Dangerous goods, abbreviated DG, are items or substances that when transported are a risk to health, property or the environment. Hazardous materials are substances, liquids, or gases that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment, more specifically. Hazardous materials are subject to chemical regulations. Hazmat teams are personnel specially trained to handle dangerous goods, which include materials that are radioactive, explosive, oxidizing, biohazardous, pathogenic, or allergenic. Included are physical conditions such as compressed gases and liquids or hot materials, including all goods containing such materials or chemicals, or may have other characteristics that render them hazardous in specific circumstances. In the United States, dangerous goods are indicated by diamond-shaped signage on the item, its container, or the building where it is stored; the color of each diamond indicates its hazard, e.g. flammable is indicated with red, because fire and heat are of red color, explosive is indicated with orange, because mixing red with yellow creates orange.
A nonflammable and nontoxic gas is indicated with green, because all compressed air vessels are this color in France after World War II, France was where the diamond system of hazmat identification originated. Mitigating the risks associated with hazardous materials may require the application of safety precautions during their transport, use and disposal. Most countries regulate hazardous materials by law, they are subject to several international treaties as well. So, different countries may use different class diamonds for the same product. For example, in Australia, anhydrous ammonia UN 1005 is classified as 2.3 with sub risk 8, whereas in the U. S. it is only classified as 2.2. People who handle dangerous goods will wear protective equipment, metropolitan fire departments have a response team trained to deal with accidents and spills. Persons who may come into contact with dangerous goods as part of their work are often subject to monitoring or health surveillance to ensure that their exposure does not exceed occupational exposure limits.
Laws and regulations on the use and handling of hazardous materials may differ depending on the activity and status of the material. For example, one set of requirements may apply to their use in the workplace while a different set of requirements may apply to spill response, sale for consumer use, or transportation. Most countries regulate some aspect of hazardous materials; the most applied regulatory scheme is that for the transportation of dangerous goods. The United Nations Economic and Social Council issues the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, which form the basis for most regional and international regulatory schemes. For instance, the International Civil Aviation Organization has developed dangerous goods regulations for air transport of hazardous materials that are based upon the UN model but modified to accommodate unique aspects of air transport. Individual airline and governmental requirements are incorporated with this by the International Air Transport Association to produce the used IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations.
The International Maritime Organization has developed the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code for transportation of dangerous goods by sea. IMO member countries have developed the HNS Convention to provide compensation in case of dangerous goods spills in the sea; the Intergovernmental Organisation for International Carriage by Rail has developed the regulations concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail. Many individual nations have structured their dangerous goods transportation regulations to harmonize with the UN model in organization as well as in specific requirements; the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals is an internationally agreed upon system set to replace the various classification and labeling standards used in different countries. The GHS uses consistent criteria for labeling on a global level. Dangerous goods are divided into nine classes on the basis of the specific chemical characteristics producing the risk.
Note: The graphics and text in this article representing the dangerous goods safety marks are derived from the United Nations-based system of identifying dangerous goods. Not all countries use the same graphics in their national regulations; some use graphic symbols, but without English wording or with similar wording in their national language. Refer to the dangerous goods transportation regulations of the country of interest. For example, see the TDG Bulletin: Dangerous Goods Safety Marks based on the Canadian Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations; the statement above applies to all the dangerous goods classes discussed in this article. Taken from the UNECE Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals The Australian Dangerous Goods Code, seventh edition complies with international standards of importation and exportation of dangerous goods in line with the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. Australia uses the standard international UN numbers with a few different signs on the back and sides of vehicles carrying hazardous substances.
The country uses
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Personal protective equipment
Personal protective equipment is protective clothing, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection. The hazards addressed by protective equipment include physical, heat, chemicals and airborne particulate matter. Protective equipment may be worn for job-related occupational safety and health purposes, as well as for sports and other recreational activities. "Protective clothing" is applied to traditional categories of clothing, "protective gear" applies to items such as pads, shields, or masks, others. The purpose of personal protective equipment is to reduce employee exposure to hazards when engineering controls and administrative controls are not feasible or effective to reduce these risks to acceptable levels. PPE is needed. PPE has the serious limitation that it does not eliminate the hazard at the source and may result in employees being exposed to the hazard if the equipment fails. Any item of PPE imposes a barrier between the working environment.
