U.S. Route 441 in Georgia
U. S. Route 441 in the state of Georgia is a north–south United States Highway, it runs from the Florida border near the Fargo city area to the North Carolina state line, north of Dillard. It is a spur route of US 41, it does have an intersection with another spur route of US 41 however US 341 in McRae-Helena. US 441 is signed concurrently with various state routes; the route is concurrent with State Route 89 for the first 56.9 miles. Other concurrencies include SR 64 in the Pearson area, SR 31 from south of Pearson to Dublin, SR 30 in the vicinity of McRae-Helena, SR 117 from near Rentz to south of Dublin, SR 19 within Dublin, SR 29 from Dublin to Milledgeville, SR 24 from Milledgeville to northwest of Watkinsville, SR 15 from the Watkinsville area to the North Carolina state line, SR 365 from Cordelia to Mount Airy. Concurrencies of US 441 with US Routes in Georgia include US 221 from south of Pearson state line to Douglas, US 319 from the south of Jacksonville to Dublin, US 280 in the vicinity of McRae-Helena, US 129 from Eatonton to Athens, US 278 in the Madison area, US 29 and US 78 within Athens, US 23 from Cornelia to the North Carolina state line, US 76 in Clayton.
US 441/SR 89 begins at the Florida state line in Echols County, but has no major junctions in the county. US 441 enters Clinch County southwest of Fargo. South of Fargo, it concurs with SR 94. SR 94 splits off in downtown Fargo. SR 89 heads north. In Homerville, US 441 junctions with US 84, SR 38, SR 187. North of Homerville, SR 89 junctions with SR 122. SR 89 enters Atkinson County south of Pearson. Just south of town, SR 89 terminates at US 221/SR 31/SR 64, however US 441 continues north along that multiplex until it reaches the town where SR 64 leaves at US 82. North of US 82, US 221/US 441/SR 31 becomes a four-lane undivided highway that runs northeast after the bridge over Pudding Creek curves to the northwest along the left bank of the Satilla River turns straight north to cross that river. Six miles the routes enter Douglas. Right at Douglas Municipal Airport US 221 leaves the US 441 multiplex at the intersection of SR 135/SR 32 Truck/SR 158 Truck and the southern terminus of SR 206. Shortly after this, US 441/SR 31 splits into a one-way pair just south of Trojan Lane.
Northbound US 441/SR 31 now runs along Madison Avenue, while southbound US 441/SR 31 runs along South Peterson Avenue. The streets intersect College Park Road, which leads to South Georgia State College off to the west, but three blocks intersects its first major intersection as the one way pair, SR 158. One block after the intersections with Cherry Street and Peterson Avenues enter the Downtown Douglas Historic District where they both cross Seaboard Coast Line Railroad grade crossings. Two to three blocks after the tracks, it has intersections with SR 32, a one-way pair along Ashley Street and Ward Street. Leaving the historic district at Jackson Street, South Peterson Avenue moves away from Madison Avenue, but the two streets start to move closer together again north of Church Street; the one-way pair ends north of North Chester Avenue and McNeal Drive, US 441/SR 31 crosses the Private First Class DeWayne King U. S. M. C. Memorial Bridge over Twenty Mile Creek. After Frank Vaughn Road, the route crosses an underground petroleum line right-of-way and an abandoned railroad line right-of-way next to it.
From there the street name changes from North Peterson Avenue to Douglas–Broxton Highway. North of a power line right-of-way. US 441/SR 31 continues straight north until it reaches the intersection of Leroy Sapp Road turns to the north-northeast before crossing a bridge over Seventeen Mile River. North of Riverbend Road, the routes curve from north-northeast to northwest and runs through local farmland. Within Broxton, the road is named Alabama Avenue, it makes a turn to the west just after the intersection with South Railroad Street and has a brief concurrency with SR 268 between Ocmulgee Street and west of Porea Street. Curving back to the northwest, it approaches the eastern terminus of former SR 706, resumes its presence in Southern Georgia farm and ranch territory; the road turns straight north before encountering an intersection with SR 107, which joins US 441/SR 31 in a short concurrency turns northwest again. Right after the bridge over Mill Creek, the concurrency with SR 107 is replaced by the one with US 319, as westbound SR 107 turns onto southbound US 319, northbound US 319 joins US 441/SR 31.
