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Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)

The occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during World War II began with the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939, it was formally concluded with the defeat of Germany by the Allies in May 1945. Throughout the entire course of the occupation, the territory of Poland was divided between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union both of which intended to eradicate Poland's culture and subjugate its people. In the summer-autumn of 1941, the lands which were annexed by the Soviets were overrun by Germany in the course of the successful German attack on the USSR. After a few years of fighting, the Red Army drove the German forces out of the USSR and crossed into Poland from the rest of Central and Eastern Europe. Sociologist Tadeusz Piotrowski argues that both occupying powers were hostile to the existence of Poland's sovereignty and the culture and aimed to destroy them. Before Operation Barbarossa and the Soviet Union coordinated their Poland-related policies, most visibly in the four Gestapo–NKVD conferences, where the occupiers discussed their plans to deal with the Polish resistance movement Around 6 million Polish citizens—nearly 21.4% of Poland's population—died between 1939 and 1945 as a result of the occupation, half of whom were ethnic Poles and the other half of whome were Polish Jews.

Over 90% of the deaths were non-military losses, because most civilians were deliberately targeted in various actions which were launched by the Germans and Soviets. Overall, during German occupation of pre-war Polish territory, 1939–1945, the Germans murdered 5,470,000–5,670,000 Poles, including 3,000,000 Jews in what was described as a deliberate and systematic genocide during the Nuremberg Trials. In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance researchers estimated Poland's dead at between 5.47 and 5.67 million and 150,000, or around 5.62 and 5.82 million total. In September 1939 Poland was invaded and occupied by two powers: Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, acting in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. Germany acquired 48.4% of the former Polish territory. Under the terms of two decrees by Hitler, with Stalin's agreement, large areas of western Poland were annexed by Germany; the size of these annexed territories was 92,500 square kilometres with 10.5 million inhabitants.

The remaining block of territory, of about the same size and inhabited by about 11.5 million, was placed under a German administration called the General Government, with its capital at Kraków. A German lawyer and prominent Nazi, Hans Frank, was appointed Governor-General of this occupied area on 12 October 1939. Most of the administration outside local level was replaced by German officials. Non-German population on the occupied lands were subject to forced resettlement, economic exploitation, slow but progressive extermination. A small strip of land, about 700 square kilometres with 200,000 inhabitants, part of Czechoslovakia before 1938 was returned by Germany to its ally, Slovakia. After Germany and the Soviet Union had partitioned Poland in 1939, most of the ethnically Polish territory ended up under the control of Germany, while the areas annexed by the Soviet Union contained ethnically diverse peoples, with the territory split into bilingual provinces, some of which had large ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian minorities.

Many of them welcomed the Soviets due in part to communist agitation by Soviet emissaries. Nonetheless Poles comprised the largest single ethnic group in all territories annexed by the Soviet Union. By the end of the invasion the Soviet Union had taken over 51.6% of the territory of Poland, with over 13,200,000 people. The ethnic composition of these areas was as follows: 38% Poles, 37% Ukrainians, 14.5% Belarusians, 8.4% Jews, 0.9% Russians and 0.6% Germans. There were 336,000 refugees who fled from areas occupied by Germany, most of them Jews. All territory invaded by the Red Army was annexed to the Soviet Union, split between the Belarusian SSR and the Ukrainian SSR, with the exception of the Wilno area taken from Poland, transferred to sovereign Lithuania for several months and subsequently annexed by the Soviet Union in the form of the Lithuanian SSR on August 3, 1940. Following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, most of the Polish territories annexed by the Soviets were attached to the enlarged General Government.

Following the end of the war, the borders of Poland were shifted westwards. For months prior to the beginning of World War II in 1939, German newspapers and leaders had carried out a national and international propaganda campaign accusing Polish authorities of organizing or tolerating violent ethnic cleansing of ethnic Germans living in Poland. British ambassador Sir H. Kennard sent four statements in August 1939 to Viscount Halifax regarding Hitler's claims about the treatment Germans were receiving in Poland. From the beginning, the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany was intended as fulfilment of the future plan of the German Reich described by Adolf Hitler in his book Mein Kampf as Lebensraum for the Germans in Central and Eastern Europe; the goal of the occupation was to turn the former territory of Poland into ethnically German "living space", by deporting and exterminating the non-German population, or relegating it to the status of slave laborers. The goal of the Ge

Brown Apartments (Cedar Rapids, Iowa)

Brown Apartments is a historic building located in Cedar Rapids, United States. Designed by local architect William J. Brown, this is an early example of an apartment suites building type and the first known English basement apartment building in the city. Other innovations from the time of construction include the janitor's living quarters, a common laundry room, tenant storage areas; the building's first owners were Elizabeth Brown. He was an ice cream manufacturer and marketer, it is unknown if he was related to the architect; the four-story, brick structure features. The symmetrical facade consists of three projecting solarium bays between which are the entry ways into the building. Both of the entry porches has heavy wooden brackets, each bay is capped with distinctive wood parapets that are supported by heavy timber brackets. Regionalist painter Marvin Cone lived in the building from 1920 to 1923, he dedicated two oil paintings to the Browns in lieu of rent. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2010

