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Octans is a faint constellation located in the deep southern sky. Its name is Latin for the eighth part of a circle, but it is named after the octant, a navigational instrument; the constellation was devised by French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in 1752, it remains one of the 88 modern constellations. Octans was one of 14 constellations created by French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille during his expedition to the Cape of Good Hope, was named l’Octans de Reflexion in 1752, after he had observed and catalogued 10,000 southern stars during a two-year stay at the Cape of Good Hope, he devised fourteen new constellations in uncharted regions of the Southern Celestial Hemisphere not visible from Europe. All but one honoured instruments that symbolised the Age of Enlightenment, it was part of his catalogue of the southern sky, the Coelum Australe Stelliferum, published posthumously in 1763. In Europe, it became more known as Octans Hadleianus, in honor of English mathematician John Hadley, who invented the octant in 1730.

There is no real mythology related to Octans due to its faintness and relative recentness, but because of its extreme southerly latitude. Octans is a faint constellation, it is 63.3 ± 0.8 light-years distant from Earth. Beta Octantis is the second brightest star in the constellation. Sigma Octantis, the southern pole star, is a magnitude 5.4 star just over 1 degree away from the true South Celestial Pole. Its relative faintness means. Conveniently for navigators, there are other, much easier methods for locating the southern celestial pole. For example, the constellation Crux, the Southern Cross points toward the South Celestial Pole, if one draws a line from Gamma Crucis to Alpha Crucis. Another method includes an asterism made up of Sigma, Chi and Upsilon Octantis, which form a distinctive trapezoid shape. In addition to having the current southern pole star of Earth, Octans contains the southern pole star of the planet Saturn, the magnitude 4.3 Delta Octantis. The Astronomical Society of Southern Africa in 2003 reported that observations of the Mira variable stars R and T Octantis were urgently needed.

Three star systems are known to have planets. Mu2 Octantis is the brighter component of which has a planet. HD 142022 is a binary system, a component of, a sunlike star with a massive planet with an orbital period of 1928 ± 46 days. HD 212301 is a yellow-white main sequence star with a hot jupiter that completes an orbit every 2.2 days. NGC 7095 and NGC 7098 are two barred spiral galaxies that are 115 million and 95 million light-years distant from Earth respectively. USS Octans was a stores ship used by the United States Navy during World War II. Citations References The Deep Photographic Guide to the Constellations: Octans The clickable Octans Starry Night Photography: Octans Star Tales – Octans

Lambach HL.I

The Lambach HL.1 was a one-off, simple tandem two seat trainer designed and built by members and ex-members of the Delft Student Aeroclub in the Netherlands in the mid-1930s. When in the early 1930s members of the DSA were trying to bring down the costs of tuition they decided that in the absence of public finance they would build their own aircraft. J. W. H. Lambach, a former DSA member, was asked to design a machine which would be cheap to produce and operate. A group of about twenty-five students set about its construction. Work began in the spring of 1934 and the Lambach HL. I made its first flight on 5 July 1935; the HL. I was a cantilever low-wing monoplane with wings of constant rounded tips, its tail was conventional, with a braced straight-tapered horizontal tail mounted on top of the fuselage and a rounded vertical tail with a rudder which extended below the tailplane, moving within an elevator cut-out. Its fuselage was round in section and tapered a little both aft of the wings; the front open cockpit was just ahead of the wing leading edge and the rear cockpit, from which the HL.

I was flown solo and, at about two-thirds wing chord. During early testing the HL.1 was configured as a single-seater. Both engines drove two-blade propellers; the HL.1 had a fixed, conventional undercarriage with its mainwheels on tall, vertical faired legs braced laterally by an inverted V pair of struts and longitudinally by trailing struts. The HL. I was appropriately registered as PH-DSA on 1 January 1936. In March the DSA transferred it to the Nationale Luchtvaartschool at Ypenburg Airport where it served until the Germans invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940; the HL.1 avoided destruction by bombing. The aircraft began to degrade after being moved out of its hangar by German forces and it was handed back to the Technical University of Delft for instructional purposes, where it was dismantled. Data from WesselinkGeneral characteristics Capacity: two Length: 7.70 m Wingspan: 11.20 m Gross weight: 585 kg Powerplant: 1 × Pobjoy Niagara 7-cylinder radial, 67 kW Propellers: 2-bladedPerformance Maximum speed: 140 km/h