The first major landmark along US 319/US 441/SR 31 is the Jacksonville Ferry Bridge over the Ocmulgee River at the Coffee–Telfair county line the routes curve from northwest to northeast as they enter Jacksonville itself, where the road has a signalized intersection with SR 117. North of SR 117, US 319/US 441/SR 31 runs straight north and the first intersection is with Old Scotland Road, a de facto connecting road with SR 149, it continues to run straight north until it crosses a bridge over Alligator Creek, another one over Horse Creek, before curving north-northeast. The route curves to the northeast again as it runs through Workmore, which has a blinker light intersection with Telfair CR 240, a high school named for the community. North of there, the surrounding retain their rural status, with untouched forest land on the west side and random farm and ranch land, on the east side. A pair of roadside parks can be found south of Telfair CR 108. North of there, the road encounters the northern terminus of Telfair County Road 152 right n
Clarke County, Georgia
Clarke County is a county in the northeastern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 116,714, its county seat is Athens. Clarke County is included in the Athens-Clarke County, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Atlanta-Athens-Clarke County-Sandy Springs, GA Combined Statistical Area. Clarke County was created in 1801 by an act of the Georgia General Assembly on December 5, it was named for Revolutionary War hero Elijah Clarke and included 250 square miles, part of Jackson County. Colonel Clarke played a leading role the 1779 victory at the Battle of Kettle Creek in Wilkes County; the Elijah Clarke Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution erected a monument to him in Broad Street in Athens. As the population of the county grew in the early 19th century, its agricultural and cotton industries prospered; the adjacent plantation harvests flowed through city mills. Manufacturing and textile production operations were the major industries in Clarke County after the railroad reached Athens in 1841.
Athens and Clarke County were second only to Savannah and Chatham County in the amount of capital invested in manufacturing in the 1840s. Two skirmishes were fought in Clarke County in 1864, during the American Civil War, one near Barber's Creek and the other near Mitchell's Road. Athens was occupied by the Union Army on May 29 and a provost-marshal took charge. Formal military occupation of the ended by December 1864, though Union troops remained in the county until early 1866. In 1801 the Clarke County Commission had selected Watkinsville as the county seat. All county offices, including the courts and jail, moved to Athens when the seat was moved on November 24, 1871. County meetings took place in the old Athens town hall, until a new courthouse was constructed in 1876; the present courthouse was built in 1914. On February 12, 1875, in response to complaints over the relocation of the county seat to Athens, the state legislature created Oconee County from the southwest portion of Clarke County, making Watkinsville its seat.
Clarke County thus lost one-third of its population and three-fifths of its land area. The position of "commissioner of roads and revenue" was created by the legislature for what are today known as county commissioners; as an extension of the state, the county would conduct welfare and health programs and maintain roads, hold courts of law. On March 29, 1973, the Georgia legislature increased the number of county commissioners from 3 to 5 adding a county administrator. In 1990, the residents voted to unify the city and county governments creating Athens-Clarke County, the second unified city-county government in the state of Georgia. Clarke County is located at 33°57′20″N 83°23′00″W; the vast majority of Clarke County is located in the Upper Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin, with a small portion of the county's eastern edge, north of Winterville, located in the Broad River sub-basin of the Savannah River basin. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 121 square miles, of which 119 square miles is land and 1.8 square miles is water.
It is the smallest county by area in Georgia. Madison County, Georgia - northeast Oglethorpe County, Georgia - southeast Oconee County, Georgia - southwest Barrow County, Georgia - west Jackson County, Georgia - northwest As of the census of 2000, there were 101,489 people, 39,706 households, 19,694 families residing in the county; the population density was 840 people per square mile. There were 42,126 housing units at an average density of 349 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 64.89% White, 27.25% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 3.13% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 3.08% from other races, 1.41% from two or more races. 6.34% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 39,706 households out of which 22.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.60% were married couples living together, 13.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 50.40% were non-families. 29.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 17.80% under the age of 18, 31.30% from 18 to 24, 27.40% from 25 to 44, 15.40% from 45 to 64, 8.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.20 males. The per capita income in the county was $20,948 in 2008, the median income for a family was $36,039. Males had a median income of $30,482 versus $23,069 for females. In 2008, 32.2% of the county's population were living below the poverty line. As a result, Clarke ranked #4 on City Data's list of "Top 101 cities with the highest percentage of residents living in poverty in 2007"; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 116,714 people, 45,414 households, 22,044 families residing in the county. The population density was 979.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 51,068 housing units at an average density of 428.4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 61.9% white, 26.6% black or African American, 4.2% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 4.9% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 10.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 10.9% were English, 9.9% were German, 9.0% were Irish, 6.6% were American. Of the 45,414 households
Special routes of U.S. Route 78
At least 15 special routes of U. S. Route 78 have existed. U. S. Route 78N was a northern divided U. S. highway that comprised the current mainline of US 78 from Heflin, Alabama, to Villa Rica, Georgia. The road that would become US 78N was established in 1920, as SR 8 from the Alabama state line to Villa Rica. By the end of the third quarter of 1926, US 78 was established, being designated along a local roadway from Heflin to the state line, SR 8 from the state line to Villa Rica; the next year, US 78 split into two divided routes, with US 78N being designated from Heflin to Villa Rica, on the northern segment of SR 8. In 1928, Alabama State Route 4 was designated along US-78N. By May 1933, US 78N/SR 8 were paved from Bremen to Villa Rica; that month, US 78N/SR 8 were paved from east of the Alabama state line to Bremen. The next month, US 78N/SR 8 were paved west to the Alabama state line. By November 1934, US 78N was redesignated as part of mainline US 78. U. S. Route 78S was a southern divided U.
