Occidental College

Occidental College is a private liberal arts college in Los Angeles, California. Founded in 1887 by clergy and members of the Presbyterian Church, it is now a non-sectarian institution and one of the oldest liberal arts colleges on the West Coast of the United States. Occidental College was founded on April 20, 1887, by a group of Presbyterian clergy and laymen, including James George Bell, Lyman Stewart, Thomas Bard; the cornerstone of the school's first building was laid in September 1887 in the Boyle Heights now East Los Angeles neighborhood of Los Angeles. The college's first term began a year with 27 male and 13 female students, tuition of $50 a year. In 1896, the Boyle Heights building was destroyed by fire; the college temporarily relocated to the old St. Vincent's College campus on Hill Street before a new site was selected in Highland Park in 1898; the college erected three main buildings: the Academy Building, the Stimson Library, the Hall of Arts and Letters. The Highland Park site was bisected by the tracks of the Santa Fe Railroad, was the site of two presidential visits, first by William Howard Taft in 1909 and subsequently by Theodore Roosevelt in 1911.

In 1909, the Pomona College Board of Trustees suggested a merger between Pomona and Occidental, but the proposal came to nothing. The following year, the college severed formal ties with the Presbyterian Church and became a non-sectarian, non-denominational institution; the small size of the 15-acre campus and the disruption caused by frequent freight trains pushed the college's trustees to find a new location. In 1912, the school began construction of a new campus located in Los Angeles' Eagle Rock neighborhood; the Eagle Rock campus was designed by noted California architect Myron Hunt known as the planner of the California Institute of Technology campus and as designer of the Huntington Library and Art Gallery and the Rose Bowl. That same year, Occidental President John Willis Baer announced the trustees' decision to convert Occidental College into an all-men's institution; however and faculty protested, the idea was abandoned. In 1913, the Occidental College Board of Trustees announced plans to convert the college to a men's school.

The plans were met with widespread backlash from students and faculty. The community outcry garnered national headlines and the board dropped the proposal. Two weeks after Booker T. Washington came to visit Occidental, on March 27, 1914, Swan and Johnson Halls were dedicated at its new Eagle Rock campus. Patterson Field, today one of the oldest collegiate sports stadiums in Los Angeles, was opened in 1916. In April 1917, shortly after the United States entered World War I, the college formed a Students Army Training Corps to aid the war effort. Under Occidental President Remsen Bird, the school opened a series of new Hunt-designed buildings, including Clapp Library, Hillside Theatre and a women's dormitory in 1925, Alumni Gymnasium, the Freeman Student Union and a music and speech building; the Delta of California chapter of Phi Beta Kappa was established at Occidental in 1926, at a time when the only other chapters in California were at Stanford, UC Berkeley, Pomona. English novelist Aldous Huxley, who spoke at Occidental's convocation ceremony in the then-new Thorne Hall in 1938, lampooned President Remsen Bird as Dr. Herbert Mulge of Tarzana College in his 1939 novel, After Many a Summer Dies the Swan.

Huxley was never again invited back to campus. During World War II, many students left Occidental to fight in the war. In July 1943, the U. S. Navy established a Navy V-12 officer training program on campus that produced hundreds of graduates before it was disbanded in 1945 at the end of the war. Occidental President Remsen Bird worked behind the scenes to help Oxy students of Japanese descent continue their education despite mandatory evacuation orders. After having its first Rhodes Scholar, Clarence Spaulding, named in 1908, Oxy seniors John Paden and Aaron Segal were awarded Rhodes Scholarships in 1958. Rhodes scholars Aaron Segal and John Paden were among the 10 Occidental students who participated in Crossroads Africa that year, a forerunner to the Peace Corps that became a national program. In 1969, 42 students were suspended for peacefully protesting military recruiting on campus. One year faculty voted to suspend classes in the wake of the Kent State shootings and America's invasion of Cambodia.

Subsequently, Oxy students wrote 7,000 letters to Washington D. C. protesting U. S. involvement in the war in Southeast Asia. Occidental launched one of the country's first Upward Bound programs in 1966, aimed at increasing the number of low-income, underrepresented high school students who become the first in their family to go to college. In 1969, the school opened its first two co-ed dormitories, two more followed a year later. In 1988, John Brooks Slaughter became Occidental's first black president. Building on faculty and student advocacy and a series of grants the college had received to increase the diversity of the Occidental student body, Slaughter led the process of creating a new mission statement, still used today. Slaughter led the college's community outreach expansion with the creation of the Center for Volunteerism and Community Service, the predecessor for the current Center for Community Based Learning. In November 1990, the college established as a Presbyterian institution but is no longer religious

Trinity Church, Dublin

Trinity Church, Dublin called the Protestant Episcopal Church, was a Church of Ireland church begun in 1838 but opened in 1839 in Gardiner Street Dublin. It was designed by Frederick Darley who designed many buildings in Trinity College Dublin, the church would have accommodated 1,800 people; the first rector was the future Bishop of Cork, Rev. John Gregg from 1839 until his elevation in 1862 to Bishop. Mr. Vance wealthy Dublin businessman funded it, so long as Rev. Gregg could raise the other half of the money required to build it, which he did, it was Propriety Church independently funded by wealthy laypeople, the term Episcopal was used to distinguish it from other movements in the reformed faith at the time, the church was evangelical, verging on Calvinist. Trinity Church Schools were developed along Beresford lane. Rev. Thomas Preston Ball served as Chaplain of Trinity Church, from 1879 to 1884; the Rev. John Olphert Gage Dougherty served as Rector of Trinity Church, from 1902 to 1904. George Howard, 7th Earl of Carlisle, attended services in the Church as did the future provost of Trinity College John Pentland Mahaffy.