Fusaea peruviana

Fusaea peruviana is a species of plant in the family Annonaceae. It is native to Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Robert Elias Fries, the Swedish botanist who first formally described the species, named it after Peru where the specimen he examined was found near the Huallaga River and the city of Yurimaguas, it is a tree reaching 15 centimeters in diameter. Its petioles are covered in 0.8 millimeter, gold-colored hairs. Its papery, oblong to oval leaves are 10-40 by 3-14 centimeters and come to tapering point, up to 5 centimeters long, its leaves. Have 10-20 secondary veins emanating from either side of their midribs; the secondary veins emerge from the midrib at an angle of 50°-75°. Its inflorescences consist of 1-5 by 3-4 millimeter peduncles with 1-3 flowers; the inflorescences are in internodes. The peduncles are covered in white to yellow hairs up to 1.2 millimeters long. Each flower is on a 14-22 by 2-7 millimeter pedicel covered in white to yellow hairs that are up to 1.2 millimeters long. Its creamy white flowers have 3 oval to triangular sepals that are 1-1.3 by 1.3-1.6 centimeters, with tips that come to a point.

The outer surface of the sepals are sparsely to densely covered in white to yellow hairs, while their inner surface is hairless. Its flowers have 6 petals in two rows of 3; the outer petals are 24-35 by 8-13 millimeters. The inner petals are 2-4 by 1.5-2 centimeters with tips. The outer surfaces of the petals are covered in white to yellow hairs up to 1.2 millimeters long, while the hairs on the inner surfaces are up to 0.5 millimeters long, except the lower 1/3, hairless. Its flowers have numerous stamens; the 40 oblong to oval outer stamens have a petal-like appearance and are 3.5-5 by 1.5-2 millimeters. The 200-300 inner stamens are yellow, 2.5-3.5 millimeters long. Its flowers have 30-100 carpels situated in a concave receptacle, its ovaries are 2-2.5 millimeters long. Its styles are2-2.5 millimeters. Its green to whitish fruit are 5-8 centimeters in diameter, covered in 2-5 millimeter long projections, its reddish brown, oval seeds are 14-22 by 7-8 millimeters. The pollen of F. peruviana is shed as permanent tetrads.

It has been observed growing in forest habitat with sandy or laterite soil, at elevations of 100-300 meters. Its wood is used in the construction of houses in Peru

List of most-followed TikTok accounts

The most followed user of TikTok is Loren Gray with over 39.9 million followers. The previous most followed individual account was that of Lisa and Lena, with over 32.7 million followers. They deleted their account in March 2019, citing privacy concerns and their loss of interest in the platform; the following table lists the top 25 most followed accounts on TikTok, which has merged with This list contains the top 10 accounts that had the most followers on Douyin, the same service as TikTok, but run in the People's Republic of China due to restrictions, they are both owned by ByteDance. List of most-followed Instagram accounts List of most-followed Twitter accounts List of most-followed Twitch channels List of most-subscribed YouTube channels

Turners Beach

Turners Beach is a small town on the north coast of Tasmania. Equidistant between the cities of Devonport and Ulverstone, it is at the western mouth into Bass Strait of the Forth River, opposite the village of Leith on its eastern mouth, its population as at 2016 was 1715 people. A cairn recording the location of the first European settlement of the area in 1840 by James Fenton is situated 100 metres from Forth Bridge in Turners Beach and was the site of the pioneer and historian's house; the Gables an early residential house was built around 1850 and was known as The Sailors Return Inn. Although the building only operated as a hotel for a decade it had a colourful history. In 1853 it was robbed by the bushrangers Dalton and Kelly who stole the landlord's whale boat and sailed across the Bass Strait to Victoria, they were brought back to Tasmania and executed in Launceston. Its post office opened on 15 December 1956. Turners Beach was known as Scott’s Beach, named after the Scott family who operated a flour mill on Claytons Rivulet..

The township of Turners Beach was developed by and renamed in honour of Harry Vincent Glengyle Turner on 21 March 1961, on the Ulverstone Council and Town Planning Committee at the time. There used to be two small supermarkets in the town one each end of the Esplanade; the one at the top of the Esplanade closed and the other is now a café providore. A service station and takeaway exists on Forth Road. There used to be two caravan parks to cater for the summer holiday makers. One was redeveloped for residential buildings. For many decades there was a garden nursery operating in Forth Road. A Twilight Market featuring local producers and artisans with a community focus is held the last Sunday of every month; the tide goes out a fair distance and at times there was an annual beach sprint on the hard sand. The rolling waves produce a fine white sand, less course than that of Ulverstone; the mouth of the Forth River has been treacherous to surfers. The Forth River used to be plentiful with Cocky Salmon.