Ice speedway

Ice speedway is a developed form of motorcycle speedway racing, featuring racing on frozen surfaces. The sport uses bikes enhanced for the terrain. Participants can compete at international level; the bikes race counterclockwise around oval tracks between 260 and 425 metres in length. The race structure and scoring are similar to that in speedway; the bikes bear a passing resemblance to those used for speedway, but have a longer wheelbase and a more rigid frame. As with speedway, the bikes do not have brakes; the sport is divided into classes for studded tyres. The studded tyre category involves competitors riding on bikes with spikes up to 3 centimetres in length screwed into each treadless tyre, each bike has between the 130 and 140 spikes on the front tyre and between the 170 and 190 on the rear; the use of these spikes in this discipline necessitate the addition of special protective guards over the wheels which extend to the ice surface. The spiked tyres produce a tremendous amount of traction and this means two-speed gearboxes are required.

The use of spikes on the tyres makes the sport more dangerous with fallen riders running the risk of being run over by other bikes. Ice speedway riders have been described as both the bravest and craziest of all speedway riders. In the studded tyre class there is no broadsiding around the bends due to the grip produced by the spikes digging into the ice. Instead, riders lean their bikes into the bends at an angle where the handlebars just skim the track surface. Speeds approach 80 mph on the straights, 60 mph on the bends; the safety barrier consists of straw bales or banked-up snow and ice around the outer edge of the track. Since the riding style required for studded ice racing is different from that used in the other track racing disciplines, riders from this sport participate in speedway or its other variants and vice versa; the majority of Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme sanctioned team and individual meetings are held in Russia and Finland, but events are held in the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, other countries.

Countries that dominated and won the majority of titles in Individual Ice Racing World Championship and Team Ice Racing World Championship were the USSR and since 1991—Russia. Canada's national touring series is sanctioned by the Canadian Motorcycle Association. Being a winter sport, ice speedway is popular in the northern/north-eastern half of Europe and North America. Notable drivers include Sweden's Per-Olof Serenius, multiple world champion and with 22 Swedish championships to his belt, Russia's Nikolai Krasnikov, septuple world champion. Ice racing Motorcycle speedway Outline of motorcycles and motorcycling Icetrack cycling Raby, Phillip. Motorbikes. First Avenue Editions. ISBN 0-8225-9854-X

Saltwater fish

Saltwater fish called marine fish, are fish that live in ocean water. Saltwater fish can swim and live alone or live in a large group together, called a school of fish. Saltwater fish are popular among deep sea fishermen and aquariums all over the country. Saltwater fish are commonly kept in aquariums for entertainment. Many saltwater fish are caught to be eaten. Fish that live in the ocean can be herbivores, or omnivores. Herbivores in the ocean eat things such as flowering seagrasses. Many herbivores' diets consist of algae. Most saltwater fish will eat both microalgae. Many fish eat red, green and blue algae, but some fish prefer certain types. Most saltwater fish that are carnivores will never eat algae under any circumstances. Carnivores' diets consist of plankton, or tiny crustaceans. Saltwater aquariums are a multi-million dollar industry in the United States. About 10 million marine fish are imported into the United States each year for aquarium use; the United States imports more saltwater fish than any other country in the world.

There are 2,000 different species of saltwater fish that are imported and used in captivity. In many circumstances, fish used for marine trade are collected using harmful tactics such as cyanide. One way that people are trying to protect the coral reefs is by breeding marine fish in captivity. Captive-bred fish are known to be healthier and to live longer. Captive-bred fish are less susceptible to disease because they have not been exposed to the wild and they have not been damaged during the shipment process. Fish that are bred in captivity are accustomed to aquarium habitats and food. There are many different components; some of them are the temperature of the water, the quality, quantity of water. Other components that can contribute to the habitat of saltwater fish are pH level, salt level, alkalinity level. There are other physical features that contribute to a habitat which are physical materials like rocks and sand or the vegetation like the amount of algae, water plants, saltmarsh. Specific fish live in specific habitats based on what they eat or what cycle of life they are at, another thing is the amount of salt, in the water at that specific location.