Rev. Henry Irwin served as assistant chaplain to Bishop Gregg. Rev. A. Thomas was assistant chaplain; the Trinity Church built in 1839, closed in about 1909. It served as an Employment Exchange for a century, the building became known as The Exchange. In the 2000's it reverted to being a church used by a non-denominational Christian group, renamed itself The Trinity Church Network. Other protestant episcopal churches at the time in Dublin were:- Bethesda Chapel, Dorset Street, Dublin. St. George's Church, Temple Street, Dublin. Free Church, Great Charles Street, Dublin. Episcopal Chapel, Upper Baggot Street, Dublin. Swift's Alley Free Church, Francis Street, Dublin Plunket Street Meeting House, Plunket St, Dublin Magdalen Asylum Chapel, Leeson Street, Dublin Mariners' Church, Dún Laoghaire

Mahmoud (horse)

Mahmoud was a French-bred, British-trained Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. In a career which lasted from April 1935 to September 1936 he won four races. In 1935 he won two of Britain's most important two-year-old races and was rated the second best colt of his generation. In 1936 he won only once from five starts, but this win came in The Derby in which he set a race record which stood for fifty-nine years, became the third of only four greys to win the race. After being retired from racing he was sold and exported to the United States, where he became a successful breeding stallion and was America's Champion sire in 1946. Mahmoud was a light-coloured grey horse of distinctly Arab appearance standing just under 15.3 hands high bred in France by his owner the Aga Khan. As a yearling he was considered surplus to requirements by his owner and put up for auction at the Deauville sales; when he failed to reach his reserve price the Aga Khan decided to race him and sent him to England to be trained by Frank Butters at the Fitzroy House stable in Newmarket, Suffolk.

Mahmoud's parents were the Derby winner Blenheim and the grey mare Mah Mahal, both of whom raced in the Aga Khan's colours. He was the first foal of Mah Mahal, who made little impact as a racehorse, winning two unimportant contests, but was an influential broodmare, with her descendants including Migoli and Petite Etoile. Mahmoud began his career by running a race at Newmarket in the spring, declared void after thirteen of the sixteen jockeys failed to notice a false start and completed the full course. In June Mahmoud ran at Royal Ascot and finished third in the New Stakes behind Dorothy Paget's unnamed "Bossover colt", named Wyndham. Mahmoud established himself as one of the best two-year-olds of the season by winning his next three races, he won the Exeter Stakes at Newmarket's July meeting and moved up in class for the Richmond Stakes over six furlongs at Goodwood in the month. He won "very stylishly" from Confession Vanbrugh. In the Champagne Stakes at Doncaster in September he led from the start and won again, defeating the French-bred colt Abjer by three quarters of a length and reversing the Ascot form with the Bossover colt who finished third.

At the time the race was regarded as having confirmed Mahmoud's position as the best two-year-old of the year. On his final start of the season, he ran in the Middle Park Stakes at Newmarket in October, one of the most prestigious two-year-old races of the season, he finished third, beaten two lengths and a head by Abjer and the Bossover colt, but appeared an unlucky loser, having lost a great deal of ground at the start. His status as a potential Derby winner was questioned after this defeat by some commentators who believed that his pedigree and performances suggested that he would struggle to stay one and a half miles. At least one of the leading British racing correspondents argued that he would not stay the one mile distance of the 2000 Guineas. In the Free Handicap, a ranking of the year's best two-year-olds, he was rated equal second, one pound behind his stable companion Bala Hissar, the winner of the Dewhurst Stakes, who some commentators felt had been overrated. Mahmoud began his three-year-old season with a run in the Greenham Stakes at Newbury.

He looked unimpressive in the paddock before the race and finished fifth behind his stable companion Noble King, appearing to be unsuited by the soft ground. In the 2000 Guineas at Newmarket on 29 April he was ridden by the fifty-one-year-old veteran Steve Donoghue and started at odds of 100/8. Mahmoud started poorly and Donoghue settled him behind the leaders with the intention of holding the colt up for a late run, but when the early pacemakers weakened, he found himself unable to obtain a clear run, he was forced to manoeuvre Mahmoud around several horses. Once in the clear, Mahmoud showed good acceleration to take the lead a furlong out but was caught in the closing strides and beaten a short head in a "thrilling finish" by Pay Up; the non-Thoroughbred outsider Thankerton finished third. At Epsom Mahmoud started at 100/8 for the Derby in a field of twenty-two runners, with Pay Up being made favourite. Mahmoud, ridden by Charlie Smirke, was seen as the Aga Khan's "third string" with his stable companions Taj Akbar, ridden by the Champion Jockey Gordon Richards, Bala Hissar being more fancied.

Apart from the Aga Khan's three runners, Mahmoud's trainer Frank Butters had Nonle King, another of the leading contenders in the race. After an unusually dry spring the ground at Epsom was exceptionally firm, bare of turf in some places, conditions which suited Mahmoud, but inconvenienced many of the other runners; the race attracted the customary huge attendance despite the dull conditions. Smirke held Mahmoud up towards the rear of the field in the early stages, moved him forward to fifth place at Tattenham Corner and did not make his challenge until the straight. Mahmoud made rapid progress on the outside to overtake Thankerton a furlong and a half from the finish and pulled clear to win by three lengths from Taj Akbar with Thankerton third. Pay Up finished unplaced and lame. Mahmoud's winning time of 2:33.8 set a race record which stood until Lammtarra ran 2:32.31 in 1995. Mahmoud reappeared in the St. James's Palace Stakes over one mile at Royal Ascot in which he was beaten five lengths by Rhodes Scholar, a colt, withdrawn from the Derby on account of the hard ground.

No excuse was offered by Mahmoud's connections for his defeat, although some observers felt that he had not recovered from his exertions at Epsom. At Newmarket two weeks lat