This can create additional strains on the wearer. Any of these can discourage wearers from using PPE therefore placing them at risk of injury, ill-health or, under extreme circumstances, death. Good ergonomic design can help to minimise these barriers and can therefore help to ensure safe and healthy working conditions through the correct use of PPE. Practices of occupational safety and health can use hazard controls and interventions to mitigate workplace hazards, which pose a threat to the safety and quality of life of workers; the hierarchy of hazard controls provides a policy framework which ranks the types of hazard controls in terms of absolute risk reduction. At the top of the hierarchy are elimination and substitution, which remove the hazard or replace the hazard with a safer alternative. If elimination or substitution measures cannot apply, engineering controls and administrative controls, which seek to design safer mechanisms and coach safer human behavior, are implemented. Personal protective equipment ranks last on the hierarchy of controls, as the workers are exposed to the hazard, with a barrier of protection.
The hierarchy of controls is important in acknowledging that, while personal protective equipment has tremendous utility, it is not the desired mechanism of control in terms of worker safety. Personal protective equipment can be categorized by the area of the body protected, by the types of hazard, by the type of garment or accessory. A single item, for example boots, may provide multiple forms of protection: a steel toe cap and steel insoles for protection of the feet from crushing or puncture injuries, impervious rubber and lining for protection from water and chemicals, high reflectivity and heat resistance for protection from radiant heat, high electrical resistivity for protection from electric shock; the protective attributes of each piece of equipment must be compared with the hazards expected to be found in the workplace. More breathable types of personal protective equipment may not lead to more contamination but do result in greater user satisfaction. Respirators serve to protect the user from breathing in contaminants in the air, thus preserving the health of one's respiratory tract.
There are two main types of respirators. One type of respirator functions by filtering out chemicals and gases, or airborne particles, from the air breathed by the user; the filtration may be either active. Gas masks and particulate respirators are examples of this type of respirator. A second type of respirator protects users by providing respirable air from another source; this type includes self-contained breathing apparatus. In work environments, respirators are relied upon when adequate ventilation is not available or other engineering control systems are not feasible or inadequate. In the United Kingdom, an organization that has extensive expertise in respiratory protective equipment is the Institute of Occupational Medicine; this expertise has been built on a long-standing and varied research programme that has included the setting of workplace protection factors to the assessment of efficacy of masks available through high street retail outlets. The Health and Safety Executive, NHS Health Scotland and Healthy Working Lives have jointly developed the RPE Selector Tool, web-based.
This interactive tool provides descriptions of different types of respirators and breathing apparatuses, as well as "dos and don'ts" for each type. In the United States, The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health provides recommendations on respirator use, in accordance to NIOSH federal respiratory regulations 42 CFR Part 84; the National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory of NIOSH is tasked towards conducting studies on respirators and providing recommendations. Occupational skin diseases such as contact dermatitis, skin cancers, other skin injuries and infections are the second-most common type of occupational disease and can be costly. Skin hazards, which lead to occupational skin disease, can be classified into four groups. Chemical agents can come into contact with the skin through direct contact with contaminated surfaces, deposition of aerosols, immersion or splashes. Physical agents such as extreme temperatures and ultraviolet or solar radiation can be damaging to the skin over prolonged exposure.
Mechanical trauma occurs in the form of friction, abrasions and contusions. Biological agents such as parasites, microorganisms and animals can have varied eff
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold. It is measured with a thermometer calibrated in one or more temperature scales; the most used scales are the Celsius scale, Fahrenheit scale, Kelvin scale. The kelvin is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units, in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base quantities; the Kelvin scale is used in science and technology. Theoretically, the coldest a system can be is when its temperature is absolute zero, at which point the thermal motion in matter would be zero. However, an actual physical system or object can never attain a temperature of absolute zero. Absolute zero is denoted as 0 K on the Kelvin scale, −273.15 °C on the Celsius scale, −459.67 °F on the Fahrenheit scale. For an ideal gas, temperature is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the random microscopic motions of the constituent microscopic particles. Temperature is important in all fields of natural science, including physics, Earth science and biology, as well as most aspects of daily life.
Many physical processes are affected by temperature, such as physical properties of materials including the phase, solubility, vapor pressure, electrical conductivity rate and extent to which chemical reactions occur the amount and properties of thermal radiation emitted from the surface of an object speed of sound is a function of the square root of the absolute temperature Temperature scales differ in two ways: the point chosen as zero degrees, the magnitudes of incremental units or degrees on the scale. The Celsius scale is used for common temperature measurements in most of the world, it is an empirical scale, developed by a historical progress, which led to its zero point 0 °C being defined by the freezing point of water, additional degrees defined so that 100 °C was the boiling point of water, both at sea-level atmospheric pressure. Because of the 100-degree interval, it was called a centigrade scale. Since the standardization of the kelvin in the International System of Units, it has subsequently been redefined in terms of the equivalent fixing points on the Kelvin scale, so that a temperature increment of one degree Celsius is the same as an increment of one kelvin, though they differ by an additive offset of 273.15.