S. highway that comprised the current length of Alabama State Route 46 from Heflin, Alabama, to the Georgia state line, SR 166 from the state line to Carrollton, SR 61 from Carrollton to Villa Rica. The road that would become US 78 was established in 1920 as part of SR 34 from Carrollton to Villa Rica. By the end of the third quarter of 1921, SR 16 was designated from the Alabama state line, west of Bowdon to Carrollton. By late 1926, SR 16 and SR 34 were redesignated as a southern branch of SR 8. In 1927, US 78 split into two divided routes, with US 78S being designated from Heflin to Villa Rica, via Bowdon and Carrollton, on the southern branch of SR 8. In 1928, Alabama State Route 4 was designated along US-78N, while SR-46 was designated along US-78S. By 1932, US 78S/SR 8 were paved from Carrollton to just southwest of Villa Rica. By the end of 1934, US 78S/SR 8 were paved from the Alabama state line to a point near Bowdon. By November 1934, US 78S was redesignated as US 78 Alternate. By the beginning of 1948, the southern branch of SR 8 was redesignated as SR 8 Alternate.
By the middle of 1954, SR 8 Alternate was redesignated as SR 166 from the Alabama state line to northeast of Carrollton) and SR 61 from there to Villa Rica. U. S. Route 78 Alternate was an alternate route of US 78 in northwest Georgia, it comprised the current length of Alabama State Route 46 from Heflin, Alabama, to the Georgia state line, SR 166 from the state line to Carrollton, SR 61 from Carrollton to Villa Rica. The road that would become US 78 Alternate was established in 1920 as part of SR 34 from Carrollton to Villa Rica. By the end of the third quarter of 1921, SR 16 was designated from the Alabama state line, west of Bowdon to Carrollton. By late 1926, SR 16 and SR 34 were redesignated as a southern branch of SR 8. In 1927, US 78 split into two divided routes, with US 78S being designated from Heflin to Villa Rica, via Bowdon and Carrollton, on the southern branch of SR 8. In 1928, SR 4 was designated along US-78N, while SR 46 was designated along US-78S. By 1932, US 78S/SR 8 were paved from Carrollton to just southwest of Villa Rica.
By the end of 1934, US 78S/SR 8 were paved from the Alabama state line to a point near Bowdon. By November 1934, US 78S was redesignated as US 78 Alt. By the beginning of 1948, the southern branch of SR 8 was redesignated as SR 8 Alternate. By the beginning of 1953, US 78 Alt. was decommissioned. By the middle of 1954, SR 8 Alternate was redesignated as SR 166 from the Alabama state line to northeast of Carrollton) and SR 61 from there to Villa Rica. U. S. Route 78 Business in the Athens – Clarke County metropolitan area is a Bannered U. S. Highway, concurrent with Georgia State Route 10 for its entire length, its western terminus is at an interchange with US 29/SR 8/SR 316 and US 78/SR 10, southeast of Bogart in Oconee County. Its eastern terminus is at US 29/US 129/US 441/SR 10 Loop/SR 15; the roadway continues as US 78/SR 10. All of US 78 Bus. in Clarke County is included as part of the National Highway System, a system of roadways important to the nation's economy and mobility. Prior to the completion of the Athens Perimeter Highway, SR 316, the Broad Street and Atlanta Highway portions of US 78 Business carried US 29/US 78 through Athens' downtown and commercial west side.