At the other end of the beach is Claytons Rivulet known to contain platypus and brown trout. The Turners Beach Football Club compete in the North Western Football Association; the Turners Beach Cricket Club compete in the Mersey Valley Cricket Association. Turners Beach Bowls Club have Women's Pennants as well as social bowls. Turners Beach Tennis Club is affiliated with Tennis North West; the 1st Turners Beach Scouts part of the Leven District Scouting Association operate out of the local hall on the Esplanade. The Turner Beach Volunteer Fire Brigade had its base in Turners Avenue and had a siren that could be heard all over town; the base has now been moved to Forth Road. Turners Beach Football Club Turners Beach Cricket Club Turners Beach Bowls Club Turners Beach Caravan Park Media related to Turners Beach, Tasmania at Wikimedia Commons


Gazumping occurs when a seller accepts a verbal offer on the property from one potential buyer, but accepts a higher offer from someone else. It can refer to the seller raising the asking price or asking for more money at the last minute, after verbally agreeing to a lower one. In either case, the original buyer is left in a bad situation, either has to offer a higher price or lose the purchase; the term gazumping is most used in the UK, Ireland and Australia, although similar practices can be found in some other jurisdictions. With buoyant property prices in the British residential property market of the late 1980s and early 1990s, gazumping became commonplace in England and Wales because a buyer's offer is not binding after acceptance of the offer by the vendor; this is because, by s.2 of the Law of Property Act 1989 and in order to prevent dishonesty, a contract for the sale of land must be in writing, a requirement of English law that dates back to the Statute of Frauds of 1677. This requirement was intended to promote good faith and certainty in land transactions.

When the owner accepts the offer on a property, the buyer will not yet have commissioned a building survey nor will the buyer have yet had the opportunity to perform recommended legal checks. The offer to purchase is made "subject to contract" and thus, until written contracts are exchanged either party can pull out at any time, it can take as long as 10–12 weeks for formalities to be completed, if the seller is tempted by a higher offer during this period it leaves the buyer disappointed and out-of-pocket. Asking price has no impact on whether a property has been "gazumped". Any offer over a previous offer, subsequently accepted is known as gazumping; when property prices are in decline the practice of gazumping becomes rare. The term'gazundering' has been coined for the opposite practice whereby the buyer waits until everybody is poised to exchange contracts before lowering the offer on the property, threatening the collapse of a whole chain of house sales waiting for the deal to go through.'Gazanging' describes a similar situation, where a seller pulls out of a sale expecting to get a better asking price or offer once the market improves.

The origin of the word with its'z' sound seems as many such'z' sounding words, to be West Country England, with it appearing to have been used, at least in the Yeovil area, to mean'go one better' - prior to its more widespread use as a house-buying term. The term has been said to be derived from the Yiddish word ‘gazump’ meaning cheat or steal. Scots law and practice makes the problem of gazumping a rarity in Scotland. In the Scottish system of conveyancing buyers either obtain a survey prior to making a bid to the seller's solicitor or make an offer "subject to survey". Sellers set a closing date for written offers provide written acceptance of the chosen bid; the agreement becomes binding when a seller's solicitor delivers a signed written acceptance of a buyer's offer. Should the seller attempt to accept a higher bid after the contracts have been finalised by a written offer and acceptance, their solicitor will refuse to act for them as this, according to the Law Society of Scotland code of practice, would be professional misconduct.

As in England, all contracts for the sale of land must be evidenced in writing signed by or on behalf of each party. In Scotland the parties' solicitors sign on their behalf, unlike in England, where buyer and seller both sign a contract, produced in duplicate form, with the duplicates being exchanged to effect a binding contract, it is wrongly claimed that gazumping is a rarity in Scotland because it is said that an oral agreement on a property deal is binding. In Scotland however, an estate agent, acting on behalf of the seller, can initiate instances of another form of gazumping. Once a closing date for written offers has been reached and an estate agent has given an oral acceptance of the chosen bid, the estate agent can attempt to induce a bidding war between the successful buyer and a rival, who may be fictional, in an attempt to increase the offer made by each party. In such circumstance there is little recourse for a successful buyer who, despite having been informed orally that their offer has been accepted, is informed orally that their offer has been rejected in favour of a higher bid.

Such situations only occur at an early stage of the conveyancing process, prior to any written acceptance of an offer being given by the seller's solicitor. They result from the legal requirement on the part of estate agents to advise a seller of any higher offer received prior to written confirmation of an orally accepted offer being given, including those received after a closing date. In Scotland, gazundering is possible where the buyer has insufficient assets to be worth suing, but is not common; the term gazumping is not used in the United States. Every state has different laws and traditions, but buyers make a written offer that, when accepted by the seller, is in most localities binding on the seller; this is known as a "sale" contract, which may have conditions. U. S. residential purchase contracts contain an inspection clause, a short period during which the buyer can inspect the property and back out of the contract with the full return of the earnest money, if the property does not pass the buyer's inspections.

The seller, cannot, except in some states, back out during the inspection period. New Jersey is one state where