Another thing is that some ocean habitats aren't technically in the ocean and these are called estuaries, areas when oceans and rivers meet creating a mixture of salt water and freshwater making a different habitat for different types of fish and creatures to live in. The ocean is home to organisms as large as whales and as small as microscopic marine organisms such as phytoplankton. However, the vast majority of ocean life that humans are exposed to is simple saltwater fish. Saltwater fish can live in the deepest depths of the ocean where no sunlight can penetrate, but they can live on the surface of the water. Coastal fish inhabit the sea between the shoreline and the edge of the continental shelf Deep sea fish live below the photic zone of the ocean, i.e. where not enough light penetrates for photosynthesis to occur Pelagic fish live near the surface of the sea or a lake Demersal fish live on or near the bottom of the sea or a lake Coral reef fish are associated with a coral reef

Mangrove robin

The mangrove robin is a passerine bird in the family Petroicidae. It is found in New Guinea and northern Australia; the bird's common name refers to its natural habitat. They live in mangrove forests and fly outside these biomes; the mangrove robin was described by the French naturalist Charles Lucien Bonaparte in 1850 from a specimen collected in New Guinea. He coined the binomial name Myiolestes pulverulentus; the species was subsequently moved to the genus Peneoenanthe by the Australian ornithologist Gregory Mathews. It is now placed in the genus Peneothello based on the results of a molecular phylogenetic study of the family Petroicidae published in 2011. There are four subspecies. P. p. pulverulenta – coastal New Guinea P. p. leucura – Aru Islands, north east coast of Australia P. p. alligator – coastal north Australia and nearby islands P. p. cinereiceps – northwest coast of Australia The mangrove robin has an average weight of 21.3 grams for males and 17.3 grams for females. Their wingspan differs between subspecies – the leucura subspecies have spans of 86 millimetres to 90 millimetres for males and 77 millimetres to 84 millimetres for females, while the alligator subspecies have spans of 82 millimetres to 87 millimetres for males and 76 millimetres to 80 millimetres for females.

For cinereiceps, male birds have wingspans of 80 millimetres to 84 millimetres long. They feature a "dull pale bar" at the bottom of their remiges, although this is not noticeable. In order to facilitate their navigation through thick mangrove forests, mangrove robins have developed wings and tails that are rounded; the bird is found in the Northern Australia region and the island of New Guinea, within the countries of Australia and Papua New Guinea. Their preferred habitat are tropical and subtropical mangrove forests located above the level of high tide, they travel outside their habitat. The mangrove robin has been placed on the least Concern category of the IUCN Red List, as the population has remained stable throughout the last ten years; the size of its distribution range is over 426,000 square kilometres. The call of the mangrove robin has been described as a "down-slurred whistle", it eats insects in the mud. While these may be its primary prey, the mangrove robin consumes a significant amount of crab in its diet.

Xeno-canto: audio recordings of the mangrove robin

Ferdy Doernberg

Ferdy Doernberg is an English-German heavy metal musician. He is the last original member of Rough Silk, which he founded in 1989, he has performed with Helloween and Holy Moses. Since 1997, he has been the keyboardist for Axel Rudi Pell's band. From 2006 to 2009, he played the keyboards for Eden's Curse, founded by Michael Eden and Paul Logue; the English/German slide guitar/keyboards-player and singer/songwriter Ferdy Doernberg was born in 1967 as the son of the British composer and violin-player Martin Doernberg and the German teacher and writer Dr. Gesine Doernberg; when he was three years old, his parents moved to Barsinghausen, but he spends some time in England, too. When he was six years old, he started with piano lessons. At the age of 12, he started playing guitar and trumpet. After playing in several school and local bands, he became the lead guitar player of the locally successful punk band "The Wabbles", with whom he played his first over-regional gigs and did his first recordings for a vinyl single.