US 29 entered Athens via North Avenue and Thomas Street, joining US 78 at the Broad Street–Thomas Street–Oconee Street intersection downtown. The combined highways continued to the Pepsi bottling plant in Bogart, where US 78 turned left onto the Moina Michael Highway and US 29 continued straight into Bogart; when SR 10 Loop was completed, US 29 was routed along the north side of the loop, while US 78 was routed along the south side, with US 78 Bus. Being established inside the loop. North Avenue and Thomas Street had their state route designation removed. SR 316 had been completed only up to Moina Michael Highway, so the stretch of highway from there to SR 10 Loop continued to carry US 29/US 78. Once SR 316 was completed to SR 10 Loop, US 29/US 78 were moved to SR 316, US 29 was switched from the north side of the loop to the south side of the loop while US 78 Bus. was extended over Atlanta Highway and Moina Michael Highway to its present state. U. S. Route 78 Business is a 4.6-mile-long business route of US 78 that exists within the south-central part of Wilkes County.
Nearly its entire length is within the city limits of Wa
Oglethorpe County, Georgia
Oglethorpe County is a county located in the northeastern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,899; the county seat is Lexington. Oglethorpe County is included in the Athens-Clarke County, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Atlanta-Athens-Clarke County-Sandy Springs, GA Combined Statistical Area, it is the largest county in Northeast Georgia. Oglethorpe County was part of a large tract of land surrendered by Creek and Cherokee Native Americans to the Colony of Georgia in the treaty of 1773; the county itself was founded on December 19, 1793, is named for Georgia's founder, General James Oglethorpe. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 442 square miles, of which 439 square miles is land and 3.0 square miles is water. The majority of Oglethorpe County is located in the Broad River sub-basin of the Savannah River basin. A narrow western portion of the county, in a line from just north of Woodville, through Crawford, to just south of Winterville, is located in the Upper Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin.
A small part of the southern portion of the county, from Maxeys east, is located in the Little River sub-basin of the Savannah River basin. Broad River Elbert Wilkes Taliaferro Greene Oconee Clarke Madison Oconee National Forest Watson Mill Bridge State Park U. S. Route 78 State Route 10 State Route 22 State Route 77 The county has limited walkability options available; as of the census of 2000, there were 12,635 people, 4,849 households, 3,539 families residing in the county. The population density was 11/km². There were 5,368 housing units at an average density of 5/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 78.29% White, 19.75% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.63% from other races, 0.85% from two or more races. 1.38% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,849 households out of which 33.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.30% were married couples living together, 11.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.00% were non-families.
23.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.05. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.80% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 30.00% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 12.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,578, the median income for a family was $41,443. Males had a median income of $30,733 versus $22,289 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,089. About 10.00% of families and 13.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.90% of those under age 18 and 18.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 14,899 people, 5,647 households, 4,070 families residing in the county.
The population density was 33.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,484 housing units at an average density of 14.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 78.3% white, 17.2% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.9% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 17.5% were American, 12.3% were Irish, 9.9% were German, 8.2% were English. Of the 5,647 households, 34.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.2% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.9% were non-families, 23.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.07. The median age was 40.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $39,319 and the median income for a family was $52,955. Males had a median income of $35,966 versus $27,474 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $17,572. About 11.6% of families and 19.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.4% of those under age 18 and 15.6% of those age 65 or over. White Water Rafting on the Broad and South Fork Broad Rivers ATV and Motor Bike Park Sportsman Hunting: Seasonal Whitetail Deer and RabbitHistoric Districts and Heritage Research, Antique Stores in Historic Lexington and Agritourism as well as Oglethorpe Fresh Produce In 2016, the Oglethorpe County Recreation Department was named both the District 7 and State Agency of the Year for populations under 20,000 through the Georgia Recreation and Park Association. Arnoldsville Crawford Lexington Maxeys Palmetto Stephens Vesta Wolfskin Bowling Green Nathan Crawford Barnett, member of the Georgia House of Representatives and Georgia Secretary of State for more than 30 years. Raised in Lexington, educated at the Lexington Academy William H. Crawford - U. S. Minister to France, U. S. Secretary of War, U.
