click links in text for more info

Territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union

Seventeen days after the German invasion of Poland in 1939, which marked the beginning of the Second World War, the Soviet Union invaded the eastern regions of Poland and annexed territories totaling 201,015 square kilometres with a population of 13,299,000. Inhabitants besides ethnic Poles included Czechs, Belarusians, Ukrainians Jews, other minority groups; these annexed territories were subsequently incorporated into the Lithuanian and Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republics and remained within the Soviet Union in 1945 as a consequence of European-wide territorial rearrangements configured during the Tehran Conference of 1943. Poland was "compensated" for this territorial loss with the pre-War German eastern territories, at the expense of losing its eastern regions; the Polish People's Republic regime described the territories as the "Recovered Territories". The number of Poles in the Kresy in the year 1939 was around 5.274 million, but after ethnic cleansing in 1939-1945 by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union and Ukrainian nationalist forces consisted of 1.8 million inhabitants.

The post-World War II territory of Poland was smaller than the pre-1939 land areas, shrinking by some 77,000 square kilometres. Early in the morning of August 24, 1939, the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed a 10-year non-aggression pact, called the Molotov–Ribbentrop pact. Most notably, the pact contained a secret protocol, revealed only after Germany's defeat in 1945, according to which the states of Northern and Eastern Europe were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence". In the North, Finland and Latvia were assigned to the Soviet sphere. Poland was to be partitioned in the event of its "political rearrangement"—the areas east of the Narev and San Rivers going to the Soviet Union while Germany would occupy the west. Annexed by Poland in a series of wars between 1918 and 1921, these territories had mixed urban national populations with Poles and Ukrainians being the most numerous ethnic groups, with significant minorities of Belarusians and Jews. Much of this rural territory had its own significant local non-Polish majority.

Lithuania, adjacent to East Prussia, would be in the German sphere of influence, although a second secret protocol agreed in September 1939 assigned the majority of Lithuania to the USSR. According to the secret protocol, Lithuania would retrieve its historical capital Vilnius, subjugated during the inter-war period by Poland; the Polish–Soviet border, as of 1939, had been determined in 1921 at the Treaty of Riga peace talks, which followed the Polish–Soviet War. Under the terms of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, two weeks after the German invasion of western Poland the Soviet Union invaded the portions of eastern Poland assigned to it by the Pact, followed by co-ordination with German forces in Poland. See map; the "need to protect" the Ukrainian and Belarusian majority populations was used as a pretext for Soviet invasion of Eastern Poland carried out in the wake of Poland's dismemberment under the Nazi invasion with Warsaw being besieged and Poland's government being in the process of evacuation.

The total area, including the area given to Lithuania, was 201,015 square kilometres, with a population of 13.299 million, of which 5.274 million were ethnic Poles and 1.109 million were Jews. An additional 138,000 ethnic Poles and 198,000 Jews fled the German occupied zone and became refugees in the Soviet occupied region. Soviet authorities started a campaign of sovietization. Passportization and residence registration of the population in the newly acquired territories began: Inhabitants of Kresy, who were imposed on Soviet citizenship in November 1939, had to return documents issued by "former Poland" and obtain new citizenship of the USSR; the so-called procedure NKVD used the passportization system to select people still living in Western Belarus and Western Ukraine. Those who did not receive the citizenship or refused to accept it, deported. In March 1940, the authorities decided about the fate of refugees from western Poland, who from September 1939 were in Kresy. Deportation of this group of about 75-80 thousand persons, consisting of Jews began on June 29, 1940 and lasted for nearly a month.

The Soviets organized staged elections, the result of, to become a legitimization of Soviet annexation of eastern Poland. Soviet authorities attempted to erase Polish history and culture, withdrew the Polish currency without exchanging ruble, collectivized agriculture, nationalized and redistributed private and state-owned Polish property. Soviet authorities regarded service for the pre-war Polish state as a "crime against revolution" and "counter-revolutionary activity", subsequently started arresting large numbers of Polish citizens. During the initial Soviet invasion of Poland, between 230,000 to 450,000 Poles were taken as prisoner, some of whom were executed. NKVD officers conducted lengthy interrogations of the prisoners in camps that were, in effect, a selection process to determine who would be killed. On March 5, 1940, pursuant to a note to Stalin from Lavrenty Beria, the members of the Soviet Politburo signed an order to execute POWs, labeled "nationalists and counterrevolutionaries", kept at camps and prisons in occupied western Ukraine and Belarus.

