Occupational safety and health commonly referred to as occupational health and safety, occupational health, or workplace health and safety, is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety and welfare of people at work. These terms refer to the goals of this field, so their use in the sense of this article was an abbreviation of occupational safety and health program/department etc; the goal of occupational safety and health programs is to foster a safe and healthy work environment. OSH may protect co-workers, family members, employers and many others who might be affected by the workplace environment. In the United States, the term occupational health and safety is referred to as occupational health and occupational and non-occupational safety and includes safety for activities outside of work. In common-law jurisdictions, employers have a common law duty to take reasonable care of the safety of their employees. Statute law may in addition impose other general duties, introduce specific duties, create government bodies with powers to regulate workplace safety issues: details of this vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.
As defined by the World Health Organization "occupational health deals with all aspects of health and safety in the workplace and has a strong focus on primary prevention of hazards." Health has been defined as "a state of complete physical and social well-being and not the absence of disease or infirmity." Occupational health is a multidisciplinary field of healthcare concerned with enabling an individual to undertake their occupation, in the way that causes least harm to their health. It contrasts, for example, with the promotion of health and safety at work, concerned with preventing harm from any incidental hazards, arising in the workplace. Since 1950, the International Labour Organization and the World Health Organization have shared a common definition of occupational health, it was adopted by the Joint ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health at its first session in 1950 and revised at its twelfth session in 1995. The definition reads: "The main focus in occupational health is on three different objectives: the maintenance and promotion of workers’ health and working capacity.
The concept of working culture is intended in this context to mean a reflection of the essential value systems adopted by the undertaking concerned. Such a culture is reflected in practice in the managerial systems, personnel policy, principles for participation, training policies and quality management of the undertaking." Those in the field of occupational health come from a wide range of disciplines and professions including medicine, epidemiology and rehabilitation, occupational therapy, occupational medicine, human factors and ergonomics, many others. Professionals advise on a broad range of occupational health matters; these include how to avoid particular pre-existing conditions causing a problem in the occupation, correct posture for the work, frequency of rest breaks, preventive action that can be undertaken, so forth. "Occupational health should aim at: the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical and social well-being of workers in all occupations. The research and regulation of occupational safety and health are a recent phenomenon.
As labor movements arose in response to worker concerns in the wake of the industrial revolution, worker's health entered consideration as a labor-related issue. In the United Kingdom, the Factory Acts of the early nineteenth century arose out of concerns about the poor health of children working in cotton mills: the Act of 1833 created a dedicated professional Factory Inspectorate; the initial remit of the Inspectorate was to police restrictions on the working hours in the textile industry of children and young persons. However, on the urging of the Factory Inspectorate, a further Act in 1844 giving similar restrictions on working hours for women in the textile industry introduced a requirement for machinery guarding. In 1840 a Royal Commission published its findings on the state of conditions for the workers of the mining industry that documented the appallingly dangerous environment that they had to work in and the high frequency of accidents; the commission sparked public outrage which resulted in the Mines Act of 1842.
The act set up an inspectorate for mines and collieries which resulted in many prosecutions and safety improvements, by 1850, inspectors were able to enter and inspect premises at their discretion. Otto von Bismarck inaugurated the first social insurance legislation in 1883 and the first worker's compensation law in 1884 – the first of their kind in the Western world. Similar acts followed in other countries in response to labor unrest
Sidney Edward Paget was a British illustrator of the Victorian era, best known for his illustrations that accompanied Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories in The Strand magazine. Sidney Paget was the fifth of nine children born to Robert Paget, the vestry clerk of St. James and St. John in Clerkenwell and Martha Paget, a music professor. In 1881 Paget entered the Royal Academy Schools. Here he befriended Alfred Morris Butler, an architecture student who may have become the model for Paget's illustrations of Dr. John Watson. Between 1879 and 1905, Paget contributed eighteen miscellaneous paintings, including nine portraits, to the Royal Academy exhibitions. Paget's drawings appeared in the Strand Magazine, the Pictorial World, The Sphere, The Graphic, The Illustrated London News, The Pall Mall Magazine, his work became well known in both the United Kingdom and United States, he provided illustrations for Arthur Morrison's Martin Hewitt detective stories, Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes work, doing much to popularise both series.