S. Secretary of the Treasury George R. Gilmer - Twice Governor Meriwether Lewis - leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition Wilson Lumpkin - Governor Joseph H. Lumpkin First Chief Justice of the Georgia Supreme Court and co-founder of the Lumpkin Law School George Mathews - Revolutionary hero and twice Governor Kenny Rogers - Country music performer National Register of Historic Places listings in Oglethorpe County, Georgia Oglethorpe County o
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Chattahoochee-Oconee National Forest
The Chattahoochee-Oconee National Forest in northern Georgia comprises two United States National Forests, the Oconee National Forest in eastern Georgia and the Chattahoochee National Forest located in the North Georgia Mountains. The Chattahoochee National Forest is composed of an western forest; the western forest contains Johns Mountain, Little Sand Mountain, Taylor Ridge. The combined total area of the Chattahoochee-Oconee National Forest is 866,468 acres, of which the Chattahoochee National Forest comprises 750,145 acres and the Oconee National Forest comprises 116,232 acres; the county with the largest portion of the eastern forest is Rabun County, which has 148,684 acres within its boundaries. Numerous animals can be found in this forest including birds such as species of hawk, species of owl, ducks, sparrows, hummingbirds and cardinals. Mammalian species that roam in the forest are American black bear, coyote, a variety of bats, beaver, river otter, deer, weasel and foxes; the forest is known to be home to the mysterious blue glow of the Blue ghost firefly, Phausis reticulata and many species of fish and amphibians swim in the many streams and lakes.
The Chattahoochee National Forest takes its name from the Chattahoochee River whose headwaters begin in the North Georgia mountains. The River and the area were given the name by the English settlers who took the name from the Indians living here; the Cherokee and Creek Indians inhabited North Georgia. In one dialect of the Muskogean languages, Chatta means stone; these marked or flowered stones were in the Chattahoochee River at a settlement near Columbus, Georgia. In 1911, the United States Forest Service purchased 31,000 acres of land in Fannin, Gilmer and Union Counties from the Gennett family for $7 per acre; this land was the beginning of. The initial land purchases became a part of the Cherokee National Forest on June 14, 1920. Ranger Roscoe Nicholson, the first forest ranger in Georgia and had advised the Forest Service in its initial land purchases, continued the growth of the Chattahoochee by negotiating the purchase of most of the Forest Service land in what is now the Chattooga River Ranger District.
The Coleman River Scenic Area near Clayton, Georgia was dedicated to "Ranger Nick", as he was called, in honor of his promotion of conservation ideals. Ranger Arthur Woody promoted conservation and was a key figure in the early development of the Chattahoochee. Unwise land and resource use had caused the deer and trout populations to disappear in the North Georgia mountains and Woody brought trout and deer back to the area; the trout were shipped to Gainesville, hauled across the narrow, mountain roads and released in the streams. Woody purchased fawns with his own money, fed them until they could be released on what became the Blue Ridge Wildlife Management Area. Many landmarks in the Chattahoochee bear Ranger Woody’s name in tribute to his work. Sosebee Cove, a 175 acres tract of prize hardwood along GA 180 is set aside as a memorial to Woody, who negotiated its purchase for the Forest Service. On July 9, 1936, the Forest Service was reorganized to follow state boundaries and President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed the Chattahoochee a separate National Forest.
In 1936, the Chattahoochee was organized into the Blue Ridge and the Tallulah. In 1959, President Dwight D. Eisenhower proclaimed 96,000 acres of federal lands in central Georgia as the Oconee National Forest; the Oconee joined the Chattahoochee to become the Chattahoochee-Oconee National Forests of today. The Chattooga River was designated a Scenic River during the 1970s; the Chattooga remains one of the few free-flowing streams in the Southeast and is known for its white water rafting and scenery. The movie Deliverance was filmed on the Chattooga River, which became the fictional Cahulawassee River in the movie; the Chattahoochee National Forest today covers 18 north Georgia counties. The Chattahoochee has three ranger districts: Blue Ridge Ranger District, Office in Blairsville, GA Chattooga River Ranger District, Office in Tallulah Falls, GA Conasauga Ranger District, Office in Chatsworth, GAIt includes over 2,200 miles of rivers and streams. There are over 450 miles of hiking and other recreation trails, 1,600 miles of "roads."
In addition to the Chattooga River and the headwaters of the Chattahoochee River, natural attractions within it boundaries include the beginning of the 2,174-mile Appalachian Trail, Georgia's highpoint, Brasstown Bald and Anna Ruby Falls. The Chattahoochee includes ten wildernesses that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, all of which are managed by the United States Forest Service. Parts of these wilderness extend outside Chattahoochee National Forest; the wildernesses are: Big Frog Wilderness Blood Mountain Wilderness Brasstown Wilderness Cohutta Wilderness Ellicott Rock Wilderness Mark Trail Wilderness Raven Cliffs Wilderness Rich Mountain Wilderness Southern Nantahala Wilderness Tray Mountain WildernessThe Oconee National Forest today is spread over eight Georgia counties and is organized into one ranger district. The Oco
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may