Occipital bone

The occipital bone is a cranial dermal bone and the main bone of the occiput. It is trapezoidal in shape and curved on itself like a shallow dish; the occipital bone overlies the occipital lobes of the cerebrum. At the base of skull in the occipital bone, there is a large oval opening called the foramen magnum, which allows the passage of the spinal cord. Like the other cranial bones, it is classed as a flat bone. Due to its many attachments and features, the occipital bone is described in terms of separate parts. From its front to the back is the basilar part called the basioccipital, at the sides of the foramen magnum are the lateral parts called the exoccipitals, the back is named as the squamous part; the basilar part is a thick, somewhat quadrilateral piece in front of the foramen magnum and directed towards the pharynx. The squamous part is the curved, expanded plate behind the foramen magnum and is the largest part of the occipital bone; the occipital bone, like the other seven cranial bones, has outer and inner layers of cortical bone tissue between, the cancellous bone tissue known in the cranial bones as diploë.

The bone is thick at the ridges, protuberances and anterior part of the basilar part. Near the middle of the outer surface of the squamous part of the occipital there is a prominence – the external occipital protuberance; the highest point of this is called the inion. From the inion, along the midline of the squamous part until the foramen magnum, runs a ridge – the external occipital crest and this gives attachment to the nuchal ligament. Running across the outside of the occipital bone are three curved lines and one line that runs down to the foramen magnum; these are known as the nuchal lines which give attachment to various muscles. They are named as the highest and inferior nuchal lines; the inferior nuchal line runs across the midpoint of the median nuchal line. The area above the highest nuchal line is termed the occipital plane and the area below this line is termed the nuchal plane; the inner surface of the occipital bone forms the base of the posterior cranial fossa. The foramen magnum is a large hole situated in the middle, with the clivus, a smooth part of the occipital bone travelling upwards in front of it.

The median internal occipital crest travels behind it to the internal occipital protuberance, serves as a point of attachment to the falx cerebri. To the sides of the foramen sitting at the junction between the lateral and base of the occipital bone are the hypoglossal canals. Further out, at each junction between the occipital and petrous portion of the temporal bone lies a jugular foramen; the inner surface of the occipital bone is marked by dividing lines as shallow ridges, that form four fossae or depressions. The lines are called the cruciform eminence. At the midpoint where the lines intersect a raised part is formed called the internal occipital protuberance. From each side of this eminence runs a groove for the transverse sinuses. There are two midline skull landmarks at the foramen magnum; the basion is the most anterior point of the opening and the opisthion is the point on the opposite posterior part. The basion lines up with the dens; the foramen magnum is a large oval foramen longest front to back.

The clivus, a smooth bony section, travels upwards on the front surface of the foramen, the median internal occipital crest travels behind it. Through the foramen passes the medulla oblongata and its membranes, the accessory nerves, the vertebral arteries, the anterior and posterior spinal arteries, the tectorial membrane and alar ligaments; the superior angle of the occipital bone articulates with the occipital angles of the parietal bones and, in the fetal skull, corresponds in position with the posterior fontanelle. The lateral angles are situated at the extremities of the groove for the transverse sinuses: each is received into the interval between the mastoid angle of the parietal bone, the mastoid portion of the temporal bone; the inferior angle is fused with the body of the sphenoid bone. The superior borders extend from the superior to the lateral angles: they are serrated for articulation with the occipital borders of the parietals, form by this union the lambdoidal suture; the inferior borders extend from the lateral angles to the inferior angle.

These two portions of the inferior border are separated from one another by the jugular process, the notch on the anterior surface of which forms the posterior part of the jugular foramen. The lambdoid suture joins the occipital bone to the parietal bones; the occipitomastoid suture joins the occipital mastoid portion of the temporal bone. The sphenobasilar suture joins the basilar part of the occipital bone and the back of the sphenoid bone body; the petrous-basilar suture joins the side edge of the basilar part of the occipital bone to the petrous-part of the temporal bone. The occipital plane of the squamous part of the occipital bone is developed in membrane, may remain separate throughout life when it constitutes the interparietal bone; the number of nuclei for the occipital plane is given as four, two appearing near the middle line about the second month, two some little distance from the middle line about the third month of f

International Boulevard (Oakland, California)

International Boulevard, East 14th Street, Mission Boulevard are a major road in Alameda County, California. The section now known as International Boulevard was named East 14th Street until 1996, owing to its position in the East Oakland grid plan. Mission Boulevard is so named as number 43300 is the location of Mission San José. South of 42nd Avenue and the end of California State Route 77, the street is signed as CA-185. International Boulevard, East 14th Street, Mission Boulevard are each among the longest continuously-named streets in the Bay Area individually, it is claimed that the section in Oakland was named International Boulevard due to the diversity in ethnic backgrounds among residents and business owners along the route. Fruitvale, a neighborhood of Oakland with a large Hispanic population, is centered on International Boulevard's intersections with Fruitvale and 35th Avenues, has seen considerable economic growth in recent years. Northwest of Fruitvale are many businesses long owned locally by East and Southeast Asian residents.