The United States uses the Fahrenheit scale, on which water freezes at 32 °F and boils at 212 °F at sea-level atmospheric pressure. Many scientific measurements use the Kelvin temperature scale, named in honor of the Scots-Irish physicist who first defined it, it is a absolute temperature scale. Its zero point, 0 K, is defined to coincide with the coldest physically-possible temperature, its degrees are defined through thermodynamics. The temperature of absolute zero occurs at 0 K = −273.15 °C, the freezing point of water at sea-level atmospheric pressure occurs at 273.15 K = 0 °C. The International System of Units defines a scale and unit for the kelvin or thermodynamic temperature by using the reliably reproducible temperature of the triple point of water as a second reference point; the triple point is a singular state with its own unique and invariant temperature and pressure, along with, for a fixed mass of water in a vessel of fixed volume, an autonomically and stably self-determining partition into three mutually contacting phases, vapour and solid, dynamically depending only on the total internal energy of the mass of water.
For historical reasons, the triple point temperature of water is fixed at 273.16 units of the measurement increment. There is a variety of kinds of temperature scale, it may be convenient to classify them theoretically based. Empirical temperature scales are older, while theoretically based scales arose in the middle of the nineteenth century. Empirically based temperature scales rely directly on measurements of simple physical properties of materials. For example, the length of a column of mercury, confined in a glass-walled capillary tube, is dependent on temperature, is the basis of the useful mercury-in-glass thermometer; such scales are valid only within convenient ranges of temperature. For example, above the boiling point of mercury, a mercury-in-glass thermometer is impracticable. Most materials expand with temperature increase, but some materials, such as water, contract with temperature increase over some specific range, they are hardly useful as thermometric materials. A material is of no use as a thermometer near one of its phase-change temperatures, for example its boiling-point.
In spite of these restrictions, most used practical thermometers are of the empirically based kind. It was used for calorimetry, which contributed to the discovery of thermodynamics. Empirical thermometry has serious drawbacks when judged as a basis for theoretical physics. Empirically based thermometers, beyond their base as simple direct measurements of ordinary physical properties of thermometric materials, can be re-calibrated, by use of theoretical physical reasoning, this can extend their range of adequacy. Theoretically-based temperature scales are based directly on theoretical arguments those of thermodynamics, kinetic theory and quantum mechanics, they rely on theoretical properties of idealized materials. They are more or less comparable with feasible physical devices and materials. Theoretically based temperature scales are used to provide calibrating standards for practi
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas. Aerosols can be anthropogenic. Examples of natural aerosols are fog, forest exudates and geyser steam. Examples of anthropogenic aerosols are haze, particulate air pollutants and smoke; the liquid or solid particles have diameters <1 μm. In general conversation, aerosol refers to an aerosol spray that delivers a consumer product from a can or similar container. Other technological applications of aerosols include dispersal of pesticides, medical treatment of respiratory illnesses, convincing technology. Diseases can spread by means of small droplets in the breath called aerosols. Aerosol science covers generation and removal of aerosols, technological application of aerosols, effects of aerosols on the environment and people, other topics. An aerosol is defined as a suspension system of liquid particles in a gas. An aerosol includes both the particles and the suspending gas, air. Frederick G. Donnan first used the term aerosol during World War I to describe an aero-solution, clouds of microscopic particles in air.
This term developed analogously to the term hydrosol, a colloid system with water as the dispersed medium. Primary aerosols contain. Various types of aerosol, classified according to physical form and how they were generated, include dust, mist and fog. There are several measures of aerosol concentration. Environmental science and health uses the mass concentration, defined as the mass of particulate matter per unit volume with units such as μg/m3. Used is the number concentration, the number of particles per unit volume with units such as number/m3 or number/cm3; the size of particles has a major influence on their properties, the aerosol particle radius or diameter is a key property used to characterise aerosols. Aerosols vary in their dispersity. A monodisperse aerosol, producible in the laboratory, contains particles of uniform size. Most aerosols, however, as polydisperse colloidal systems, exhibit a range of particle sizes. Liquid droplets are always nearly spherical, but scientists use an equivalent diameter to characterize the properities of various shapes of solid particles, some irregular.