On 1 June 1893, Sidney Paget married daughter of William Hounsfield, a farmer. They had two sons together. Sidney Paget died in Margate on 28 January 1908, after suffering from a painful chest complaint for the last few years of his life. According to his death certificate, the cause of Sidney Paget's death was "Mediastinal tumour, 3 years, exhaustion." Mediastinal tumors are growths. As the tumor grows, the patient's breathing becomes more constricted. It's a rare condition and, in the early 1900s, it was a painful and certain death sentence, and now, no known causes exist, there are no known links between the condition and any substance. Paget was buried in East Finchley Cemetery. Two brothers, H. M. Paget and Wal Paget were successful portraitists and illustrators. Paget is best remembered as the creator of the popular image of Sherlock Holmes from the original publication of Conan Doyle's stories in the Strand Magazine, he was hired to illustrate The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, a series of twelve short stories that ran from July 1891 through June 1892.
In 1893, Paget illustrated The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes, published in The Strand as further episodes of the Adventures. When Sir Arthur Conan Doyle revived the Sherlock Holmes series with The Hound of the Baskervilles, serialised in The Strand in 1901–02, he requested that Paget be the illustrator. Paget went on to illustrate another short story series, The Return of Sherlock Holmes, in 1903–04. In all, he illustrated 37 Holmes short stories, his illustrations have influenced interpretations of the detective in fiction and drama. The Strand became one of Great Britain's most famous fiction magazines, with the Holmes series its most popular feature; as Holmes' popularity grew, Paget's illustrations became more elaborate. Beginning with "The Adventure of the Final Problem" in 1893 every Holmes story in The Strand featured a full-page illustration as well as many smaller ones. Paget was the first to give Holmes his deerstalker cap and Inverness cape – details never mentioned in the stories and novels.
The cap and cape first appear in an illustration for "The Boscombe Valley Mystery" in 1891 and reappear in "The Adventure of Silver Blaze" in 1893. Altogether, Paget did some 356 published drawings for the Sherlock Holmes series, his depictions of Holmes became iconic and other illustrators found themselves compelled to imitate his style in their own depictions of Holmes. A complete set of Strand issues featuring the illustrated Sherlock Holmes tales is one of the rarest and most expensive collector's items in publishing history. Paget's original 6.75 x 10.5-inch drawing of "Holmes and Moriarty in Mortal Combat at the Edge of the Reichenbach Falls" was sold by Sotheby's in New York on 16 November 2004 for $220,800. Legend holds that the publishers of The Strand hired Paget accidentally when he mistakenly responded to a letter of commission intended for his younger brother Walter, but a 2019 paper published in the Baker Street Journal found no evidence for this story and much against it. Another held belief – that Paget modeled his depiction of Holmes on that of Walter – was denied by their brother Henry Marriott Paget.
Works by Sidney Paget at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Sidney Paget at Internet Archive Sidney Paget at Library of Congress Authorities, with 10 catalogue records
Peroz I Kushanshah was Kushanshah of the Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom from 245 to 275. He was the successor of Ardashir I Kushanshah, he was an energetic ruler, who minted coins in Balkh and Gandhara. Under him, the Kushano-Sasanians further expanded their domains into the west, pushing the weakened Kushan Empire to Mathura in North India. Peroz I Kushanshah was succeeded by Hormizd I Kushanshah in 275. "Peroz" is a Middle Persian name, meaning "victorious". Peroz I Kushanshah was notably the first ruler from the Sasanian family to use this name. Centuries the name would be used again by the imperial line of the Sasanians, commencing with Peroz I. "Kushano-Sasanian" is a historiographic term used by modern scholars when referring to a dynasty of monarchs who supplanted the Kushan Empire in the Tukharistan region, in both Kabulistan and Gandhara as well. According to the historian Khodadad Rezakhani, the dynasty was a young branch of the House of Sasan, an offspring of one of the Sasanian King of Kings.