This became known as the Katyn massacre

Buschjost Magnetventile GmbH & Co. KG

Buschjost Magnetventile GmbH & Co. KG is a German multinational electronics services company, headquartered in Germany. Buschjost Magnetventile GmbH & Co. KG was founded on 10 December 1998 by Fritz Buschjost and Marc Langejürgen in Bad Oeynhausen - Northrhine Westphalia, Germany. Thanks to Fritz Buschjost, son of a so-called fittings dynasty, founded in the year 1933 and known far beyond the frontiers at that time we can look back on many decades of experience in the field of valve technology. Fritz Buschjost died on 10 January 2000 and Edith Buschjost took up his legal succession. On 18 May 2001, GSR Ventiltechnik Co.. KG took over the majority interest in this company and thus has become their holding company and partner. Since 1999 GSR has been a member of de:Indus Holding AG who are focusing on the acquisition of sound medium-sized enterprises, their objective is to hold those companies in the long term, to develop them from a strategic point of view and to safeguard their business culture.

In that same year the company seat was transferred from Bad Oeynhausen, Turmstraße 50 to Vlotho-Exter, ImMeisenfeld 5. Marc Langejürgen is the Managing Director of Buschjost Magnetventile Co.. KG. Buschjost valves are used in the machine building and plant engineering field, in the environmental and energy sector, in the water resources management and in gas processing, cooling technology. Official website

Bailo of Constantinople

A bailo spelled baylo was a diplomat who oversaw the affairs of the Republic of Venice in Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, was a permanent fixture in the city around 1454. The traumatic outcomes of Venice's wars with the Ottomans made it clear to its rulers that in the Ottoman case the city would have to rely chiefly on diplomatic and political means rather than offensive military efforts to maintain and defend its position in the eastern Mediterranean; the bailo's job was extensive because he was both Venice's political and foreign ambassador. He was important in maintaining a good relationship between the Ottoman Sultan and the Venetian government, he was there to represent and protect Venetian political interests. In Constantinople the bailo worked to solve any misunderstandings between the Ottomans and Venetians. To do this they established contacts and friendships with influential Ottomans and by doing this, they were able to protect their own interests. There were instances where there were difficulties finding replacements.

This was due to not enough qualified replacements, refusal to accept the position and the replacement dying before reaching Constantinople. Like English bailiff, the Venetian word bailo derives from Latin baiulus, which meant "porter"; the Ottoman term was bālyoz. Sometime between the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the outbreak of the Second Ottoman–Venetian War in 1499, the baili relocated to the center of Galata. After another war the bailo relocated to one of Galata’s suburbs, to an embassy called Vigne di Pera; this house was used as a refuge from the plague. After the War of Cyprus, the embassy in Galata relocated to Vigne di Pera permanently. Most baili preferred this location over the one in Galata because it had less restrictions in after-hours travel, its location proved ideal in smuggling slaves. Vigne di Pera was a large complex surrounded with smaller complexes located inside, it had a large enough area to play ball in, a small chapel and housing quarters for the bailo’s postal carriers.

There were two parts to a public and private area. The private area housed the bailo, his company, his Janissary corps, the secretarial staff; the public area was used as a receiving area for dignitaries and other important people, as well as a banquet hall for special occasions and parties. One of the major responsibilities of the bailo was to collect information on the Ottoman Empire, they got this information though their wide networks of friends, their household and an informal spy network. This informal spy network consisted of moles: those who worked in the Imperial Arsenal in Galata, banished men and women and their associates and people who worked within the Ottoman bureaucracy; the baili set up moles in other foreign embassies. The bailo had the responsibility to protect Venetian trade; this became the case after the Battle of Lepanto, when the bailo’s head ordered them to protect the integrity of their merchant powers from the English and Florentines. The baili paid attention to commercial matters.

Saying it was too complicated to be bothered with, but every time there was a new sultan they made sure any agreements made with the previous sultan were followed though. Protecting the business interests of the Venetians involved in international commerce was a function of the bailo; this was done if the person requested the bailo in settling debts with other people. They had to make sure business was good and were responsible for the Venetian subjects in Constantinople if they died. Baili acted as judges on the Venetian subjects because of their superior status, they presided over commercial and legal matters. Another responsibility was that he was in charge of all the trade in Ottoman lands and replacing consuls whenever he wanted to; the bailo was forbidden to do commerce such as trading themselves or represent other people commercially because situations might arise and fast become complicated and the bailo would be held accountable for whatever that person may have done. Although forbidden to engage in commercial acts, the bailos did so anyway.

All of the baili were drawn from the ranks of the Venetian patriciate. Many baili did not marry – this can be attributed to the fact that most held this position to give their family economic prestige, had other male siblings who carried on the family name; the bailo was involved in the Latin rite communities of the Ottoman Empire. They did things like getting churches that could be used by Venetians, representing the Roman Catholics; the baili had active social lives and were present in confraternities, protected the company of the holy sacrament, patronized artists and artisans in the creation of religious objects and decorations for Latin-rite churches of Constantinople and Galata. One spiritual and diplomatic duty was to free Christian slaves unless they voluntarily converted to Islam; the major problem with this is that the bailo couldn’t release too many slaves or they would anger the sultan. The bailo had funds reserved for freeing slaves and, because of this, they were accosted by many people asking for the bailo’s help.