The equivalent diameter is the diameter of a spherical particle with the same value of some physical property as the irregular particle. The equivalent volume diameter is defined as the diameter of a sphere of the same volume as that of the irregular particle. Used is the aerodynamic diameter. For a monodisperse aerosol, a single number—the particle diameter—suffices to describe the size of the particles. However, more complicated particle-size distributions describe the sizes of the particles in a polydisperse aerosol; this distribution defines the relative amounts of particles, sorted according to size. One approach to defining the particle size distribution uses a list of the sizes of every particle in a sample. However, this approach proves tedious to ascertain in aerosols with millions of particles and awkward to use. Another approach splits the complete size range into intervals and finds the number of particles in each interval. One can visualize these data in a histogram with the area of each bar representing the proportion of particles in that size bin normalised by dividing the number of particles in a bin by the width of the interval so that the area of each bar is proportionate to the number of particles in the size range that it represents.
If the width of the bins tends to zero, one gets the frequency function: d f = f d d p where d p is the diameter of the particles d f is the fraction of particles having diameters between d p and d p + d d p f is the frequency functionTherefore, the area under the frequency curve between two sizes a and b represents the total fraction of the particles in that size range: f a b = ∫ a b f d d p It can be formulated in terms of the total number density N: d N = N d d p Assuming spherical aerosol particles, the aerosol surface area per unit volume is given by the second moment: S = π / 2 ∫ 0 ∞ N d p 2 d d p And the third moment gives the total volume concentration of the particles: V = π / 6 ∫ 0 ∞ N (
Biological hazards known as biohazards, refer to biological substances that pose a threat to the health of living organisms that of humans. This can include samples of a virus or toxin that can affect human health, it can include substances harmful to other animals. The term and its associated symbol are used as a warning, so that those exposed to the substances will know to take precautions; the biohazard symbol was developed in 1966 by Charles Baldwin, an environmental-health engineer working for the Dow Chemical Company on the containment products. It is used in the labeling of biological materials that carry a significant health risk, including viral samples and used hypodermic needles. In Unicode, the biohazard symbol is U+2623. Bio hazardous agents are classified for transportation by UN number: Category A, UN 2814 – Infectious substance, affecting humans: An infectious substance in a form capable of causing permanent disability or life-threatening or fatal disease in otherwise healthy humans or animals when exposure to it occurs.
Category A, UN 2900 – Infectious substance, affecting animals: An infectious substance, not in a form capable of causing permanent disability or life-threatening or fatal disease in otherwise healthy humans and animals when exposure to themselves occurs. Category B, UN 3373 – Biological substance transported for diagnostic or investigative purposes. Regulated Medical Waste, UN 3291 – Waste or reusable material derived from medical treatment of an animal or human, or from biomedical research, which includes the production and testing; the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention categorizes various diseases in levels of biohazard, Level 1 being minimum risk and Level 4 being extreme risk. Laboratories and other facilities are categorized as P1 through P4 for short. Biohazard Level 1: Bacteria and viruses including Bacillus subtilis, canine hepatitis, Escherichia coli, varicella, as well as some cell cultures and non-infectious bacteria. At this level precautions against the biohazardous materials in question are minimal, most involving gloves and some sort of facial protection.
Biohazard Level 2: Bacteria and viruses that cause only mild disease to humans, or are difficult to contract via aerosol in a lab setting, such as hepatitis A, B, C, some influenza A strains, Lyme disease, mumps, scrapie, dengue fever, HIV. Routine diagnostic work with clinical specimens can be done safely at Biosafety Level 2, using Biosafety Level 2 practices and procedures. Research work can be done in a BSL-2 facility, using BSL-3 procedures. Biohazard Level 3: Bacteria and viruses that can cause severe to fatal disease in humans, but for which vaccines or other treatments exist, such as anthrax, West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, SARS virus, MERS coronavirus, tuberculosis, Rift Valley fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, yellow fever, malaria. Biohazard Level 4: Viruses that cause severe to fatal disease in humans, for which vaccines or other treatments are not available, such as Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, Marburg virus, Ebola virus, Lassa fever virus, Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever, other hemorrhagic diseases and rishibola.
Variola virus is an agent, worked with at BSL-4 despite the existence of a vaccine, as it has been eradicated. When dealing with biological hazards at this level the use of a positive pressure personnel suit, with a segregated air supply, is mandatory; the entrance and exit of a Level Four biolab will contain multiple showers, a vacuum room, an ultraviolet light room, autonomous detection system, other safety precautions designed to destroy all traces of the biohazard. Multiple airlocks are employed and are electronically secured to prevent both doors opening at the same time. All air and water service going to and coming from a Biosafety Level 4 lab will undergo similar decontamination procedures to eliminate the possibility of an accidental release. There are no bacteria classified at this level; the biohazard symbol was developed by the Dow Chemical Company in 1966 for their containment products. According to Charles Baldwin, an environmental-health engineer who contributed to its development: "We wanted something, memorable but meaningless, so we could educate people as to what it means."
