkpoint Outpost Observation post Border guardNon-military: Human outpost
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
A military front or battlefront is a contested armed frontier between opposing forces. It can be a local or tactical front. A typical front was the Western Front in France and Belgium in World War I; the term "home front" has been used to denote conditions in the civilian sector of a country at war, including those involved in the production of matériel. Both the Soviet and Polish Armies used the term "front" to mean an army group during the Polish-Soviet War and World War II; the equivalent of the term established in the header was the "Theater of military operations". The term "front line city" was used by the Germans during their long retreat from Moscow/Stalingrad to refer to metropolitan centres that had become disputed by the two combatants. Designation of a city as such resulted in administrative changes. In the film Downfall, the term was referenced; the term "transferred to the front" is used by soldiers or personnel when their position has been changed from other activities. Front line Rear