It was founded by Ardashir I Kushanshah after his appointment by the first Sasanian King of Kings, Ardashir I. The Kushano-Sasanians, in the same manner as the Kushans, used the title of Kushanshah, thus demonstrating a continuum with their predecessors. Peroz became Kushanshah in 245. Like his predecessor Ardashir I Kushanshah, Peroz is called the "Great Kushan King" and "Mazdean lord" on his coins. In some of the rare coins of Peroz, the "Investiture issue", minted at Herat, the obverse legend reads mzdztn bgy pylwcy rb’ kwš’n mdw’ in Pahlavi, "The Mazda-worshipping lord Peroz the Great Kushan Shah". On the reverse, Peroz is seen facing Anahita rising from her throne. Peroz is holding an investiture wreath over an altar and raising the left hand in gesture of benediction. Anahita holds an investiture wreath and a scepter. Peroz's reign marked a shift in Kushano-Sasanian coinage, which came to resemble the coinage of the Kushan emperors, he was the first Kushano-Sasanian ruler to issue coins on the Kushan model.
The gold coins of Peroz tended to be scyphate and to imitate the design of Kushan ruler Vasudeva I. They were minted at Balkh, in Bactria, north of the Hindu-Kush; the visual aspect of this new coin type was identical to those of the Kushans, albeit with specific adjustments. The front of Peroz's coins portrays him standing in Kushan armour making an offering at an altar, at the same time holding a spear in his right hand. Several symbols are included in the coin: a trident over the altar, what is described as a Nandipada symbol behind the king, a swastika between the legs. A Brahmi letter Pi has been introduced to the right of the ruler, near the ground; the obverse has a legend in Bactrian script all around: Πιρωςο οοςορκο Κοϸανο ϸαηο "Peroz the Great Kushan King" In this, like his predecessor Ardashir I Kushanshah, Peroz called himself the "Great Kushan King". The reverse has a Kushan-style representation of the Kushan god Oesho, which uses the attributes of the Indian God Shiva, stading in front of the bull Nandi, holding a trident and a diadem.
This new reverse deity replaced the previous depictions of the Zoroastrian deities Mithra or Anahita in Kushano-Sasanian coinage. In the Kushan-style coinage of Peroz, although the depiction of the deity is visually similar to that on the Kushan coins, the legend is not the Kushan word Oesho anymore, but has been replaced by the Bactrian legend οορςοανδο ιαςοδο or BΟPZAΟANΔΟ IAZAΔΟ "The exalted God". Apart from minting coins in the Kushano-Sasanian main base of Tukharistan, Peroz had coins minted in Gandhara and Begram, most in Peshawar as well, it was around this time that the Kushano-Sasanians began to expel the Kushans from Gandhara, pushing them to Mathura in North India, where their power was diminished from that of kings to local princes. Peroz was thus the first Kushano-Sasanian ruler to issue coins south of the Hindu-Kush, he is known for several overstrikes over coins of the Kushan ruler Kanishka II, it was during Peroz's reign—in c. 262—that the Sasanian King of Kings Shapur I carved the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht inscription.
On the inscription, Shapur I proclaimed himself as the suzerain of several regions, including that of the Kushano-Sasanians:... I, the Mazda-worshipping lord, king of kings of Iran and An-Iran… am the Master of the Domain of Iran and possess the territory of Pars, Parthia… Hindestan, the Domain of the Kushan up to the limits of Peshawar and up to Kash and Chachestan. According to Rezakhani, the Kushano-Sasanians appear to have been too strong to have been plainly Sasanian governors, their existence "may well reflect an early Sasanian continuation of the Arsacid imperial setting, acting as an allied, but autonomous, cadet branch of the Sasanian royal house". According to the historian Richard Payne, "the Kushano–Sasanian sub-kingdom ruled from Balkh on behalf of the Sasanian kings of kings". In 275, Peroz was succeeded by Hormizd I Kushanshah, a son of the King of Kings Bahram I. Cribb, Joe. Rienjang, Wannaporn. Problems of Chronology in Gandhāran Art: Proceedings of the First International Workshop of the Gandhāra Connections Project, University of Oxford, 23rd-24th March, 2017.
University of Oxford The Classical Art Research Centre Archaeopress. ISBN 978-1-78491-855-2. Cribb, Joe. Alram, M.. "The Kidarites, the numismatic evidence.pdf". Coins and Chronology Ii, Edited by M. Alram et