Much of the rest of International Boulevard bisects predominantly low-income African-American communities. Some portions of International Boulevard have gained a reputation as areas of prostitution, are part of Oakland's continuing troubles with underage prostitution. Award-winning short film, regarding underage prostitution, International Boulevard a documentary, covers the issue of Commercially Sexually Exploited Children in Oakland, on a national level


Princeps is a Latin word meaning "first in time or order. As a title, "princeps" originated in the Roman Republic wherein the leading member of the Senate was designated princeps senatus, it is associated with the Roman emperors as an unofficial title first adopted by Augustus in 23 BC. Its use in this context continued until the reign of Diocletian at the end of the third century, he preferred the title of dominus, meaning "lord" or "master". As a result, the Roman Empire from Augustus to Diocletian is termed the "principate" and from Diocletian onwards as the "dominate". Other historians define the reign of Augustus to Severus Alexander as the Principate, the period afterwards as the "Autocracy"; the medieval title "Prince" is a derivative of princeps. See Principes centurio in command of a unit or administrative office. Princeps ordinarius vexillationis: centurion in command of a vexillatio. Princeps peregrinorum: centurion in charge of troops in the castra peregrina Princeps prior: Centurion commanding a manipulus of principes.

Princeps posterior: deputy to the Princeps prior Princeps praetorii: centurion attached to headquarters. Princeps was used as the second part of various other military titles, such as Decurio princeps, Signifer princeps. See Principalis: NCO. Princeps is the short version of Princeps officii, the chief of an officium. Princeps civitatis was an official title of a Roman Emperor as the title determining the leader in Ancient Rome at the beginning of the Roman Empire, it created the principate Roman imperial system. This usage of "princeps" derived from the position of Princeps senatus, the "first among equals" of the Senate; the princeps senatus was the first member by precedence of the Roman Senate, his opinion would be asked first in senatorial debates. It was first given as a special title to Caesar Augustus in 27 BC, who saw that use of the titles rex or dictator would create resentment amongst senators and other influential men, who had earlier demonstrated their disapproval by supporting the assassination of Julius Caesar.

While Augustus had political and military supremacy, he needed the assistance of his fellow Romans to manage the Empire. In his Res Gestae, Augustus claims auctoritas for the princeps. Various official titles were associated with the Roman Emperor; these titles included imperator, Augustus and dominus and basileus. The word Emperor is derived from the Roman title "imperator", a high, but not exclusive, military title until Augustus began to use it as his praenomen; the Emperor Diocletian, the father of the Tetrarchy, was the first to stop referring to himself as "princeps" altogether, calling himself "dominus", thus dropping the pretense that emperor was not a monarchical office. The period when the emperors that called themselves princeps ruled—from Augustus to Diocletian—is called "the Principate", Diocletian's rule began "the Dominate" period. Ancient Rome knew another kind of "princely" principes too, like "princeps iuventutis", which in the early empire was bestowed on eligible successors to the emperor from his family.

It was first given to Augustus' maternal grandsons Lucius. "Princeps" is the root and Latin rendering of modern words as the English title and generic term prince, as the Byzantine version of Roman law was the basis for the legal terminology developed in feudal Europe. "Princeps" is the name of an obsolete genus of Swallowtail butterflies. Cattleya walkeriana var. princeps, a synonym for Cattleya walkeriana, an orchid species Emberiza flaviventris princeps, a bird subspecies found in Angola and Namibia Heterohyrax brucei princeps, a mammal subspecies found in Africa The Star Trek episode "Bread and Circuses" takes place on Magna Roma, an alternate Earth where the Roman Empire never fell. In this episode, the leader of Magna Roman society is referred to as First Citizen of his empire. In the Foundation series by Isaac Asimov, First Citizen is the title taken by the Mule and his successors in their position as leader of the Union of Worlds. Asimov had used the title "First Citizen of the State" for Korell's authoritarian ruler Commdor in the original Foundation novel.

Princeps is the name of a dog that Brother Priad meets in the Warhammer 40,000 book Brothers of the Snake. Princeps is the title for the captain of a Titan, a massive humanoid war machine in the tabletop wargame Warhammer 40,000. In the book series Codex Alera by Jim Butcher, Princeps is the title given to the crown prince of the empire of Alera, it is used in the title of the fifth book in the series, Princeps' Fury. In the Star Trek: Infinity's Prism book Seeds of Dissent by James Swallow, "Princeps" is the title for "Commander" Julian Bashir of the warship Defiance, which exists in an alternate universe from the more familiar 24th Century envisioned in the television series Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. In the book The Three-Body Problem by Cixin Liu, "Princeps" is the title of the leader of the Trisolaran civilization. Chief of the Name Head of State Grant, Mi