He played trumpet and piano in a local jazz ensemble for years. His first professional band, Rough Silk, was founded in 1989. Through the years, Ferdy found his own style of playing; as a keyboard player, his favourite instrument is the Hammond organ, the piano and vintage keyboards like the Wurlitzer-piano and the monophonic Moog synthesizer. As a guitar player, Doernberg fell in love with the slide guitar and all her relatives like lap and pedal steel and the Hawaiian guitar. Rough Silk have recorded 8 albums, toured a lot all over Europe. Since 2007, Doernberg is the lead-vocalist of the band. Doernberg works a lot as a studio musician and has played on more than 100 albums by Roland Grapow, Freedom Call, Tom Angelripper, Howard Carpendale, Crimson Glory, John Wesley Harding, Chris Caffrey, Sweet, Seven Witches, Sargant Fury, The Traceelords and many others. Besides Rough Silk, he is a member of the Axel Rudi Pell band. Ferdy has shared the stage with many different musicians like John Wesley Harding, Jason Ringenberg, ex-Scorpions musicians Uli Jon Roth and Francis Buchholz, Julian Dawson, Joseph Parsons, Jeff Kollman, Warren De Martini, Robbie Krieger, Roy Z.

Tony Franklin, David Paich, Jeff Scott Soto, Don Dokken, Chris Poland, Snowy Shaw, Messiah Marcolin, Gamma Ray, the award-winning country act Autumn Leaves, Freedom Call, Jon Oliva, Al Pitrelli, Emma Bunton, Olivia Newton-John, the legendary drummer Max Weinberg of Bruce Springsteen's "E-street-band", Ana Popovic and many others. He has toured in South-America and the US so far. Doernberg had the honor of being asked by the legendary German thrash metal band Destruction to add a slide guitar solo to their all-star song "The Alliance Of Hellhoundz". Other artists appearing on this song are Biff Byfford, Doro Pesch, Paul Di Anno and Messiah Margolin, he appears in the video to this song. Ferdy Doernberg runs a recording studio, the "Droehnwerk", at Bad Nenndorf, nearby Hanover/ Germany, where he lives. Since 1998, he has produced and engineered albums by Rough Silk, John Wesley Harding, Mike Terrana, Brainstorm, It's M. E. Heavenly, A. O. D. Freedom Call and many more in his studio. So far, Ferdy Doernberg has released five solo-albums as a singer/songwriter.

The first one, Just a piano and a handful of dreams, was released in 1995 on SPV-Records. The second one, Storyteller..s Rain - a rock musical was released in 2000 on Massacre-records / Sony. The lyrical concept presented 12 ghost stories with philosophical and ironic undertones, told by the main character called "the Storyteller"; the music follows the "ups and downs" of the stories through progressive rock, jazz, heavy metal, folk and bombast rock elements. Many unusual acoustic instruments like dobro, sitar, trumpet, trombone or zither can be heard on the album. Mike Terrana, Axel Rudipell, Roland Grapow, Uli Kusch And Michael Weikath, Tom Angelripper, Tobias Exxel and all the members of Rough Silk participated on the album. To promote "Storyteller..s Rain" Doernberg played many shows as a solo artist. Besides solo performances - the largest was on the Wacken-open-air 2000, where Doernberg performed solo just with a Dobro, a lap steel and a piano, between all the louder heavy-metal acts - he did a tour through Germany supporting John Wesley Harding in 2002.

After his solo performance, he and Joerg Ohlsen were Harding's backing-band. He opened for the legendary Thin Lizzy, Jason Ringenberg, Nils Lofgren, Bryan Adams, Jeff Kollman, country singer Rick Monroe and the German pop-metal band Axxis. With his dark English humor and his intelligent songwriting, Doernberg seems to be able to work with bigger rock-crowds as well as with seated audiences in small folk clubs. In May 2007 Doernberg's third solo album "..till I run out of road" was released on Rebellion-Records. It is a singer/songwriter album with guest appearances by John Wesley Harding, Jeff Kollman, Mike Terrana, Andre Hort (Rou