These funds either came out from church donations from Venice. There were many re

Joe Connelly (writer)

Joe Connelly is an American writer. Connelly is best known for his first novel, Bringing Out the Dead, made into an eponymous film. Connelly grew up in a working-class family in New York, he dropped out of Colgate University and, before publishing his first novel, worked as a paramedic at St. Clare's Hospital in Hell's Kitchen, New York City, for nine years, he wrote in his spare time over that period, in a small flat in the Upper West Side and while living in Ireland and travelling in Eastern Europe for a considerable period. During this period Connelly was encouraged by a creative writing professor at Columbia University. Bringing Out the Dead is autobiographical in nature and follows the story of a paranoid, hollow-eyed paramedic who works the graveyard shift in Hell's Kitchen, the barrio bounding the phantasmagoria of Times Square. Having seen so much human suffering on the job, the main character of the book, has turned into himself, despondent to the point of becoming a drunk, his life a living hell.

Bringing Out the Dead was an immediate bestseller on publication. It was soon optioned for $100,000 and made its way to production as a major motion picture of the same name in 1999. Bringing Out the Dead was directed by Martin Scorsese and the screenplay was adapted by Paul Schrader. Though the film was a critical success, it fell short of box office expectations, his second novel, didn't sell as well as the first. Although the book's characters were the trademark down-and-out personalities of Connelly's debut novel, he was criticized for relying on well-trodden clichés

UEFA Futsal Euro 2014 qualifying

The UEFA Futsal Euro 2014 qualifying competition consisted of a preliminary round, a main round, a play-off round and a twelve-team final tournament played in Belgium. In the preliminary round, four groups of four teams each and two of three were played as one-venue mini-tournaments from 22 to 27 January 2013; the six group winners were joined by the 22 highest-ranked qualifying contenders in seven groups of four teams, played as one-venue mini-tournaments between 27 and 30 March 2013. The seven group winners progressed to the final tournament, where they joined hosts Belgium, while the seven runners-up and best third-placed team entered the play-offs. In the play-offs, the eight teams were drawn into four pairs to play two-legged ties on 17 and 24 September; the four winners completed the final tournament lineup. The preliminary round consisted of 22 teams, split in six groups of 4 teams; the round was played in round-robin format. Winners of each groups qualify for the qualifying round, where they are joined by the 22 best-ranked teams.

Denmark, Gibraltar and Wales debuted in an international qualification. Venue: Hall of Sports Charles Ehrman, France Venue: Hibernians Pavillon, Malta Venue: S. Darius & S. Girenas Sport Center, Lithuania Venue: Skaptopara, Bulgaria Venue: Centre Esportiu Serradells, Andorra la Vella, Andorra Venue: Le Centre Sportif des Iles, Switzerland Group A → Montenegro → Group 1 Group B → Georgia → Group 6 Group C → England → Group 7 Group D → Greece → Group 5 Group E → Sweden → Group 4 Group F → Norway → Group 2 The six preliminary round winners join the 22 highest-ranked qualifying contenders in seven groups of four teams played as one-venue mini-tournaments between 27 and 30 March 2013; the seven group winners progress to the final tournament, while the seven runners-up and best third-placed team enter the play-offs. Venues: Skips dre cnt, Bari efo Idris a Gums, Wales Venue: Interhala Pasienky, Slovakia Venue: Zemgales Olympic Centre, Latvia Venue: Diego Calvo Valera Hall, Águilas, Spain Venue: Medison Hall, Serbia Venue: Topsportcentrum, Netherlands Venue: Erzurum Buz Arena Sports Hall, Turkey The best third-place team qualified for the play-off.

The eight teams were drawn into four pairs to play two-legged ties on 17–18 and 24 September 2013. The four winners complete the final tournament lineup; the draw for the playoffs took place in Nyon on 3 July 2013. Azerbaijan Belgium Croatia Czech Republic Italy Netherlands Portugal Romania Russia Slovenia Spain Ukraine

Ministry of Agriculture (France)

The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of France is the governmental body charged with regulation and policy for agriculture and forestry. The Ministry's headquarters are in the Hôtel de Villeroy, at 78 Rue de Varenne in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, adjacent to Hotel Matignon. Prior to 21 June 2012, the Ministry's remit was somewhat different; the regional directorates for food and forests oversee the implementation of policies for agriculture, food and forests. Their missions cover the organisation of agricultural education, they contribute to employment policy in the fields of farming, agri-food and freshwater aquaculture. The Minister of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs is a cabinet member in the Government of France. Ministry of Agriculture Booklet in English