In an article he wrote for Science in 1967, the symbol was presented as the new standard for all biological hazards. The article explained that over 40 symbols were drawn up by Dow artists, all of the symbols investigated had to meet a number of criteria: Striking in form in order to draw immediate attention; the chosen symbol scored the best on nationwide testing for memorability. The design was dropped in the succeeding amendment. However, various US states adopted the specification for their state code. There are four circles within the symbol, signifying the chain of infection. Agent: The type of microorganism, that causes infection or hazardous condition. Host: The organism in which the microorganism Infect; the new host must be susceptible. Source: The host from which the microorganism originate; the carrier host might not show symptoms. Transmission: The means of transmission direct or in
Human factors and ergonomics
Human factors and ergonomics is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the design of products and systems. The goal of human factors is to reduce human error, increase productivity, enhance safety and comfort with a specific focus on the interaction between the human and the thing of interest, it is not changes or amendments to the work enviornment but encompases theory, methods and principles all applied in the field of ergonomics. The field is a combination of numerous disciplines, such as psychology, engineering, industrial design, anthropometry, interaction design, visual design, user experience, user interface design. In research, human factors employs the scientific method to study human behavior so that the resultant data may be applied to the four primary goals. In essence, it is the study of designing equipment and processes that fit the human body and its cognitive abilities; the two terms "human factors" and "ergonomics" are synonymous. The International Ergonomics Association defines ergonomics or human factors as follows: Ergonomics is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, the profession that applies theory, principles and methods to design to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.
Human factors is employed to fulfill the goals of occupational safety and productivity. It is relevant in the design of such things as safe furniture and easy-to-use interfaces to machines and equipment. Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries and other musculoskeletal disorders, which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability. Human factors and ergonomics is concerned with the "fit" between the user and environment or "fitting a person to a job", it accounts for the user's capabilities and limitations in seeking to ensure that tasks, functions and the environment suit that user. To assess the fit between a person and the used technology, human factors specialists or ergonomists consider the job being done and the demands on the user. Ergonomics draws on many disciplines in its study of humans and their environments, including anthropometry, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, industrial design, information design, physiology, cognitive psychology and organizational psychology, space psychology.
The term ergonomics first entered the modern lexicon when Polish scientist Wojciech Jastrzębowski used the word in his 1857 article Rys ergonomji czyli nauki o pracy, opartej na prawdach poczerpniętych z Nauki Przyrody. The French scholar Jean-Gustave Courcelle-Seneuil without knowledge of Jastrzębowski's article, used the word with a different meaning in 1858; the introduction of the term to the English lexicon is attributed to British psychologist Hywel Murrell, at the 1949 meeting at the UK's Admiralty, which led to the foundation of The Ergonomics Society. He used it to encompass the studies in which he had been engaged during and after World War II; the expression human factors is a predominantly North American term, adopted to emphasize the application of the same methods to non-work-related situations. A "human factor" is a physical or cognitive property of an individual or social behavior specific to humans that may influence the functioning of technological systems; the terms "human factors" and "ergonomics" are synonymous.
Ergonomics comprise three main fields of research: physical and organizational ergonomics. There are many specializations within these broad categories. Specializations in the field of physical ergonomics may include visual ergonomics. Specializations within the field of cognitive ergonomics may include usability, human–computer interaction, user experience engineering; some specializations may cut across these domains: Environmental ergonomics is concerned with human interaction with the environment as characterized by climate, pressure, light. The emerging field of human factors in highway safety uses human factor principles to understand the actions and capabilities of road users – car and truck drivers, cyclists, etc. – and use this knowledge to design roads and streets to reduce traffic collisions. Driver error is listed as a contributing factor in 44% of fatal collisions in the United States, so a topic of particular interest is how road users gather and process information about the road and its environment, how to assist them to make the appropriate decision.
New terms are being generated all the time. For instance, "user trial engineer" may refer to a human factors professional who specializes in user trials. Although the names change, human factors professionals apply an understanding of human factors to the design of equipment and working methods to improve comfort, health and productivity. According to the International Ergonomics Association, within the discipline of ergonomics there exist domains of specialization. Physical ergonomics is concerned with human anatomy, some of the anthropometric and bio mechanical characteristics as they relate to physical activity. Physical ergonomic principles have been used in the design of both consumer and indu